Abstract

Considerable efforts have been made recently to understand the detailed structure and properties of high Rydberg states of the bound even-parity spectrum of Ba. Interest in Ba is motived by the ability to study interacting Rydberg series. The perturbations of 6snl Rydberg series by 5d7d levels are reflected not only in the level structure but also in various observable quantities recently investigated by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. A wealth of data has been obtained on lifetimes, isotopes shifts, Landé factors, hyperfine structures, photoelectron angular distributions, etc. Previously the multichannel-quantum-defect theory (MQDT) has permitted one successfully to interpret the energies of perturbed series. The new possibilities offered by laser spectroscopy to analyze state mixing have provided an opportunity to probe the MQDT wave functions. This paper shows how the data provided by different measurements complement one another to check or even extend the MQDT models derived from energies. Various examples concerning the perturbed 6sns and 6snd Rydberg series are presented. For the 6snd1,3D2 series, energies are insufficient to get the full MQDT parameters needed to determine the wave functions, and gJ-factor and hyperfine-structure measurements have been essential to improve MQDT wave functions.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Aymar, P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and C. Morillon, “Two-photon spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations of the highly excited even levels and theoretical analysis of the J= 0 spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2173–2183 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and A. El Himdy, “Two-step optogalvanic spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations and interpretation of the even levels below the 6s ionization limit with J= 1, 3, 4 and 5,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 379–390 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Seaton, “Quantum defect theory. I—General formulation,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 88, 801–814 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Seaton, “Quantum defect theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 46, 167–257 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and collision theory. The Xe absorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. M. Lee and K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and collision theory. II—The Ar absorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 1241–1257 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. Fano, “Unified treatment of perturbed series, continuous spectra, and collisions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 979–987 (1975), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Aymar and O. Robaux, “Multichannel quantum-defect analysis of the bound even-parity J= 2 spectrum of neutral barium,” J. Phys. B 12, 531–546 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Aymar and P. Camus, “Multichannel quantum-defect analysis of the bound even-parity spectrum of neutral barium,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 850–857 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Aymar, “Rydberg series of alkaline-earth atoms Ca through Ba. The interplay of laser spectroscopy and multichannel quantum defect analysis,” Phys. Rep. (to be published).
  11. M. Aymar, R. J. Champeau, C. Delsart, and J. C. Keller, “Lifetimes of Rydberg levels in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2series of barium i,” J. Phys. B 14, 4489–4496 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. F. Gallagher, W. Sandner, and K. A. Safinya, “Probing configuration interaction of the Ba 5d 7d1D2state using radio-frequency spectroscopy and lifetime measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2969–2977 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Bathia, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, L. Nilsson, and S. Svanberg, “Natural radiative lifetimes in the perturbed 6snd1D2sequence of barium,” Z. Phys. A 303, 1–5 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Aymar, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Perturbation of Ba 6sns1S0sequence by the 5d 7d3P0state, probed by lifetime measurements”. J. Phys. B 15, 877–882 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, S. Svanberg, P. Grundevik, L. Nilsson, and M. Aymar, “Zeeman effect in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2sequences of Ba I; test of MQDT wave functions,” Z. Phys. A 308, 95–101 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Grafström, J. Zhan-Kui, G. Jönsson, S. Kröll, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of highly excited barium-i states,” Z. Phys. A 306, 281–284 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Neukammer, E. Matthias, and H. Rinneberg, “Systematic investigation of electron densities at the nucleus for Rydberg states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 25, 2426–2429 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Rinneberg, J. Neukammer, and E. Matthias, “Isotope shifts of perturbed 6sns1S0and 3S1Rydberg states of odd barium isotopes,” Z. Phys. A 306, 11–18 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Neukammer and H. Rinneberg, “Hyperfine structure of perturbed 6sns3S1Rydberg states of Ba,” J. Phys. B 15, L425–L429 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Resonance in singlet-triplet mixing in two-electrons systems caused by perturbing configurations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 124–127 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Hyperfine structure and three-channel quantum defect theory of 6snd1D2Rydberg states of Ba,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 1779–1789 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Hyperfine structure and configuration interaction of the 5d 7d1D2perturbing state of barium,” J. Phys. B 15, L825–L829 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Hogervorst and E. R. Eliel, “High resolution spectroscopy on 6sns Rydberg states of Ba,” Z. Phys. A 310, 19–26 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. E. Eliel and W. Hogervorst, “Hyperfine structure in 6snd Rydberg configuration in barium,” J. Phys. B 16, 1881–1893 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Matthias, P. Zoller, D. S. Elliott, N. D. Piltch, S. J. Smith, and G. Leuchs, “Influence of configuration mixing in intermediate states on resonant multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1914–1917 (1983), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. A. H. van Leeuwen, W. Hogervorst, and B. H. Post, “Stark effect in barium 6snd1D2Rydberg states; evidence of strong perturbations in the 1F3series,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1901–1908 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. J. Fonck, F. L. Roesler, D. H. Tracy, K. T. Lu, F. S. Tomkins, and W. R. S. Garton, “Atomic diagmagnetism and diamagnetically induced configuration mixing in laser-excited barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1513–1516 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  28. O. Robaux and M. Aymar, “A program for analyzing the Rydberg series of highly excited discrete spectra by MQDT,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 25, 223–236 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. A. Armstrong, P. Esherick, and J. J. Wynne, “Bound even parity J= 0 and J= 2 spectra of Ca; a multichannel quantum-defect theory analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 180–196 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Esherick, “Bound, even-parity J= 0 and J= 2 spectra of Sr,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1920–1936 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. A. Armstrong, J. J. Wynne, and P. Esherick, “Bound, odd-parity J= 1 spectra of the alkaline earths: Ca, Sr, and Ba,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 211–230 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. J. Wynne, J. A. Armstrong, and P. Esherick, “Zeeman effect of J= 2 states of Sr: g factor variation for interacting Rydberg series,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1520–1523 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. Beigang, E. Matthias, and A. Timmermann, “Influence of singlet–triplet mixing on the hyperfine structure of 5snd Rydberg states in 87Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 326–329 (1981); Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 290 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1983 (7)

