Abstract

Two promising methods of pumping plasma x-ray lasers, namely, matched-line photoexcitation and electron-collisional excitation, are reviewed from a spectroscopic viewpoint. For the former, numerous possible elements are listed, and a recently obtained experimental spectrum for a most promising sodium–neon test case is presented. For the second, progress in electron-collisional excitation pumping of Δn = 0 laser transitions is reviewed along with electron-recombination pumping of Δn = 1 laser transitions, and a novel synergistic system is proposed for enhanced recombination pumping in 1s22s22pq sequence ions. The accumulation of consistent data and the availability of the necessary supporting atomic and spectroscopic information result in continued optimism that, with a truly dedicated effort, useful gain can be achieved on a reasonable time scale.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. Waynant and R. C. Elton, "Review of short wavelength laser research," Proc. IEEE 64, 1059–1092 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. C. Elton, "Progress and trends in x-ray laser research," Opt. Eng. 21, 307–312 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. C. Elton, "X-ray lasers," in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla. 1982), Vol. 1, Chap. 4.
  4. R. C. Elton, "Parameter regimes for x-ray lasing in plasmas," Comments At. Mol. Phys. 13, 59–67 (1983).
  5. A. V. Vinogradov, I.I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. A. Norton and N. J. Peacock, "Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadened lines," J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. C. Elton, ed., "ARPA/NRL X-ray laser program," NRL Rep. No. 3482 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1977), pp. 92–114.
  8. P. L. Hagelstein, "Physics of short wavelength laser design," LLNL Rep. UCRL-53100 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, "Atomic and ionic emission lines below 2000 Å, hydrogen through krypton," NRL Rep. No. 7599 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1973); R. L. Kelly, "Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 Å, H through Ar," ORNL Rep. ONRL-5922 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. O. Bashkin and J. O. Stoner, Atomic Energy Levels and Grotian Diagrams (North-Holland, New York, 1975, 1978), Vols. I-IV.
  11. R. L. Kelly, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93940 (personal communication, 1983).
  12. J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, and K. G. Whitney, "Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum XII and neon IX," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, and S. V. Chekalin, "Search for amplification in the far vacuum ultraviolet due to transitions of multiply charged ions in an extended laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 48–54 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. F. Seely, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (personal communication, 1983).
  15. J. Trebes and M. Krishnan, "Ultraviolet fluorescence of optical pumping with extreme ultraviolet line radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 679–682 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. A. Bhagavatula, "Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. G. Burkhalter, G. Charatis, and P. Rockett, "X-ray spectroscopy to determine line coincidences," NRL Rep. No. 5022 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C, 1983).
  18. V. A. Bhagavatula, "Experimental evidence for soft-x-ray population inversions by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 726–728 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. H. Dixon, J. L. Ford, and R. C. Elton, "Solid neon targets for plasma x-ray lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).
  20. R. C. Elton and R. H. Dixon, "Absolute line emissions for x-ray laser photon pumping," J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer (to be published).
  21. R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, and R. C. Elton, "Measured gain for XUV plasma lasers at various pump intensities," Appl. Opt. 22, 1309–1312 (1983); "Population density and VUV gain measurements in laser-produced plasmas"; "Calibration and diagnostic techniques for VUV plasma lasers," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 277–286, 305–311 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. C. Elton, "Extension of 3p–3s ion lasers into the vacuum ultraviolet region," Appl. Opt. 14, 97–101 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  23. L. J. Palumbo and R. C. Elton, "Short-wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in carbonlike and heliumlike ions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 480–488 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. H. Dixon and R. C. Elton, "Resonance charge transfer and population inversion following C5+ and C6+ interactions with carbon atoms in a laser-generated plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1072–1075 (1977); R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, and R. C. Elton, "Intensity inversion in the Balmer spectrum of C5+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 122–125 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  25. V. A. Bhagavatula and B. Yaakobi, "Direct observation of population inversion between Al+11 levels in a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Commun. 24, 331–335 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981); D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observations of gains in the extreme ultraviolet," J. Phys. B 15, 3557–3580 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Voorhees, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, "Population inversion and gain measurements for soft x-ray laser development in a magnetically confined plasma column," Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Rep. No. PPPL-2003 (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1983).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. E. Irons and N. J. Peacock, "Experimental evidence for population inversion in C5+ in an expanding laser-produced plasma," J. Phys. B 7, 1109–1112 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, and J. F. Seely, "Short wavelength population inversions associated with charge transfer in laser-produced plasmas," in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, and B. Yaakobi, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 135–143.
  30. V. V. Korukhov, N. G. Nikulin, and B. I. Troshin, "Observation of the population inversion of O VIII levels in a laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1099–1100 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Contourie, B. Yaakobi, J. Delettrez, and J. M. Forsyth, "Soft x-ray population inversion observed in a line-focus laser plasma," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 312–318 (1982).
  32. E. Ya. Kononov and K. N. Koshelev, "Inverse population of levels of multiply charged ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 1340–1343 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. Jamelot, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, A. Bideau, C. Moller, H. Guennou, and A. Sureau, "Evidence of population inversion in Li-like aluminum ions in a laser produced plasma," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), pp. 178–183.
  34. The upper 3p level may also be filled by recombination and cascade (discussed in Section 4) or by collisional ionization of the next lower species.
  35. W. B. Bridges and A. N. Chester, "Ionized gas lasers," in Handbook of Lasers, R. J. Pressley, ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), Chap. 7.
  36. W. R. Bennett, Jr., Atomic Gas Laser Transition Data (IFI/ Plenum, New York, 1979).
    [CrossRef]
  37. W. B. Bridges, "Ionized gas lasers," in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1982), Vol. 2, Chap. 2.
  38. A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Population inversion of transitions in neon-like ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 32–35 (1977); L. A. Vainshtein, A. V. Vinogradov, U. I. Safranova and I. Yu. Skobelev, "Stimulated emission in the far ultraviolet due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 239–242 (1978); A. V. Vinogradov and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Calculations of population inversion due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions in the 200–2000 Å range," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 754–756 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  39. U. Feldman, A. K. Bhatia, and S. Suckewer, "Short wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in neonlike krypton (Kr XXVII)," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 2188–2197 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  40. A. A. Ilyukhin, G. V. Peregudov, E. N. Ragozin, I.I. Sobel'man, and V. A. Chrikov, "Concerning the problem of lasers for the far ultraviolet λ ˜ 500–700 Å," Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 535–539 (1977).
  41. R. Dukart, S. L. Wong, D. Dietrich, R. Fortner, and R. Stewart, "Studies of an imploding plasma x-ray laser," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on High Power Particle Beams, R. J. Briggs and A. J. Toepfer, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 1984).

