Abstract

We demonstrate the combined slowing and transverse cooling of a sodium atomic beam. Atoms have been slowed in a Zeeman slower with increasing magnetic field and transversely cooled by two-dimensional optical molasses inside the slower. The transverse molasses increases the brightness of the slow beam and allows it to be deflected out of the intense slowing laser light.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. E. Pritchard, K. Helmerson, and A. Martin, “Atom traps,” in Atomic Physics XI, S. Haroche, J. C. Gay, and G. Grinberg, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), pp. 179–197; D. E. Pritchard and W. Ketterle, in Proceedings of the Varenna Summer School on Laser Manipulation of Atoms and Ions, E. Arimondo and W. P. Phillips, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 473–496.
  2. Special issue on atom optics and interferometry, J. Mlynek, V. Balykin, and P. Meystre, eds., Appl. Phys. B 54, 319–485 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. R. Thorsheim, Y. Wang, and J. Weiner, “Cold collisions in an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2873–2876 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. W. D. Phillips, J. V. Prodan, and H. J. Metcalf, “Laser cooling and electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1751–1767 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Liang and C. Fabre, “Modifications of the velocity of atoms submitted to a resonant multimode laser: an experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 59, 31–35 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Strohmeier, T. Kersebom, E. Krüger, H. Nölle, B. Steuter, J. Schmand, and J. Andrä, “Na-atom beam deceleration by a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Commun. 73, 451–454 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Moi, “Application of a very long cavity laser to atom slowing down and optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 50, 349–352 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, “Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46–49 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996–999 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mishin, “Cooling of sodium atoms by resonant laser emission,” Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 692–696 (1980).
  11. I. C. M. Littler, H.-M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, “Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser,” Z. Phys. D 18, 307–308 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, “Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Prentiss and A. Cable, “Slowing and cooling an atomic beam using an intense optical standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1354–1357 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, “Laser radiation pressure on free atoms,” Phys. Rep. 73, 1–65 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Prentiss, A. Cable, and N. Bigelow, “Effect of transverse guiding on the velocity distribution of an atomic beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2155–2158 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard, “Diffuse light slowing of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Witte, Th. Kisters, E. Riehle, and J. Helmcke, “Laser cooling and deflection of a calcium atomic beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1030–1037 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. Sheehy, S.-Q. Shang, R. Watts, S. Hatamian, and H. Metcalf, “Diode-laser deceleration and collimation of a rubidium beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2165–2170 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  19. V. I. Balykin and A. I. Sidorov, “Collimation and decollimation of atomic beams by laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 51–54 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. E. Tanner, B. P. Masterson, and C. E. Wieman, “Atomic beam collimation using a laser diode with a self-locking power-buildup cavity,” Opt. Lett. 13, 357–359 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Adiabatic cooling of atoms by an intense standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344–1347 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. Nellessen, J. Werner, and W. Ertmer, “Magneto-optical compression of a monoenergetic sodium atomic beam,” Opt. Commun. 78, 300–308 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  24. V. S. Bagnato, C. Salomon, E. Marega, and S. C. Zilio, “Influence of adiabatic following and optical pumping in the production of an intense steady flux of slow atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 497–501 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. E. Barrett, S. W. Dapore-Schwartz, M. D. Ray, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Slowing atoms with σ−polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3483–3486 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, C. E. Tanner, R. N. Watts, and C. I. Westbrook, “Optical molasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2084–2107 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, and J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2using a two-wavelength excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “Imaging an atomic beam in two-dimensions,” Opt. Commun. 93, 49–53 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  29. W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253–2256 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. J. Nellessen, J. H. Müller, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, “Large-angle beam deflection of a laser-cooled sodium beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2149–2154 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. Kasevich, D. S. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Atom velocity selection using stimulated Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297–2300 (1991); A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. K. E. Gibble, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Improved magneto-optic trapping in a vapor cell,” Opt. Lett. 17, 526–528 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253–2256 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (7)

