Abstract

The combined effects of hyperfine structure and Zeeman splitting have been calculated for the a6D1/2z6D1/2 line of Mn i at wavelength 4070.28 Å, which is observed as a broad line in sunspot spectra. An effective Z factor is defined to represent the mean position of the strong components of the line for fields above 500 G. This Z factor might provide a method of monitoring sunspot magnetic fields.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. G. Timothy, Department of Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (personal communication).
  2. J. W. Harvey, A Photographic Spectral Atlas of a Sunspot between 3813 and 9182 Angstroms (Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 1977), plate 6.
  3. P. J. Treanor, "The spatial analysis of magnetic fields in sun-spots," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 120, 412–429 (1960).
  4. H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic, New York, 1958), p. 13.
  5. Ref. 4, p. 26.
  6. R. E. Trees, "Hyperfine structure formulas for LS coupling," Phys. Rev. 92, 308–314 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Dembczynski, W. Ertmer, U. Johann, S. Penselin, and P. Stinner, "Laser-rf double-resonance studies of the hyperfine structure of metastable atomic states of 55Mn," Z. Phys. A 291, 207–218 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Booth, M. J. Shallis, and M. Wells, "Hyperfine structure measurements for lines of astrophysical interest in Mn I," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 205, 191–205 (1983).
  9. B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Interscience, New York, 1965), pp. 155–156. The denominator 2F(4F2 – 1)½ has been omitted in his Eq. (5–118).
  10. C. Corliss and J. Sugar, "Energy levels of manganese, Mn I through Mn XXV," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6, 1253–1329 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. M. Lederer, J. M. Hollander, and I. Perlman, Tables of Isotopes, 6th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 188.
  12. E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1935), p. 427.
  13. E. Back and S. Goudsmit, "Kernmoment und Zeemaneffekt von Wismut," Z. Phys. 47, 174–183 (1928).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. G. Shenstone and H. A. Blair, "A method for the magnetic analysis of a spectrum by means of unresolved Zeeman patterns, and its application to Ag II," Phil. Mag. 8, 765–771 (1929).

1983 (1)

A. J. Booth, M. J. Shallis, and M. Wells, "Hyperfine structure measurements for lines of astrophysical interest in Mn I," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 205, 191–205 (1983).

1979 (1)

J. Dembczynski, W. Ertmer, U. Johann, S. Penselin, and P. Stinner, "Laser-rf double-resonance studies of the hyperfine structure of metastable atomic states of 55Mn," Z. Phys. A 291, 207–218 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. Corliss and J. Sugar, "Energy levels of manganese, Mn I through Mn XXV," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6, 1253–1329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

P. J. Treanor, "The spatial analysis of magnetic fields in sun-spots," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 120, 412–429 (1960).

1953 (1)

R. E. Trees, "Hyperfine structure formulas for LS coupling," Phys. Rev. 92, 308–314 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1929 (1)

A. G. Shenstone and H. A. Blair, "A method for the magnetic analysis of a spectrum by means of unresolved Zeeman patterns, and its application to Ag II," Phil. Mag. 8, 765–771 (1929).

1928 (1)

E. Back and S. Goudsmit, "Kernmoment und Zeemaneffekt von Wismut," Z. Phys. 47, 174–183 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Back, E.

E. Back and S. Goudsmit, "Kernmoment und Zeemaneffekt von Wismut," Z. Phys. 47, 174–183 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Blair, H. A.

A. G. Shenstone and H. A. Blair, "A method for the magnetic analysis of a spectrum by means of unresolved Zeeman patterns, and its application to Ag II," Phil. Mag. 8, 765–771 (1929).

Booth, A. J.

A. J. Booth, M. J. Shallis, and M. Wells, "Hyperfine structure measurements for lines of astrophysical interest in Mn I," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 205, 191–205 (1983).

Condon, E. U.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1935), p. 427.

Corliss, C.

C. Corliss and J. Sugar, "Energy levels of manganese, Mn I through Mn XXV," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6, 1253–1329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dembczynski, J.

J. Dembczynski, W. Ertmer, U. Johann, S. Penselin, and P. Stinner, "Laser-rf double-resonance studies of the hyperfine structure of metastable atomic states of 55Mn," Z. Phys. A 291, 207–218 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ertmer, W.

J. Dembczynski, W. Ertmer, U. Johann, S. Penselin, and P. Stinner, "Laser-rf double-resonance studies of the hyperfine structure of metastable atomic states of 55Mn," Z. Phys. A 291, 207–218 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Goudsmit, S.

E. Back and S. Goudsmit, "Kernmoment und Zeemaneffekt von Wismut," Z. Phys. 47, 174–183 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. W.

J. W. Harvey, A Photographic Spectral Atlas of a Sunspot between 3813 and 9182 Angstroms (Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 1977), plate 6.