1984 (1)

R. Dukart, S. L. Wong, D. Dietrich, R. Fortner, and R. Stewart, "Studies of an imploding plasma x-ray laser," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on High Power Particle Beams, R. J. Briggs and A. J. Toepfer, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 1984).

1983 (8)

U. Feldman, A. K. Bhatia, and S. Suckewer, "Short wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in neonlike krypton (Kr XXVII)," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 2188–2197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Voorhees, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, "Population inversion and gain measurements for soft x-ray laser development in a magnetically confined plasma column," Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Rep. No. PPPL-2003 (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1983).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, "Parameter regimes for x-ray lasing in plasmas," Comments At. Mol. Phys. 13, 59–67 (1983).

R. L. Kelly, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93940 (personal communication, 1983).

J. F. Seely, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (personal communication, 1983).

J. Trebes and M. Krishnan, "Ultraviolet fluorescence of optical pumping with extreme ultraviolet line radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 679–682 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Burkhalter, G. Charatis, and P. Rockett, "X-ray spectroscopy to determine line coincidences," NRL Rep. No. 5022 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C, 1983).

R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, and R. C. Elton, "Measured gain for XUV plasma lasers at various pump intensities," Appl. Opt. 22, 1309–1312 (1983); "Population density and VUV gain measurements in laser-produced plasmas"; "Calibration and diagnostic techniques for VUV plasma lasers," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 277–286, 305–311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1982 (6)

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, and K. G. Whitney, "Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum XII and neon IX," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, "Progress and trends in x-ray laser research," Opt. Eng. 21, 307–312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, "X-ray lasers," in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla. 1982), Vol. 1, Chap. 4.

V. V. Korukhov, N. G. Nikulin, and B. I. Troshin, "Observation of the population inversion of O VIII levels in a laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1099–1100 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Contourie, B. Yaakobi, J. Delettrez, and J. M. Forsyth, "Soft x-ray population inversion observed in a line-focus laser plasma," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 312–318 (1982).

W. B. Bridges, "Ionized gas lasers," in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1982), Vol. 2, Chap. 2.

1981 (5)

G. Jamelot, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, A. Bideau, C. Moller, H. Guennou, and A. Sureau, "Evidence of population inversion in Li-like aluminum ions in a laser produced plasma," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), pp. 178–183.