K. E. Gibble, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Improved magneto-optic trapping in a vapor cell,” Opt. Lett. 17, 526–528 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Witte, Th. Kisters, E. Riehle, and J. Helmcke, “Laser cooling and deflection of a calcium atomic beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1030–1037 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “Imaging an atomic beam in two-dimensions,” Opt. Commun. 93, 49–53 (1992).
[Crossref]

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, “Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard, “Diffuse light slowing of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Adiabatic cooling of atoms by an intense standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344–1347 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Special issue on atom optics and interferometry, J. Mlynek, V. Balykin, and P. Meystre, eds., Appl. Phys. B 54, 319–485 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (5)

T. E. Barrett, S. W. Dapore-Schwartz, M. D. Ray, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Slowing atoms with σ−polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3483–3486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. C. M. Littler, H.-M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, “Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser,” Z. Phys. D 18, 307–308 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, “Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46–49 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich, D. S. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Atom velocity selection using stimulated Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297–2300 (1991); A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. Bagnato, C. Salomon, E. Marega, and S. C. Zilio, “Influence of adiabatic following and optical pumping in the production of an intense steady flux of slow atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 497–501 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (5)

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, and J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2using a two-wavelength excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. R. Thorsheim, Y. Wang, and J. Weiner, “Cold collisions in an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2873–2876 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nellessen, J. Werner, and W. Ertmer, “Magneto-optical compression of a monoenergetic sodium atomic beam,” Opt. Commun. 78, 300–308 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (6)

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Balykin and A. I. Sidorov, “Collimation and decollimation of atomic beams by laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 51–54 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. Liang and C. Fabre, “Modifications of the velocity of atoms submitted to a resonant multimode laser: an experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 59, 31–35 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996–999 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Phillips, J. V. Prodan, and H. J. Metcalf, “Laser cooling and electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1751–1767 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

L. Moi, “Application of a very long cavity laser to atom slowing down and optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 50, 349–352 (1984).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, “Laser radiation pressure on free atoms,” Phys. Rep. 73, 1–65 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mishin, “Cooling of sodium atoms by resonant laser emission,” Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 692–696 (1980).

Andrä, J.

P. Strohmeier, T. Kersebom, E. Krüger, H. Nölle, B. Steuter, J. Schmand, and J. Andrä, “Na-atom beam deceleration by a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Commun. 73, 451–454 (1989).
[Crossref]

Arnold, A.

A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, and J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2using a two-wavelength excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bagnato, V. S.

Balykin, V. I.

V. I. Balykin and A. I. Sidorov, “Collimation and decollimation of atomic beams by laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 51–54 (1987).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mishin, “Cooling of sodium atoms by resonant laser emission,” Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 692–696 (1980).

Barrett, T. E.

T. E. Barrett, S. W. Dapore-Schwartz, M. D. Ray, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Slowing atoms with σ−polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3483–3486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, H.

A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, and J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2using a two-wavelength excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bergmann, K.

I. C. M. Littler, H.-M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, “Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser,” Z. Phys. D 18, 307–308 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bigelow, N.

Blatt, R.

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996–999 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

M. Prentiss and A. Cable, “Slowing and cooling an atomic beam using an intense optical standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1354–1357 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Prentiss, A. Cable, and N. Bigelow, “Effect of transverse guiding on the velocity distribution of an atomic beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2155–2158 (1989).
[Crossref]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Adiabatic cooling of atoms by an intense standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344–1347 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

K. E. Gibble, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Improved magneto-optic trapping in a vapor cell,” Opt. Lett. 17, 526–528 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich, D. S. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Atom velocity selection using stimulated Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297–2300 (1991); A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dapore-Schwartz, S. W.

T. E. Barrett, S. W. Dapore-Schwartz, M. D. Ray, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Slowing atoms with σ−polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3483–3486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, K. B.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253–2256 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

J. Nellessen, J. Werner, and W. Ertmer, “Magneto-optical compression of a monoenergetic sodium atomic beam,” Opt. Commun. 78, 300–308 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Nellessen, J. H. Müller, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, “Large-angle beam deflection of a laser-cooled sodium beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2149–2154 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996–999 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esslinger, T.

T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “Imaging an atomic beam in two-dimensions,” Opt. Commun. 93, 49–53 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fabre, C.