Hollander, J. M.

C. M. Lederer, J. M. Hollander, and I. Perlman, Tables of Isotopes, 6th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 188.

Johann, U.

J. Dembczynski, W. Ertmer, U. Johann, S. Penselin, and P. Stinner, "Laser-rf double-resonance studies of the hyperfine structure of metastable atomic states of 55Mn," Z. Phys. A 291, 207–218 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kopfermann, H.

H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic, New York, 1958), p. 13.

Lederer, C. M.

C. M. Lederer, J. M. Hollander, and I. Perlman, Tables of Isotopes, 6th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 188.

Penselin, S.

J. Dembczynski, W. Ertmer, U. Johann, S. Penselin, and P. Stinner, "Laser-rf double-resonance studies of the hyperfine structure of metastable atomic states of 55Mn," Z. Phys. A 291, 207–218 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Perlman, I.

C. M. Lederer, J. M. Hollander, and I. Perlman, Tables of Isotopes, 6th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 188.

Shallis, M. J.

A. J. Booth, M. J. Shallis, and M. Wells, "Hyperfine structure measurements for lines of astrophysical interest in Mn I," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 205, 191–205 (1983).

Shenstone, A. G.

A. G. Shenstone and H. A. Blair, "A method for the magnetic analysis of a spectrum by means of unresolved Zeeman patterns, and its application to Ag II," Phil. Mag. 8, 765–771 (1929).

Shortley, G. H.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1935), p. 427.

Stinner, P.

J. Dembczynski, W. Ertmer, U. Johann, S. Penselin, and P. Stinner, "Laser-rf double-resonance studies of the hyperfine structure of metastable atomic states of 55Mn," Z. Phys. A 291, 207–218 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sugar, J.

C. Corliss and J. Sugar, "Energy levels of manganese, Mn I through Mn XXV," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6, 1253–1329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Timothy, J. G.

J. G. Timothy, Department of Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (personal communication).

Treanor, P. J.

P. J. Treanor, "The spatial analysis of magnetic fields in sun-spots," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 120, 412–429 (1960).

Trees, R. E.

R. E. Trees, "Hyperfine structure formulas for LS coupling," Phys. Rev. 92, 308–314 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Wells, M.

A. J. Booth, M. J. Shallis, and M. Wells, "Hyperfine structure measurements for lines of astrophysical interest in Mn I," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 205, 191–205 (1983).

Wybourne, B. G.

B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Interscience, New York, 1965), pp. 155–156. The denominator 2F(4F2 – 1)½ has been omitted in his Eq. (5–118).

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

C. Corliss and J. Sugar, "Energy levels of manganese, Mn I through Mn XXV," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6, 1253–1329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

P. J. Treanor, "The spatial analysis of magnetic fields in sun-spots," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 120, 412–429 (1960).

A. J. Booth, M. J. Shallis, and M. Wells, "Hyperfine structure measurements for lines of astrophysical interest in Mn I," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 205, 191–205 (1983).

Phil. Mag. (1)

A. G. Shenstone and H. A. Blair, "A method for the magnetic analysis of a spectrum by means of unresolved Zeeman patterns, and its application to Ag II," Phil. Mag. 8, 765–771 (1929).

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. E. Trees, "Hyperfine structure formulas for LS coupling," Phys. Rev. 92, 308–314 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

E. Back and S. Goudsmit, "Kernmoment und Zeemaneffekt von Wismut," Z. Phys. 47, 174–183 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. A (1)

J. Dembczynski, W. Ertmer, U. Johann, S. Penselin, and P. Stinner, "Laser-rf double-resonance studies of the hyperfine structure of metastable atomic states of 55Mn," Z. Phys. A 291, 207–218 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Interscience, New York, 1965), pp. 155–156. The denominator 2F(4F2 – 1)½ has been omitted in his Eq. (5–118).

H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic, New York, 1958), p. 13.

Ref. 4, p. 26.

J. G. Timothy, Department of Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (personal communication).

J. W. Harvey, A Photographic Spectral Atlas of a Sunspot between 3813 and 9182 Angstroms (Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 1977), plate 6.

C. M. Lederer, J. M. Hollander, and I. Perlman, Tables of Isotopes, 6th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 188.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1935), p. 427.

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Tables (2)

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Table 1 Mean Positions of Strong Components and Effective Z Factors

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Table 2 Positions of Outermost Components and Effective Z Factors

Equations (3)

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Δ E = ½ A K + B [ 3 K ( K + 1 ) - 4 I ( I + 1 ) J ( J + 1 ) ] 8 I ( 2 I - 1 ) J ( 2 J - 1 ) ,
K = F ( F + 1 ) - I ( I + 1 ) - J ( J + 1 ) .
Z = z [ Δ E ( + ) - Δ E ( - ) ] / 2 Δ E ( H ) ,

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