M. Aymar and P. Camus, “Multichannel quantum-defect analysis of the bound even-parity spectrum of neutral barium,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 850–857 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. Hogervorst and E. R. Eliel, “High resolution spectroscopy on 6sns Rydberg states of Ba,” Z. Phys. A 310, 19–26 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eliel and W. Hogervorst, “Hyperfine structure in 6snd Rydberg configuration in barium,” J. Phys. B 16, 1881–1893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Matthias, P. Zoller, D. S. Elliott, N. D. Piltch, S. J. Smith, and G. Leuchs, “Influence of configuration mixing in intermediate states on resonant multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1914–1917 (1983), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

K. A. H. van Leeuwen, W. Hogervorst, and B. H. Post, “Stark effect in barium 6snd1D2Rydberg states; evidence of strong perturbations in the 1F3series,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1901–1908 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Hyperfine structure and three-channel quantum defect theory of 6snd1D2Rydberg states of Ba,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 1779–1789 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Seaton, “Quantum defect theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 46, 167–257 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (10)

P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and A. El Himdy, “Two-step optogalvanic spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations and interpretation of the even levels below the 6s ionization limit with J= 1, 3, 4 and 5,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 379–390 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Hyperfine structure and configuration interaction of the 5d 7d1D2perturbing state of barium,” J. Phys. B 15, L825–L829 (1982).
[CrossRef]

O. Robaux and M. Aymar, “A program for analyzing the Rydberg series of highly excited discrete spectra by MQDT,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 25, 223–236 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Perturbation of Ba 6sns1S0sequence by the 5d 7d3P0state, probed by lifetime measurements”. J. Phys. B 15, 877–882 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, S. Svanberg, P. Grundevik, L. Nilsson, and M. Aymar, “Zeeman effect in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2sequences of Ba I; test of MQDT wave functions,” Z. Phys. A 308, 95–101 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, J. Zhan-Kui, G. Jönsson, S. Kröll, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of highly excited barium-i states,” Z. Phys. A 306, 281–284 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Neukammer, E. Matthias, and H. Rinneberg, “Systematic investigation of electron densities at the nucleus for Rydberg states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 25, 2426–2429 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg, J. Neukammer, and E. Matthias, “Isotope shifts of perturbed 6sns1S0and 3S1Rydberg states of odd barium isotopes,” Z. Phys. A 306, 11–18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Neukammer and H. Rinneberg, “Hyperfine structure of perturbed 6sns3S1Rydberg states of Ba,” J. Phys. B 15, L425–L429 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Resonance in singlet-triplet mixing in two-electrons systems caused by perturbing configurations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 124–127 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (4)

M. Aymar, R. J. Champeau, C. Delsart, and J. C. Keller, “Lifetimes of Rydberg levels in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2series of barium i,” J. Phys. B 14, 4489–4496 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Gallagher, W. Sandner, and K. A. Safinya, “Probing configuration interaction of the Ba 5d 7d1D2state using radio-frequency spectroscopy and lifetime measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2969–2977 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Bathia, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, L. Nilsson, and S. Svanberg, “Natural radiative lifetimes in the perturbed 6snd1D2sequence of barium,” Z. Phys. A 303, 1–5 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Beigang, E. Matthias, and A. Timmermann, “Influence of singlet–triplet mixing on the hyperfine structure of 5snd Rydberg states in 87Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 326–329 (1981); Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 290 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