J. Liang and C. Fabre, “Modifications of the velocity of atoms submitted to a resonant multimode laser: an experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 59, 31–35 (1986).
[Crossref]

Gaubatz, U.

I. C. M. Littler, H.-M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, “Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser,” Z. Phys. D 18, 307–308 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gibble, K. E.

Hall, J. L.

M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, “Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46–49 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996–999 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “Imaging an atomic beam in two-dimensions,” Opt. Commun. 93, 49–53 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hatamian, S.

Helmcke, J.

Helmerson, K.

D. E. Pritchard, K. Helmerson, and A. Martin, “Atom traps,” in Atomic Physics XI, S. Haroche, J. C. Gay, and G. Grinberg, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), pp. 179–197; D. E. Pritchard and W. Ketterle, in Proceedings of the Varenna Summer School on Laser Manipulation of Atoms and Ions, E. Arimondo and W. P. Phillips, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 473–496.

Hemmerich, A.

T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “Imaging an atomic beam in two-dimensions,” Opt. Commun. 93, 49–53 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hulet, R. G.

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Adiabatic cooling of atoms by an intense standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344–1347 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joffe, M. A.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253–2256 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, “Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard, “Diffuse light slowing of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kasapi, S.

K. E. Gibble, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Improved magneto-optic trapping in a vapor cell,” Opt. Lett. 17, 526–528 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich, D. S. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Atom velocity selection using stimulated Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297–2300 (1991); A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasevich, M.

M. Kasevich, D. S. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Atom velocity selection using stimulated Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297–2300 (1991); A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, H.-M.

I. C. M. Littler, H.-M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, “Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser,” Z. Phys. D 18, 307–308 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kersebom, T.

P. Strohmeier, T. Kersebom, E. Krüger, H. Nölle, B. Steuter, J. Schmand, and J. Andrä, “Na-atom beam deceleration by a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Commun. 73, 451–454 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ketterle, W.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253–2256 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard, “Diffuse light slowing of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref]

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, “Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, and J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2using a two-wavelength excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kisters, Th.

Krüger, E.

P. Strohmeier, T. Kersebom, E. Krüger, H. Nölle, B. Steuter, J. Schmand, and J. Andrä, “Na-atom beam deceleration by a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Commun. 73, 451–454 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lafyatis, G. P.

T. E. Barrett, S. W. Dapore-Schwartz, M. D. Ray, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Slowing atoms with σ−polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3483–3486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, “Laser radiation pressure on free atoms,” Phys. Rep. 73, 1–65 (1981).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mishin, “Cooling of sodium atoms by resonant laser emission,” Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 692–696 (1980).

Lett, P. D.

Liang, J.

J. Liang and C. Fabre, “Modifications of the velocity of atoms submitted to a resonant multimode laser: an experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 59, 31–35 (1986).
[Crossref]

Littler, I. C. M.

I. C. M. Littler, H.-M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, “Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser,” Z. Phys. D 18, 307–308 (1991).
[Crossref]

Marega, E.

Martin, A.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253–2256 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard, “Diffuse light slowing of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref]

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, “Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Pritchard, K. Helmerson, and A. Martin, “Atom traps,” in Atomic Physics XI, S. Haroche, J. C. Gay, and G. Grinberg, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), pp. 179–197; D. E. Pritchard and W. Ketterle, in Proceedings of the Varenna Summer School on Laser Manipulation of Atoms and Ions, E. Arimondo and W. P. Phillips, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 473–496.

Masterson, B. P.

Metcalf, H.

Metcalf, H. J.

Minogin, V. G.

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, “Laser radiation pressure on free atoms,” Phys. Rep. 73, 1–65 (1981).
[Crossref]

Mishin, V. I.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mishin, “Cooling of sodium atoms by resonant laser emission,” Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 692–696 (1980).

Moi, L.

L. Moi, “Application of a very long cavity laser to atom slowing down and optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 50, 349–352 (1984).
[Crossref]

Moler, K.

M. Kasevich, D. S. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Atom velocity selection using stimulated Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297–2300 (1991); A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moler, K. A.

