Abstract

The electro-optic coefficients for the chromophore nitroamino tolane [NAT:HOCH2CH2-N(C2H5)-ϕ-C≡ C-ϕ-NO2] attached to either a poly(methyl methacrylate) or an epoxy polymer have been measured by three different techniques: attenuated total reflection, ellipsometric reflection, and Mach–Zehnder interferometry. All the results for r33 and r13 were consistent and in agreement. A comparison of these experimental methods is given. The ratios between the electro-optic coefficients and the relationships between the coefficients and the second-harmonic components give additional information about these nonlinear-optical polymers. Interestingly, it was found that the observed electro-optic coefficients increased after the samples had aged a few months.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Messier, ed., Organic Molecules for Nonlinear Optics and Photonics, NATO ASI Series (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), p. 544.
  2. S. R. Marder, J. E. Sohn, and G. D. Stucky, eds., Materials for Nonlinear Optics: Chemical Perspectives, Vol. 455 of the ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 750.
  3. D. J. Williams, ed., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials V, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.455, 469 (1992).
  4. See Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 197, 208.
  5. D. Morichère, M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 214 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, and D. Morichère, in Ref. 1, p. 461.
  7. S. Herminghaus, B. A. Smith, and J. D. Swalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2311 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. A. Smith, S. Herminghaus, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 400 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1735 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. S. Schildkraut, Appl. Opt. 29, 2839 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, and P. Raimond, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 226 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, Nonlin. Opt. 4, 1 (1993).
  13. S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. D. Miller and V. Lee, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California 95120 (personal communication, 1992).
  18. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965), pp. 46–74.
  19. J. F. Rabolt and J. D. Swalen, in Spectroscopy of Surfaces, Advances in Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark and R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, 1988), Vol. 16, p. 1.
  20. D. Morichère, “Etudes des propriétés électro-optique de couches minces organiques par la méthode de la réflexion totale atténuée,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Paris XI, Orsay, 1991).
  21. M. Dumont and Z. Sekkat, in Nonconducting Photo-polymers and Applications, R. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1774, 188–199 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  22. V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, Opt. Commun. 69, 379 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. Looser and J. C. Baumert, Pascal Program MFPFIT2.
  24. M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  25. K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. G. Broadhurst and A. S. De Reggi, “Space Charge Measurement in DC Cable Materials,” Electric Power Research Institute Rep. EPRI EL-7301 Project 7897-11 (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., May1991).

1993 (1)

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, Nonlin. Opt. 4, 1 (1993).

1992 (1)

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

S. Herminghaus, B. A. Smith, and J. D. Swalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2311 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1735 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. S. Schildkraut, Appl. Opt. 29, 2839 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, Opt. Commun. 69, 379 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[Crossref]

Baumert, J. C.

H. Looser and J. C. Baumert, Pascal Program MFPFIT2.

Bjorklund, G. C.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989).
[Crossref]

Broadhurst, M. G.

M. G. Broadhurst and A. S. De Reggi, “Space Charge Measurement in DC Cable Materials,” Electric Power Research Institute Rep. EPRI EL-7301 Project 7897-11 (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., May1991).

Chastaing, E.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, Nonlin. Opt. 4, 1 (1993).

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, Opt. Commun. 69, 379 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chollet, P. A.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, Nonlin. Opt. 4, 1 (1993).

De Reggi, A. S.

M. G. Broadhurst and A. S. De Reggi, “Space Charge Measurement in DC Cable Materials,” Electric Power Research Institute Rep. EPRI EL-7301 Project 7897-11 (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., May1991).

Dentan, V.

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, Opt. Commun. 69, 379 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
[Crossref]

Dumont, M.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, Nonlin. Opt. 4, 1 (1993).

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, Opt. Commun. 69, 379 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. Dumont and Z. Sekkat, in Nonconducting Photo-polymers and Applications, R. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1774, 188–199 (1992).
[Crossref]

Dumont, M. L.

D. Morichère, M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 214 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, and D. Morichère, in Ref. 1, p. 461.

Ebert, M.

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

Eich, M.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989).
[Crossref]

Feinberg, J.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
[Crossref]

Gadret, G.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, Nonlin. Opt. 4, 1 (1993).