J. A. Armstrong, J. J. Wynne, and P. Esherick, “Bound, odd-parity J= 1 spectra of the alkaline earths: Ca, Sr, and Ba,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 211–230 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar and O. Robaux, “Multichannel quantum-defect analysis of the bound even-parity J= 2 spectrum of neutral barium,” J. Phys. B 12, 531–546 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. Aymar, P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and C. Morillon, “Two-photon spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations of the highly excited even levels and theoretical analysis of the J= 0 spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2173–2183 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (4)

J. J. Wynne, J. A. Armstrong, and P. Esherick, “Zeeman effect of J= 2 states of Sr: g factor variation for interacting Rydberg series,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1520–1523 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, P. Esherick, and J. J. Wynne, “Bound even parity J= 0 and J= 2 spectra of Ca; a multichannel quantum-defect theory analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 180–196 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Esherick, “Bound, even-parity J= 0 and J= 2 spectra of Sr,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1920–1936 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Fonck, F. L. Roesler, D. H. Tracy, K. T. Lu, F. S. Tomkins, and W. R. S. Garton, “Atomic diagmagnetism and diamagnetically induced configuration mixing in laser-excited barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1513–1516 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1973 (1)

C. M. Lee and K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and collision theory. II—The Ar absorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 1241–1257 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and collision theory. The Xe absorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

M. J. Seaton, “Quantum defect theory. I—General formulation,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 88, 801–814 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, J. J. Wynne, and P. Esherick, “Bound, odd-parity J= 1 spectra of the alkaline earths: Ca, Sr, and Ba,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 211–230 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, P. Esherick, and J. J. Wynne, “Bound even parity J= 0 and J= 2 spectra of Ca; a multichannel quantum-defect theory analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 180–196 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wynne, J. A. Armstrong, and P. Esherick, “Zeeman effect of J= 2 states of Sr: g factor variation for interacting Rydberg series,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1520–1523 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aymar, M.

M. Aymar and P. Camus, “Multichannel quantum-defect analysis of the bound even-parity spectrum of neutral barium,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 850–857 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Perturbation of Ba 6sns1S0sequence by the 5d 7d3P0state, probed by lifetime measurements”. J. Phys. B 15, 877–882 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, S. Svanberg, P. Grundevik, L. Nilsson, and M. Aymar, “Zeeman effect in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2sequences of Ba I; test of MQDT wave functions,” Z. Phys. A 308, 95–101 (1982).
[CrossRef]

O. Robaux and M. Aymar, “A program for analyzing the Rydberg series of highly excited discrete spectra by MQDT,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 25, 223–236 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, R. J. Champeau, C. Delsart, and J. C. Keller, “Lifetimes of Rydberg levels in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2series of barium i,” J. Phys. B 14, 4489–4496 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar and O. Robaux, “Multichannel quantum-defect analysis of the bound even-parity J= 2 spectrum of neutral barium,” J. Phys. B 12, 531–546 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and C. Morillon, “Two-photon spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations of the highly excited even levels and theoretical analysis of the J= 0 spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2173–2183 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, “Rydberg series of alkaline-earth atoms Ca through Ba. The interplay of laser spectroscopy and multichannel quantum defect analysis,” Phys. Rep. (to be published).

Bathia, K.

K. Bathia, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, L. Nilsson, and S. Svanberg, “Natural radiative lifetimes in the perturbed 6snd1D2sequence of barium,” Z. Phys. A 303, 1–5 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

R. Beigang, E. Matthias, and A. Timmermann, “Influence of singlet–triplet mixing on the hyperfine structure of 5snd Rydberg states in 87Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 326–329 (1981); Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 290 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Camus, P.

M. Aymar and P. Camus, “Multichannel quantum-defect analysis of the bound even-parity spectrum of neutral barium,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 850–857 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and A. El Himdy, “Two-step optogalvanic spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations and interpretation of the even levels below the 6s ionization limit with J= 1, 3, 4 and 5,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 379–390 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and C. Morillon, “Two-photon spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations of the highly excited even levels and theoretical analysis of the J= 0 spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2173–2183 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Champeau, R. J.

M. Aymar, R. J. Champeau, C. Delsart, and J. C. Keller, “Lifetimes of Rydberg levels in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2series of barium i,” J. Phys. B 14, 4489–4496 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Delsart, C.