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, J. H.

Nellessen, J.

J. Nellessen, J. Werner, and W. Ertmer, “Magneto-optical compression of a monoenergetic sodium atomic beam,” Opt. Commun. 78, 300–308 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Nellessen, J. H. Müller, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, “Large-angle beam deflection of a laser-cooled sodium beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2149–2154 (1989).
[Crossref]

Nölle, H.

P. Strohmeier, T. Kersebom, E. Krüger, H. Nölle, B. Steuter, J. Schmand, and J. Andrä, “Na-atom beam deceleration by a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Commun. 73, 451–454 (1989).
[Crossref]

Oates, C. W.

M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, “Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46–49 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

Prentiss, M.

M. Prentiss and A. Cable, “Slowing and cooling an atomic beam using an intense optical standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1354–1357 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Prentiss, A. Cable, and N. Bigelow, “Effect of transverse guiding on the velocity distribution of an atomic beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2155–2158 (1989).
[Crossref]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253–2256 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard, “Diffuse light slowing of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref]

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, “Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Pritchard, K. Helmerson, and A. Martin, “Atom traps,” in Atomic Physics XI, S. Haroche, J. C. Gay, and G. Grinberg, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), pp. 179–197; D. E. Pritchard and W. Ketterle, in Proceedings of the Varenna Summer School on Laser Manipulation of Atoms and Ions, E. Arimondo and W. P. Phillips, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 473–496.

Prodan, J. V.

Raab, E. L.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ray, M. D.

T. E. Barrett, S. W. Dapore-Schwartz, M. D. Ray, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Slowing atoms with σ−polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3483–3486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riehle, E.

Riis, E.

M. Kasevich, D. S. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Atom velocity selection using stimulated Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297–2300 (1991); A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

Salomon, C.

Schmand, J.

P. Strohmeier, T. Kersebom, E. Krüger, H. Nölle, B. Steuter, J. Schmand, and J. Andrä, “Na-atom beam deceleration by a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Commun. 73, 451–454 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sengstock, K.

Shang, S.-Q.

Sheehy, B.

Sidorov, A. I.

V. I. Balykin and A. I. Sidorov, “Collimation and decollimation of atomic beams by laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 51–54 (1987).
[Crossref]

Steuter, B.

P. Strohmeier, T. Kersebom, E. Krüger, H. Nölle, B. Steuter, J. Schmand, and J. Andrä, “Na-atom beam deceleration by a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Commun. 73, 451–454 (1989).
[Crossref]

Story, J. G.

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Adiabatic cooling of atoms by an intense standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344–1347 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strohmeier, P.

P. Strohmeier, T. Kersebom, E. Krüger, H. Nölle, B. Steuter, J. Schmand, and J. Andrä, “Na-atom beam deceleration by a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Commun. 73, 451–454 (1989).
[Crossref]

Tanner, C. E.

Thorsheim, H. R.

H. R. Thorsheim, Y. Wang, and J. Weiner, “Cold collisions in an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2873–2876 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tollett, J. J.

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Adiabatic cooling of atoms by an intense standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344–1347 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

H. R. Thorsheim, Y. Wang, and J. Weiner, “Cold collisions in an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2873–2876 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watts, R.

Watts, R. N.

Weiner, J.

H. R. Thorsheim, Y. Wang, and J. Weiner, “Cold collisions in an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2873–2876 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, D. S.

M. Kasevich, D. S. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Atom velocity selection using stimulated Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297–2300 (1991); A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, J.

J. Nellessen, J. Werner, and W. Ertmer, “Magneto-optical compression of a monoenergetic sodium atomic beam,” Opt. Commun. 78, 300–308 (1990).
[Crossref]

Westbrook, C. I.

Wieman, C. E.

Witte, A.

Wolfrum, J.

A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, and J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2using a two-wavelength excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, “Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46–49 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996–999 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zilio, S. C.