D. Morichère, M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 214 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, and P. Raimond, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 226 (1990).
[Crossref]

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965), pp. 46–74.

Herminghaus, S.

S. Herminghaus, B. A. Smith, and J. D. Swalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2311 (1991).
[Crossref]

B. A. Smith, S. Herminghaus, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 400 (1990).
[Crossref]

Jerphagnon, J.

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[Crossref]

Jungbauer, D.

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kajzar, F.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, Nonlin. Opt. 4, 1 (1993).

G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, and P. Raimond, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 226 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Morichère, M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 214 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kurtz, S. K.

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[Crossref]

Kuzyk, M. G.

Lee, V.

R. D. Miller and V. Lee, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California 95120 (personal communication, 1992).

Levy, Y.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, Nonlin. Opt. 4, 1 (1993).

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, Opt. Commun. 69, 379 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. Morichère, M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 214 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, and D. Morichère, in Ref. 1, p. 461.

Looser, H.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989).
[Crossref]

H. Looser and J. C. Baumert, Pascal Program MFPFIT2.

Lux, M.

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

Man, H. T.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1735 (1990).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. D.

R. D. Miller and V. Lee, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California 95120 (personal communication, 1992).

Morichère, D.

D. Morichère, “Etudes des propriétés électro-optique de couches minces organiques par la méthode de la réflexion totale atténuée,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Paris XI, Orsay, 1991).

D. Morichère, M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 214 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, and D. Morichère, in Ref. 1, p. 461.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
[Crossref]

Rabolt, J. F.

J. F. Rabolt and J. D. Swalen, in Spectroscopy of Surfaces, Advances in Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark and R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, 1988), Vol. 16, p. 1.

Raimond, P.

G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, and P. Raimond, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 226 (1990).
[Crossref]

Reck, B.

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[Crossref]

Robin, P.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, Nonlin. Opt. 4, 1 (1993).

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, Opt. Commun. 69, 379 (1989).
[Crossref]

Schildkraut, J. S.

Sekkat, Z.

M. Dumont and Z. Sekkat, in Nonconducting Photo-polymers and Applications, R. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1774, 188–199 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sen, A.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989).
[Crossref]

Singer, K. D.

Smith, B. A.

S. Herminghaus, B. A. Smith, and J. D. Swalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2311 (1991).
[Crossref]

B. A. Smith, S. Herminghaus, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 400 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sohn, J. E.

Swalen, J.

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

Swalen, J. D.

S. Herminghaus, B. A. Smith, and J. D. Swalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2311 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rabolt and J. D. Swalen, in Spectroscopy of Surfaces, Advances in Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark and R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, 1988), Vol. 16, p. 1.

B. A. Smith, S. Herminghaus, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 400 (1990).
[Crossref]

Teng, C. C.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1735 (1990).
[Crossref]

Teraoka, I.

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[Crossref]

Twieg, R.

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989).
[Crossref]

Willson, C. G.

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D. Y.

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989).
[Crossref]

Zental, R.

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1735 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[Crossref]

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

R. Twieg, M. Ebert, D. Jungbauer, M. Lux, B. Reck, J. Swalen, I. Teraoka, C. G. Willson, D. Y. Yoon, and R. Zental, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 217, 19 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nonlin. Opt. (1)

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, Nonlin. Opt. 4, 1 (1993).

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, Opt. Commun. 69, 379 (1989).
[Crossref]

Other (15)

H. Looser and J. C. Baumert, Pascal Program MFPFIT2.

M. G. Broadhurst and A. S. De Reggi, “Space Charge Measurement in DC Cable Materials,” Electric Power Research Institute Rep. EPRI EL-7301 Project 7897-11 (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., May1991).

R. D. Miller and V. Lee, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California 95120 (personal communication, 1992).

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965), pp. 46–74.

J. F. Rabolt and J. D. Swalen, in Spectroscopy of Surfaces, Advances in Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark and R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, Chichester, 1988), Vol. 16, p. 1.

D. Morichère, “Etudes des propriétés électro-optique de couches minces organiques par la méthode de la réflexion totale atténuée,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Paris XI, Orsay, 1991).