M. Aymar, R. J. Champeau, C. Delsart, and J. C. Keller, “Lifetimes of Rydberg levels in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2series of barium i,” J. Phys. B 14, 4489–4496 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dieulin, M.

P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and A. El Himdy, “Two-step optogalvanic spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations and interpretation of the even levels below the 6s ionization limit with J= 1, 3, 4 and 5,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 379–390 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and C. Morillon, “Two-photon spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations of the highly excited even levels and theoretical analysis of the J= 0 spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2173–2183 (1978).
[CrossRef]

El Himdy, A.

P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and A. El Himdy, “Two-step optogalvanic spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations and interpretation of the even levels below the 6s ionization limit with J= 1, 3, 4 and 5,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 379–390 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Eliel, E. R.

W. Hogervorst and E. R. Eliel, “High resolution spectroscopy on 6sns Rydberg states of Ba,” Z. Phys. A 310, 19–26 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eliel, R. E.

R. E. Eliel and W. Hogervorst, “Hyperfine structure in 6snd Rydberg configuration in barium,” J. Phys. B 16, 1881–1893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, D. S.

E. Matthias, P. Zoller, D. S. Elliott, N. D. Piltch, S. J. Smith, and G. Leuchs, “Influence of configuration mixing in intermediate states on resonant multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1914–1917 (1983), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Esherick, P.

J. A. Armstrong, J. J. Wynne, and P. Esherick, “Bound, odd-parity J= 1 spectra of the alkaline earths: Ca, Sr, and Ba,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 211–230 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wynne, J. A. Armstrong, and P. Esherick, “Zeeman effect of J= 2 states of Sr: g factor variation for interacting Rydberg series,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1520–1523 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Esherick, “Bound, even-parity J= 0 and J= 2 spectra of Sr,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1920–1936 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, P. Esherick, and J. J. Wynne, “Bound even parity J= 0 and J= 2 spectra of Ca; a multichannel quantum-defect theory analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 180–196 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fano, U.

Fonck, R. J.

R. J. Fonck, F. L. Roesler, D. H. Tracy, K. T. Lu, F. S. Tomkins, and W. R. S. Garton, “Atomic diagmagnetism and diamagnetically induced configuration mixing in laser-excited barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1513–1516 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, T. F.

T. F. Gallagher, W. Sandner, and K. A. Safinya, “Probing configuration interaction of the Ba 5d 7d1D2state using radio-frequency spectroscopy and lifetime measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2969–2977 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Garton, W. R. S.

R. J. Fonck, F. L. Roesler, D. H. Tracy, K. T. Lu, F. S. Tomkins, and W. R. S. Garton, “Atomic diagmagnetism and diamagnetically induced configuration mixing in laser-excited barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1513–1516 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Grafström, P.

M. Aymar, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Perturbation of Ba 6sns1S0sequence by the 5d 7d3P0state, probed by lifetime measurements”. J. Phys. B 15, 877–882 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, J. Zhan-Kui, G. Jönsson, S. Kröll, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of highly excited barium-i states,” Z. Phys. A 306, 281–284 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, S. Svanberg, P. Grundevik, L. Nilsson, and M. Aymar, “Zeeman effect in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2sequences of Ba I; test of MQDT wave functions,” Z. Phys. A 308, 95–101 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Bathia, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, L. Nilsson, and S. Svanberg, “Natural radiative lifetimes in the perturbed 6snd1D2sequence of barium,” Z. Phys. A 303, 1–5 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Grundevik, P.

P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, S. Svanberg, P. Grundevik, L. Nilsson, and M. Aymar, “Zeeman effect in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2sequences of Ba I; test of MQDT wave functions,” Z. Phys. A 308, 95–101 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

R. E. Eliel and W. Hogervorst, “Hyperfine structure in 6snd Rydberg configuration in barium,” J. Phys. B 16, 1881–1893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. Hogervorst and E. R. Eliel, “High resolution spectroscopy on 6sns Rydberg states of Ba,” Z. Phys. A 310, 19–26 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. A. H. van Leeuwen, W. Hogervorst, and B. H. Post, “Stark effect in barium 6snd1D2Rydberg states; evidence of strong perturbations in the 1F3series,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1901–1908 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jönsson, G.

P. Grafström, J. Zhan-Kui, G. Jönsson, S. Kröll, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of highly excited barium-i states,” Z. Phys. A 306, 281–284 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Keller, J. C.

M. Aymar, R. J. Champeau, C. Delsart, and J. C. Keller, “Lifetimes of Rydberg levels in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2series of barium i,” J. Phys. B 14, 4489–4496 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kröll, S.

P. Grafström, J. Zhan-Kui, G. Jönsson, S. Kröll, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of highly excited barium-i states,” Z. Phys. A 306, 281–284 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. M.