Appl. Phys. B (3)

Special issue on atom optics and interferometry, J. Mlynek, V. Balykin, and P. Meystre, eds., Appl. Phys. B 54, 319–485 (1992).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin and A. I. Sidorov, “Collimation and decollimation of atomic beams by laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 51–54 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, and J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2using a two-wavelength excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (7)

Opt. Commun. (5)

J. Liang and C. Fabre, “Modifications of the velocity of atoms submitted to a resonant multimode laser: an experimental study,” Opt. Commun. 59, 31–35 (1986).
[Crossref]

P. Strohmeier, T. Kersebom, E. Krüger, H. Nölle, B. Steuter, J. Schmand, and J. Andrä, “Na-atom beam deceleration by a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Commun. 73, 451–454 (1989).
[Crossref]

L. Moi, “Application of a very long cavity laser to atom slowing down and optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 50, 349–352 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Nellessen, J. Werner, and W. Ertmer, “Magneto-optical compression of a monoenergetic sodium atomic beam,” Opt. Commun. 78, 300–308 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “Imaging an atomic beam in two-dimensions,” Opt. Commun. 93, 49–53 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, “Laser radiation pressure on free atoms,” Phys. Rep. 73, 1–65 (1981).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. R. Thorsheim, Y. Wang, and J. Weiner, “Cold collisions in an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2873–2876 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (12)

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, “Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Prentiss and A. Cable, “Slowing and cooling an atomic beam using an intense optical standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1354–1357 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard, “Diffuse light slowing of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483–2486 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, “Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46–49 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996–999 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Adiabatic cooling of atoms by an intense standing wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344–1347 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Barrett, S. W. Dapore-Schwartz, M. D. Ray, and G. P. Lafyatis, “Slowing atoms with σ−polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3483–3486 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253–2256 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich, D. S. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, “Atom velocity selection using stimulated Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297–2300 (1991); A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Riis, D. S. Weiss, K. A. Moler, and S. Chu, “Atom funnel for the production of a slow, high-density atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1658–1661 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mishin, “Cooling of sodium atoms by resonant laser emission,” Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 692–696 (1980).

Z. Phys. D (1)

I. C. M. Littler, H.-M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, “Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser,” Z. Phys. D 18, 307–308 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

D. E. Pritchard, K. Helmerson, and A. Martin, “Atom traps,” in Atomic Physics XI, S. Haroche, J. C. Gay, and G. Grinberg, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), pp. 179–197; D. E. Pritchard and W. Ketterle, in Proceedings of the Varenna Summer School on Laser Manipulation of Atoms and Ions, E. Arimondo and W. P. Phillips, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 473–496.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. A beam of sodium atoms is slowed by counterpropagating laser light inside a solenoid with a parabolically increasing magnetic field. The slow atomic beam is collimated and deflected inside the slower by transverse two-dimensional optical molasses. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Atomic beam cross sections: a, thermal beam; b, an atomic beam slowed to a final velocity of 50 m/s; c, the same atomic beam collimated by transverse molasses; and d, the same atomic beam collimated and deflected by imbalanced molasses. (The digitized images have been rescaled to correct for the observation angle of 45°.) The flux of slowed atoms is ~1010 atom/s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectrum of a 70-m/s Na beam with 5 × 1011 slow atoms/s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maximum fractional absorption of a 1-μW probe laser beam as a function of the velocity of the slow atoms. A linear dependence is expected if the transverse velocity spread is independent of the longitudinal velocity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional profiles of uncollimated and collimated 40-m/s Na beams. The uncollimated beam is partially cut off by a 22-mm aperture in the experiment. The apparent nonconservation of atoms is due in part to this cutoff and in part to the fact that the profiles are one-dimensional representations of a two-dimensional density distribution. Proper comparison requires integration not along a line, but over the area.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

υ f ( t ) = υ i υ rec N ( t ) ,
( υ x , y rms ) 2 = α υ rec 2 3 N ( t ) ,
x ( t ) = k [ ( Δ υ x ) k ( t t k ) ] ,
[ x rms ( t ) 2 = υ rec 2 3 t 3 3 Δ t = υ rec 2 3 N ( t ) t 2 3 = ( υ x rms ) 2 t 2 3 ,
D = { d 0 2 + [ 2 υ ( l / υ f ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 ,

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