Abstract

High-resolution Fourier-transform spectra of a 232ThI4230ThI4 electrodeless discharge lamp were obtained between 5600 and 36 000 cm−1. These spectra were used to measure the splittings of more than 800 isotopic Th ii doublets to an accuracy of about 0.001 cm−1. From these isotope shifts, 184 even- and 167 odd-level isotope shifts were determined. Level isotope shifts were determined for all known levels below 20 000 cm-, except for the even J = ½ level at 19 594 cm−1. An empirical correlation of the level isotope shifts with a theoretical, configuration-mixing calculation was used to derive pure-configuration level isotope shifts.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Engleman and B. A. Palmer, “Precision isotope shifts for the heavy elements. II. Neutral thorium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 694–701 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. Brault, “Rapid-scan high-resolution Fourier Spectrometer for the visible,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1081 (A) (1976).
  3. R. Engleman and B. A. Palmer, “Precision isotope shifts for the heavy elements. I. Neutral uranium in the visible and near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 308–317 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Zalubas, “Energy levels, classified lines, and Zeeman effect of neutral thorium,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 80A, 221–358 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, “Atlas of the thorium spectrum,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1983).
  6. R. Zalubas and C. H. Corliss, “Energy levels and classified lines in the second spectrum of thorium (Th II),” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 78A, 163–246 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, “A new program for the least–squares calculation of atomic energy levels,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1983).
  8. An isotope shift of zero was assigned to the lowest-lying level (an even-parity d2s in Th ii). Isotope shifts are given as the difference between the wave numbers of the heavier and the lighter isotope, i.e., σ(232Th) − σ(230Th).
  9. G. L. Stukenbroeker and J. R. McNally, “Isotope shifts in thorium—Th230 and Th232,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 36–41 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. A. Vernyi and V. N. Egorov, “Isotopic shift in the spectrum of thorium Th232–Th229,” Opt. Spectrosc. 6, 170 (1959).
  11. E. A. Vernyi and V. N. Egorov, “The isotope effect in the spectrum of thorium,” Opt. Spectrosc. 9, 367–371 (1960).
  12. N. Minsky, “Classification and interpretation of the spectrum of Th II,” Ph.D. dissertation (Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1969).
  13. All f electrons in our Th ii notation have principal quantum number n= 5, all d’s have n= 6, and all s’s and p’s have n= 7.

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

1976 (2)

R. Zalubas, “Energy levels, classified lines, and Zeeman effect of neutral thorium,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 80A, 221–358 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Brault, “Rapid-scan high-resolution Fourier Spectrometer for the visible,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1081 (A) (1976).

1974 (1)

R. Zalubas and C. H. Corliss, “Energy levels and classified lines in the second spectrum of thorium (Th II),” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 78A, 163–246 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

E. A. Vernyi and V. N. Egorov, “The isotope effect in the spectrum of thorium,” Opt. Spectrosc. 9, 367–371 (1960).

1959 (1)

E. A. Vernyi and V. N. Egorov, “Isotopic shift in the spectrum of thorium Th232–Th229,” Opt. Spectrosc. 6, 170 (1959).

1953 (1)

Brault, J. W.

J. W. Brault, “Rapid-scan high-resolution Fourier Spectrometer for the visible,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1081 (A) (1976).

Corliss, C. H.

R. Zalubas and C. H. Corliss, “Energy levels and classified lines in the second spectrum of thorium (Th II),” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 78A, 163–246 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Egorov, V. N.

E. A. Vernyi and V. N. Egorov, “The isotope effect in the spectrum of thorium,” Opt. Spectrosc. 9, 367–371 (1960).

E. A. Vernyi and V. N. Egorov, “Isotopic shift in the spectrum of thorium Th232–Th229,” Opt. Spectrosc. 6, 170 (1959).

Engleman, R.