C. M. Lee and K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and collision theory. II—The Ar absorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 1241–1257 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

E. Matthias, P. Zoller, D. S. Elliott, N. D. Piltch, S. J. Smith, and G. Leuchs, “Influence of configuration mixing in intermediate states on resonant multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1914–1917 (1983), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Levinson, C.

M. Aymar, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Perturbation of Ba 6sns1S0sequence by the 5d 7d3P0state, probed by lifetime measurements”. J. Phys. B 15, 877–882 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, J. Zhan-Kui, G. Jönsson, S. Kröll, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of highly excited barium-i states,” Z. Phys. A 306, 281–284 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, S. Svanberg, P. Grundevik, L. Nilsson, and M. Aymar, “Zeeman effect in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2sequences of Ba I; test of MQDT wave functions,” Z. Phys. A 308, 95–101 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Bathia, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, L. Nilsson, and S. Svanberg, “Natural radiative lifetimes in the perturbed 6snd1D2sequence of barium,” Z. Phys. A 303, 1–5 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K. T.

R. J. Fonck, F. L. Roesler, D. H. Tracy, K. T. Lu, F. S. Tomkins, and W. R. S. Garton, “Atomic diagmagnetism and diamagnetically induced configuration mixing in laser-excited barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1513–1516 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Lee and K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and collision theory. II—The Ar absorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 1241–1257 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and collision theory. The Xe absorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lundberg, H.

M. Aymar, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Perturbation of Ba 6sns1S0sequence by the 5d 7d3P0state, probed by lifetime measurements”. J. Phys. B 15, 877–882 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, S. Svanberg, P. Grundevik, L. Nilsson, and M. Aymar, “Zeeman effect in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2sequences of Ba I; test of MQDT wave functions,” Z. Phys. A 308, 95–101 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, J. Zhan-Kui, G. Jönsson, S. Kröll, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of highly excited barium-i states,” Z. Phys. A 306, 281–284 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Bathia, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, L. Nilsson, and S. Svanberg, “Natural radiative lifetimes in the perturbed 6snd1D2sequence of barium,” Z. Phys. A 303, 1–5 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, E.

E. Matthias, P. Zoller, D. S. Elliott, N. D. Piltch, S. J. Smith, and G. Leuchs, “Influence of configuration mixing in intermediate states on resonant multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1914–1917 (1983), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg, J. Neukammer, and E. Matthias, “Isotope shifts of perturbed 6sns1S0and 3S1Rydberg states of odd barium isotopes,” Z. Phys. A 306, 11–18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Neukammer, E. Matthias, and H. Rinneberg, “Systematic investigation of electron densities at the nucleus for Rydberg states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 25, 2426–2429 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Beigang, E. Matthias, and A. Timmermann, “Influence of singlet–triplet mixing on the hyperfine structure of 5snd Rydberg states in 87Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 326–329 (1981); Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 290 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Morillon, C.

M. Aymar, P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and C. Morillon, “Two-photon spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations of the highly excited even levels and theoretical analysis of the J= 0 spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2173–2183 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Neukammer, J.

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Hyperfine structure and three-channel quantum defect theory of 6snd1D2Rydberg states of Ba,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 1779–1789 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Resonance in singlet-triplet mixing in two-electrons systems caused by perturbing configurations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 124–127 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Neukammer and H. Rinneberg, “Hyperfine structure of perturbed 6sns3S1Rydberg states of Ba,” J. Phys. B 15, L425–L429 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg, J. Neukammer, and E. Matthias, “Isotope shifts of perturbed 6sns1S0and 3S1Rydberg states of odd barium isotopes,” Z. Phys. A 306, 11–18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Hyperfine structure and configuration interaction of the 5d 7d1D2perturbing state of barium,” J. Phys. B 15, L825–L829 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Neukammer, E. Matthias, and H. Rinneberg, “Systematic investigation of electron densities at the nucleus for Rydberg states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 25, 2426–2429 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, L.

P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, S. Svanberg, P. Grundevik, L. Nilsson, and M. Aymar, “Zeeman effect in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2sequences of Ba I; test of MQDT wave functions,” Z. Phys. A 308, 95–101 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Bathia, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, L. Nilsson, and S. Svanberg, “Natural radiative lifetimes in the perturbed 6snd1D2sequence of barium,” Z. Phys. A 303, 1–5 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Piltch, N. D.

E. Matthias, P. Zoller, D. S. Elliott, N. D. Piltch, S. J. Smith, and G. Leuchs, “Influence of configuration mixing in intermediate states on resonant multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1914–1917 (1983), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Post, B. H.