M. Dumont and Z. Sekkat, in Nonconducting Photo-polymers and Applications, R. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1774, 188–199 (1992).
[Crossref]

B. A. Smith, S. Herminghaus, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 400 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, and P. Raimond, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 226 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Messier, ed., Organic Molecules for Nonlinear Optics and Photonics, NATO ASI Series (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), p. 544.

S. R. Marder, J. E. Sohn, and G. D. Stucky, eds., Materials for Nonlinear Optics: Chemical Perspectives, Vol. 455 of the ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 750.

D. J. Williams, ed., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials V, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.455, 469 (1992).

See Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 197, 208.

D. Morichère, M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 214 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. L. Dumont, Y. Levy, and D. Morichère, in Ref. 1, p. 461.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical formulas for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and diglycidyl bis-phenol A with side chains of nitroamino tolane (NAT).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ATR experimental arrangement. The prism is mounted on a rotating table to scan the angle of incidence α on the film structure. The detector moves at twice α.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and calculated reflectivity as a function of external angle measured from the surface of the film of PMMA–NAT (28% sample). The various dips are the waveguide modes from m = 2, m = 1, and m = 0 for TE polarization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental reflectivity arrangement. The polarization of the laser is at 45° with respect to the plane of incidence, so that both s and p waves are reflected.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectivity in the ellipsometric experiment of a bis-A–NAT sample (measured in voltage at the output photodiode detector) plotted as a function of retardation supplied by the Soleil–Babinet compensator. The points of measurement, A and B, are most sensitive and opposite in phase. For nonabsorbing materials the signal at point O should be close to zero. In absorbing materials the signal can deviate from zero.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental points and theoretical curves for the ellipsometric reflectivity curves at point A, B, and O (see Fig. 5 for the location of these points) as a function of incidence angle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mach–Zehnder experimental arrangement. The substrate containing the NLO layer is rotated in the laser beam.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

neff3reff as a function of sin2α, where α is the rotation angle in the Mach–Zehnder experiment. The sample is a bis-A–NAT film.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Bis-A–NAT Data

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Table 2 PMMA–NAT Data

Equations (20)

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χ ( 2 ) = 2 d = N f 2 ω ( f ω ) 2 β Θ ,
r = 2 n 3 × Δ n Δ E ,
d = n 4 4 × r .
Δ R s = R s n 0 Δ n 0 .
Δ R p = R p n 0 Δ n 0 + R p n e Δ n e .
I = | r s + r p | 2 .
r s = ρ s exp ( i δ s ) , r p = ρ p exp [ i ( δ p + π ) ] ,
I = ρ s 2 + ρ p 2 2 ρ s ρ p cos ( δ s δ p ) .
ϕ = δ s δ p + ψ SB ,
I = ρ s 2 + ρ p 2 2 ρ s ρ p cos ϕ .
I = ρ s 2 + ρ p 2 2 ρ s ρ p cos ϕ .
ψ S B = π / 2 ( δ s δ p ) ,
ϕ = ( δ s δ p ) + π / 2 ( δ s δ p ) Δ + π / 2 .
Δ I I MAX = 1 ( ρ s + ρ p ) 2 [ p s 2 + ρ p 2 2 ρ s ρ p × cos ( Δ + π / 2 ) ( ρ s 2 + ρ p 2 ) ] .
n eff 3 r eff = n 0 3 r 13 + ( n e 3 r 33 n 0 3 r 13 ) sin 2 α .
ω 1 = 2 π c / 633 × 10 9 m , ω 2 = 2 π c / 1047 × 10 9 m
d ( ω 2 , ω 2 ) r ( ω 1 , 0 ) = n ω 1 4 4 β ( ω 2 , ω 2 ) β ( ω 1 , 0 ) f 2 2 ω f 0 ,
β ( ω 2 , ω 2 ) β ( ω 1 , 0 ) = 3 ( 1 ω 1 2 Ω 2 ) 2 ( 1 4 ω 2 2 Ω 2 ) ( 1 ω 2 2 Ω 2 ) ( 3 ω 1 2 Ω 2 ) .
f 0 = ( 0 ) ( n ω 2 2 + 2 ) n ω 2 2 + 2 ( 0 )
f 2 ω 2 = n ω 2 2 + 2 3 .

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