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981); D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observations of gains in the extreme ultraviolet," J. Phys. B 15, 3557–3580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, and J. F. Seely, "Short wavelength population inversions associated with charge transfer in laser-produced plasmas," in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, and B. Yaakobi, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 135–143.

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, and S. V. Chekalin, "Search for amplification in the far vacuum ultraviolet due to transitions of multiply charged ions in an extended laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 48–54 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Hagelstein, "Physics of short wavelength laser design," LLNL Rep. UCRL-53100 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

V. A. Bhagavatula, "Experimental evidence for soft-x-ray population inversions by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 726–728 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Bhagavatula and B. Yaakobi, "Direct observation of population inversion between Al+11 levels in a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Commun. 24, 331–335 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (4)

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Population inversion of transitions in neon-like ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 32–35 (1977); L. A. Vainshtein, A. V. Vinogradov, U. I. Safranova and I. Yu. Skobelev, "Stimulated emission in the far ultraviolet due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 239–242 (1978); A. V. Vinogradov and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Calculations of population inversion due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions in the 200–2000 Å range," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 754–756 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Ilyukhin, G. V. Peregudov, E. N. Ragozin, I.I. Sobel'man, and V. A. Chrikov, "Concerning the problem of lasers for the far ultraviolet λ ˜ 500–700 Å," Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 535–539 (1977).

L. J. Palumbo and R. C. Elton, "Short-wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in carbonlike and heliumlike ions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 480–488 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Dixon and R. C. Elton, "Resonance charge transfer and population inversion following C5+ and C6+ interactions with carbon atoms in a laser-generated plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1072–1075 (1977); R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, and R. C. Elton, "Intensity inversion in the Balmer spectrum of C5+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 122–125 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

V. A. Bhagavatula, "Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Waynant and R. C. Elton, "Review of short wavelength laser research," Proc. IEEE 64, 1059–1092 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (4)

E. Ya. Kononov and K. N. Koshelev, "Inverse population of levels of multiply charged ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 1340–1343 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, "Extension of 3p–3s ion lasers into the vacuum ultraviolet region," Appl. Opt. 14, 97–101 (1975).
[PubMed]

A. V. Vinogradov, I.I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Norton and N. J. Peacock, "Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadened lines," J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

F. E. Irons and N. J. Peacock, "Experimental evidence for population inversion in C5+ in an expanding laser-produced plasma," J. Phys. B 7, 1109–1112 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, "Atomic and ionic emission lines below 2000 Å, hydrogen through krypton," NRL Rep. No. 7599 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1973); R. L. Kelly, "Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 Å, H through Ar," ORNL Rep. ONRL-5922 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1982).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

W. B. Bridges and A. N. Chester, "Ionized gas lasers," in Handbook of Lasers, R. J. Pressley, ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), Chap. 7.

Apruzese, J. P.

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, and K. G. Whitney, "Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum XII and neon IX," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bashkin, S. O.

S. O. Bashkin and J. O. Stoner, Atomic Energy Levels and Grotian Diagrams (North-Holland, New York, 1975, 1978), Vols. I-IV.

Bennett, W. R.

W. R. Bennett, Jr., Atomic Gas Laser Transition Data (IFI/ Plenum, New York, 1979).
[CrossRef]

Bhagavatula, V. A.

V. A. Bhagavatula, "Experimental evidence for soft-x-ray population inversions by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 726–728 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Bhagavatula and B. Yaakobi, "Direct observation of population inversion between Al+11 levels in a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Commun. 24, 331–335 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Bhagavatula, "Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, A. K.

U. Feldman, A. K. Bhatia, and S. Suckewer, "Short wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in neonlike krypton (Kr XXVII)," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 2188–2197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bideau, A.

G. Jamelot, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, A. Bideau, C. Moller, H. Guennou, and A. Sureau, "Evidence of population inversion in Li-like aluminum ions in a laser produced plasma," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), pp. 178–183.

Bridges, W. B.

W. B. Bridges, "Ionized gas lasers," in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1982), Vol. 2, Chap. 2.

W. B. Bridges and A. N. Chester, "Ionized gas lasers," in Handbook of Lasers, R. J. Pressley, ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), Chap. 7.

Burkhalter, P. G.

P. G. Burkhalter, G. Charatis, and P. Rockett, "X-ray spectroscopy to determine line coincidences," NRL Rep. No. 5022 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C, 1983).

Carillon, A.