K. A. H. van Leeuwen, W. Hogervorst, and B. H. Post, “Stark effect in barium 6snd1D2Rydberg states; evidence of strong perturbations in the 1F3series,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1901–1908 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rinneberg, H.

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Hyperfine structure and three-channel quantum defect theory of 6snd1D2Rydberg states of Ba,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 1779–1789 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Hyperfine structure and configuration interaction of the 5d 7d1D2perturbing state of barium,” J. Phys. B 15, L825–L829 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Neukammer and H. Rinneberg, “Hyperfine structure of perturbed 6sns3S1Rydberg states of Ba,” J. Phys. B 15, L425–L429 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Resonance in singlet-triplet mixing in two-electrons systems caused by perturbing configurations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 124–127 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Neukammer, E. Matthias, and H. Rinneberg, “Systematic investigation of electron densities at the nucleus for Rydberg states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 25, 2426–2429 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg, J. Neukammer, and E. Matthias, “Isotope shifts of perturbed 6sns1S0and 3S1Rydberg states of odd barium isotopes,” Z. Phys. A 306, 11–18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Robaux, O.

O. Robaux and M. Aymar, “A program for analyzing the Rydberg series of highly excited discrete spectra by MQDT,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 25, 223–236 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar and O. Robaux, “Multichannel quantum-defect analysis of the bound even-parity J= 2 spectrum of neutral barium,” J. Phys. B 12, 531–546 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

R. J. Fonck, F. L. Roesler, D. H. Tracy, K. T. Lu, F. S. Tomkins, and W. R. S. Garton, “Atomic diagmagnetism and diamagnetically induced configuration mixing in laser-excited barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1513–1516 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Safinya, K. A.

T. F. Gallagher, W. Sandner, and K. A. Safinya, “Probing configuration interaction of the Ba 5d 7d1D2state using radio-frequency spectroscopy and lifetime measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2969–2977 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

T. F. Gallagher, W. Sandner, and K. A. Safinya, “Probing configuration interaction of the Ba 5d 7d1D2state using radio-frequency spectroscopy and lifetime measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2969–2977 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, M. J.

M. J. Seaton, “Quantum defect theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 46, 167–257 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Seaton, “Quantum defect theory. I—General formulation,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 88, 801–814 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. J.

E. Matthias, P. Zoller, D. S. Elliott, N. D. Piltch, S. J. Smith, and G. Leuchs, “Influence of configuration mixing in intermediate states on resonant multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1914–1917 (1983), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

P. Grafström, J. Zhan-Kui, G. Jönsson, S. Kröll, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of highly excited barium-i states,” Z. Phys. A 306, 281–284 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, S. Svanberg, P. Grundevik, L. Nilsson, and M. Aymar, “Zeeman effect in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2sequences of Ba I; test of MQDT wave functions,” Z. Phys. A 308, 95–101 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Perturbation of Ba 6sns1S0sequence by the 5d 7d3P0state, probed by lifetime measurements”. J. Phys. B 15, 877–882 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Bathia, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, L. Nilsson, and S. Svanberg, “Natural radiative lifetimes in the perturbed 6snd1D2sequence of barium,” Z. Phys. A 303, 1–5 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Timmermann, A.

R. Beigang, E. Matthias, and A. Timmermann, “Influence of singlet–triplet mixing on the hyperfine structure of 5snd Rydberg states in 87Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 326–329 (1981); Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 290 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tomkins, F. S.

R. J. Fonck, F. L. Roesler, D. H. Tracy, K. T. Lu, F. S. Tomkins, and W. R. S. Garton, “Atomic diagmagnetism and diamagnetically induced configuration mixing in laser-excited barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1513–1516 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tracy, D. H.

R. J. Fonck, F. L. Roesler, D. H. Tracy, K. T. Lu, F. S. Tomkins, and W. R. S. Garton, “Atomic diagmagnetism and diamagnetically induced configuration mixing in laser-excited barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1513–1516 (1977).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, K. A. H.

K. A. H. van Leeuwen, W. Hogervorst, and B. H. Post, “Stark effect in barium 6snd1D2Rydberg states; evidence of strong perturbations in the 1F3series,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1901–1908 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, J. J.

J. A. Armstrong, J. J. Wynne, and P. Esherick, “Bound, odd-parity J= 1 spectra of the alkaline earths: Ca, Sr, and Ba,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 211–230 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, P. Esherick, and J. J. Wynne, “Bound even parity J= 0 and J= 2 spectra of Ca; a multichannel quantum-defect theory analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 180–196 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wynne, J. A. Armstrong, and P. Esherick, “Zeeman effect of J= 2 states of Sr: g factor variation for interacting Rydberg series,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1520–1523 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Zhan-Kui, J.