R. Engleman and B. A. Palmer, “Precision isotope shifts for the heavy elements. II. Neutral thorium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 694–701 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Engleman and B. A. Palmer, “Precision isotope shifts for the heavy elements. I. Neutral uranium in the visible and near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 308–317 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, “Atlas of the thorium spectrum,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1983).

B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, “A new program for the least–squares calculation of atomic energy levels,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1983).

McNally, J. R.

Minsky, N.

N. Minsky, “Classification and interpretation of the spectrum of Th II,” Ph.D. dissertation (Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1969).

Palmer, B. A.

R. Engleman and B. A. Palmer, “Precision isotope shifts for the heavy elements. II. Neutral thorium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 694–701 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Engleman and B. A. Palmer, “Precision isotope shifts for the heavy elements. I. Neutral uranium in the visible and near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 308–317 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, “A new program for the least–squares calculation of atomic energy levels,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1983).

B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, “Atlas of the thorium spectrum,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1983).

Stukenbroeker, G. L.

Vernyi, E. A.

E. A. Vernyi and V. N. Egorov, “The isotope effect in the spectrum of thorium,” Opt. Spectrosc. 9, 367–371 (1960).

E. A. Vernyi and V. N. Egorov, “Isotopic shift in the spectrum of thorium Th232–Th229,” Opt. Spectrosc. 6, 170 (1959).

Zalubas, R.

R. Zalubas, “Energy levels, classified lines, and Zeeman effect of neutral thorium,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 80A, 221–358 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Zalubas and C. H. Corliss, “Energy levels and classified lines in the second spectrum of thorium (Th II),” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 78A, 163–246 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. (2)

R. Zalubas, “Energy levels, classified lines, and Zeeman effect of neutral thorium,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 80A, 221–358 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Zalubas and C. H. Corliss, “Energy levels and classified lines in the second spectrum of thorium (Th II),” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 78A, 163–246 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (2)

E. A. Vernyi and V. N. Egorov, “Isotopic shift in the spectrum of thorium Th232–Th229,” Opt. Spectrosc. 6, 170 (1959).

E. A. Vernyi and V. N. Egorov, “The isotope effect in the spectrum of thorium,” Opt. Spectrosc. 9, 367–371 (1960).

Other (5)

N. Minsky, “Classification and interpretation of the spectrum of Th II,” Ph.D. dissertation (Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1969).

All f electrons in our Th ii notation have principal quantum number n= 5, all d’s have n= 6, and all s’s and p’s have n= 7.

B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, “Atlas of the thorium spectrum,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1983).

B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, “A new program for the least–squares calculation of atomic energy levels,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1983).

An isotope shift of zero was assigned to the lowest-lying level (an even-parity d2s in Th ii). Isotope shifts are given as the difference between the wave numbers of the heavier and the lighter isotope, i.e., σ(232Th) − σ(230Th).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Correlation of Th ii even-level isotope shifts to dominant configuration from Ref. 6. Open circles are level isotope shifts that could not be measured so well (? in Table 1). Individual points slightly displaced vertically when overlapping was appreciable.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correlation of Th ii odd-level isotope shifts to dominant configuration from Ref. 6. Open circles are level isotope shifts that could not be measured so well (? in Table 2). Individual points slightly displaced vertically when overlapping was appreciable.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlation of Th ii level isotope shifts for the even f2s configuration with the percentage purity of the level from Ref. 12. Open circles are level isotope shifts that could not be measured so well (? in Table 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation of Th ii level isotope shifts for the odd fds configuration with the percentage purity of the level from Ref. 12. Open circles are level isotope shifts that could not be measured so well (? in Table 2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlation of Th ii level isotope shifts for the odd fd2 configuration with the percentage purity of the level from Ref. 12. Open circles are level isotope shifts that could not be measured so well (? in Table 2).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Even-Level Isotope Shifts of Thiia

Tables Icon

Table 2 Odd-Level Isotope Shifts of Th iia

Tables Icon

Table 3 PCLIS’s (in mK)a

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