P. Grafström, J. Zhan-Kui, G. Jönsson, S. Kröll, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of highly excited barium-i states,” Z. Phys. A 306, 281–284 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zoller, P.

E. Matthias, P. Zoller, D. S. Elliott, N. D. Piltch, S. J. Smith, and G. Leuchs, “Influence of configuration mixing in intermediate states on resonant multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1914–1917 (1983), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Comp. Phys. Commun. (1)

O. Robaux and M. Aymar, “A program for analyzing the Rydberg series of highly excited discrete spectra by MQDT,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 25, 223–236 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. B (6)

M. Aymar and O. Robaux, “Multichannel quantum-defect analysis of the bound even-parity J= 2 spectrum of neutral barium,” J. Phys. B 12, 531–546 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, R. J. Champeau, C. Delsart, and J. C. Keller, “Lifetimes of Rydberg levels in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2series of barium i,” J. Phys. B 14, 4489–4496 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Perturbation of Ba 6sns1S0sequence by the 5d 7d3P0state, probed by lifetime measurements”. J. Phys. B 15, 877–882 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Neukammer and H. Rinneberg, “Hyperfine structure of perturbed 6sns3S1Rydberg states of Ba,” J. Phys. B 15, L425–L429 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Hyperfine structure and configuration interaction of the 5d 7d1D2perturbing state of barium,” J. Phys. B 15, L825–L829 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eliel and W. Hogervorst, “Hyperfine structure in 6snd Rydberg configuration in barium,” J. Phys. B 16, 1881–1893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (11)

K. A. H. van Leeuwen, W. Hogervorst, and B. H. Post, “Stark effect in barium 6snd1D2Rydberg states; evidence of strong perturbations in the 1F3series,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1901–1908 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, P. Esherick, and J. J. Wynne, “Bound even parity J= 0 and J= 2 spectra of Ca; a multichannel quantum-defect theory analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 180–196 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Esherick, “Bound, even-parity J= 0 and J= 2 spectra of Sr,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1920–1936 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Hyperfine structure and three-channel quantum defect theory of 6snd1D2Rydberg states of Ba,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 1779–1789 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Neukammer, E. Matthias, and H. Rinneberg, “Systematic investigation of electron densities at the nucleus for Rydberg states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 25, 2426–2429 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Gallagher, W. Sandner, and K. A. Safinya, “Probing configuration interaction of the Ba 5d 7d1D2state using radio-frequency spectroscopy and lifetime measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2969–2977 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and collision theory. The Xe absorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Lee and K. T. Lu, “Spectroscopy and collision theory. II—The Ar absorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 1241–1257 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar and P. Camus, “Multichannel quantum-defect analysis of the bound even-parity spectrum of neutral barium,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 850–857 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and C. Morillon, “Two-photon spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations of the highly excited even levels and theoretical analysis of the J= 0 spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2173–2183 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, M. Dieulin, and A. El Himdy, “Two-step optogalvanic spectroscopy of neutral barium: observations and interpretation of the even levels below the 6s ionization limit with J= 1, 3, 4 and 5,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 379–390 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. J. Wynne, J. A. Armstrong, and P. Esherick, “Zeeman effect of J= 2 states of Sr: g factor variation for interacting Rydberg series,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1520–1523 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Beigang, E. Matthias, and A. Timmermann, “Influence of singlet–triplet mixing on the hyperfine structure of 5snd Rydberg states in 87Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 326–329 (1981); Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 290 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Fonck, F. L. Roesler, D. H. Tracy, K. T. Lu, F. S. Tomkins, and W. R. S. Garton, “Atomic diagmagnetism and diamagnetically induced configuration mixing in laser-excited barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1513–1516 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. Matthias, P. Zoller, D. S. Elliott, N. D. Piltch, S. J. Smith, and G. Leuchs, “Influence of configuration mixing in intermediate states on resonant multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1914–1917 (1983), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg and J. Neukammer, “Resonance in singlet-triplet mixing in two-electrons systems caused by perturbing configurations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 124–127 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (1)

M. J. Seaton, “Quantum defect theory. I—General formulation,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 88, 801–814 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

M. J. Seaton, “Quantum defect theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 46, 167–257 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. A (5)

K. Bathia, P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, L. Nilsson, and S. Svanberg, “Natural radiative lifetimes in the perturbed 6snd1D2sequence of barium,” Z. Phys. A 303, 1–5 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Rinneberg, J. Neukammer, and E. Matthias, “Isotope shifts of perturbed 6sns1S0and 3S1Rydberg states of odd barium isotopes,” Z. Phys. A 306, 11–18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, S. Svanberg, P. Grundevik, L. Nilsson, and M. Aymar, “Zeeman effect in the perturbed 6snd1,3D2sequences of Ba I; test of MQDT wave functions,” Z. Phys. A 308, 95–101 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Grafström, J. Zhan-Kui, G. Jönsson, S. Kröll, C. Levinson, H. Lundberg, and S. Svanberg, “Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of highly excited barium-i states,” Z. Phys. A 306, 281–284 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. Hogervorst and E. R. Eliel, “High resolution spectroscopy on 6sns Rydberg states of Ba,” Z. Phys. A 310, 19–26 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Aymar, “Rydberg series of alkaline-earth atoms Ca through Ba. The interplay of laser spectroscopy and multichannel quantum defect analysis,” Phys. Rep. (to be published).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lu–Fano plot of the J = 2 high-lying levels of Ba calculated with the nine-channel MQDT model of Ref. 8. The experimental points are from Ref. 8.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lifetimes of the 6snd1,3D2 perturbed series of Ba. Comparison of experimental data (●, 6snd1D2, ■ 6snd3D2; ▲, 5d7d1D2 perturber) with the computed lifetimes (·). For the 5d7d level, the theoretical and experimental values coincide. The D1 and D3 lines correspond, respectively, to 1/Γ1 and 1/Γ3 (from Ref. 11).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lifetimes of the 6sns1S0 perturbed series of Ba. Comparison of experimental data (+, 6sns1S0, 5d7d3P0) with theoretical lifetimes (●). The straight line corresponds to 1/Γ, the lifetime of the pure 6sns1S0 level (from Ref. 14).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Isotopic volume shift for the even isotopes of Ba. Change in the charge density at the nucleus between the ground state and the 6sns1S0 Rydberg state (from Ref. 17, courtesy of H. Rinneberg).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

gJ factors for 6snd1,3D2 and 5d7d1D2 levels of Ba. The bars correspond to experimental data of Gräfström et al.15 The curves give MQUT results as follows: long-dashed curve, nine-channel model with θ = 0 (Ref. 8); short-dashed curve, nine-channel model with θ = 0.35 (Ref. 15); solid curve, three-channel model.10 For 3D2 levels the solid and short-dashed curves are superposed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

βmixing coefficients for 6snd1D2 and 5d7d1D2 levels of Ba. The points are deduced from hyperfine structures: ●, Refs. 21 and 22; ○, Ref. 24. The curves correspond to MQDT calculations: solid curve, three-channel model10,21; long- and short-dashed curves, nine-channel model with θ = 0.8

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Rydberg Character of Ba Levels Derived from Isotope Shifts and Predicted by MQDT

Tables Icon

Table 2 Rydberg Character of 6sns3S1 Levels of Ba Derived from Hyperfine Structures and Predicted by MQDT

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = I i - R / ν i 2 ,
det U i α sin π ( ν i + μ α ) = 0 ,
U i α = α ¯ R ι α ¯ V α ¯ α ,
Ψ i = α i 6 s n s S 1 0 + k = S 1 0 , P 3 0 i k 5 d 7 d k ,
Ψ i = α i 6 s n s S 3 1 + k = D 3 1 , S 3 1 , P 1 1 , P 3 1 i k 5 d 7 d k ,
Ψ i = α i 6 s n d D 1 2 + β i 6 s n d D 3 2 + k = D 1 2 , D 3 2 , F 3 2 , P 3 2 i k 5 d 7 d k .
i 2 = k i k 2 .
Ψ i = α i 6 s n d D 1 2 + β i 6 s n d D 3 2 + i 5 d 7 d D 1 2 .
Γ i = α i 2 Γ 1 + β i 2 Γ 3 + i 2 Γ 5 d 7 d D 1 2 ,
Γ 1 = γ 1 / ( n i * ) 3 ,             Γ 3 = γ 3 / ( n i * ) 3 .
Δ ρ i = ( α i 2 + β i 2 ) Δ ρ 6 s n d + i 2 Δ ρ 5 d 7 d ,
g J i = α i 2 g J ( D 1 2 ) + β i 2 g J ( D 3 2 ) + k ( i k ) 2 g J ( k ) .
g J i = α i 2 g J ( D 1 2 ) + β i 2 g J ( D 3 2 ) + i 2 g ¯ .
g = [ k ( i k ) 2 g J ( k ) ] / k ( i k ) 2 = 1.03
H hf = a 6 s I · s .
A i = ¼ ( E I + 1 i - E I - 1 i ) = ½ α i 2 a 6 s .
A i = a 6 s ( β i 2 - 2 α i β i 6 ) / 12.

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