G. Jamelot, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, A. Bideau, C. Moller, H. Guennou, and A. Sureau, "Evidence of population inversion in Li-like aluminum ions in a laser produced plasma," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), pp. 178–183.

Charatis, G.

P. G. Burkhalter, G. Charatis, and P. Rockett, "X-ray spectroscopy to determine line coincidences," NRL Rep. No. 5022 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C, 1983).

Chekalin, S. V.

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, and S. V. Chekalin, "Search for amplification in the far vacuum ultraviolet due to transitions of multiply charged ions in an extended laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 48–54 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chester, A. N.

W. B. Bridges and A. N. Chester, "Ionized gas lasers," in Handbook of Lasers, R. J. Pressley, ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), Chap. 7.

Chrikov, V. A.

A. A. Ilyukhin, G. V. Peregudov, E. N. Ragozin, I.I. Sobel'man, and V. A. Chrikov, "Concerning the problem of lasers for the far ultraviolet λ ˜ 500–700 Å," Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 535–539 (1977).

Contourie, Y.

Y. Contourie, B. Yaakobi, J. Delettrez, and J. M. Forsyth, "Soft x-ray population inversion observed in a line-focus laser plasma," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 312–318 (1982).

Davis, J.

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, and K. G. Whitney, "Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum XII and neon IX," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Delettrez, J.

Y. Contourie, B. Yaakobi, J. Delettrez, and J. M. Forsyth, "Soft x-ray population inversion observed in a line-focus laser plasma," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 312–318 (1982).

Dietrich, D.

R. Dukart, S. L. Wong, D. Dietrich, R. Fortner, and R. Stewart, "Studies of an imploding plasma x-ray laser," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on High Power Particle Beams, R. J. Briggs and A. J. Toepfer, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 1984).

Dixon, R. H.

R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, and R. C. Elton, "Measured gain for XUV plasma lasers at various pump intensities," Appl. Opt. 22, 1309–1312 (1983); "Population density and VUV gain measurements in laser-produced plasmas"; "Calibration and diagnostic techniques for VUV plasma lasers," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 277–286, 305–311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, and J. F. Seely, "Short wavelength population inversions associated with charge transfer in laser-produced plasmas," in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, and B. Yaakobi, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 135–143.

R. H. Dixon and R. C. Elton, "Resonance charge transfer and population inversion following C5+ and C6+ interactions with carbon atoms in a laser-generated plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1072–1075 (1977); R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, and R. C. Elton, "Intensity inversion in the Balmer spectrum of C5+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 122–125 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton and R. H. Dixon, "Absolute line emissions for x-ray laser photon pumping," J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer (to be published).

R. H. Dixon, J. L. Ford, and R. C. Elton, "Solid neon targets for plasma x-ray lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Dukart, R.

R. Dukart, S. L. Wong, D. Dietrich, R. Fortner, and R. Stewart, "Studies of an imploding plasma x-ray laser," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on High Power Particle Beams, R. J. Briggs and A. J. Toepfer, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 1984).

Elton, R. C.

R. C. Elton, "Parameter regimes for x-ray lasing in plasmas," Comments At. Mol. Phys. 13, 59–67 (1983).

R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, and R. C. Elton, "Measured gain for XUV plasma lasers at various pump intensities," Appl. Opt. 22, 1309–1312 (1983); "Population density and VUV gain measurements in laser-produced plasmas"; "Calibration and diagnostic techniques for VUV plasma lasers," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 277–286, 305–311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, "Progress and trends in x-ray laser research," Opt. Eng. 21, 307–312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, "X-ray lasers," in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla. 1982), Vol. 1, Chap. 4.

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, and J. F. Seely, "Short wavelength population inversions associated with charge transfer in laser-produced plasmas," in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, and B. Yaakobi, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 135–143.

L. J. Palumbo and R. C. Elton, "Short-wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in carbonlike and heliumlike ions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 480–488 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Dixon and R. C. Elton, "Resonance charge transfer and population inversion following C5+ and C6+ interactions with carbon atoms in a laser-generated plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1072–1075 (1977); R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, and R. C. Elton, "Intensity inversion in the Balmer spectrum of C5+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 122–125 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Waynant and R. C. Elton, "Review of short wavelength laser research," Proc. IEEE 64, 1059–1092 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, "Extension of 3p–3s ion lasers into the vacuum ultraviolet region," Appl. Opt. 14, 97–101 (1975).
[PubMed]

R. H. Dixon, J. L. Ford, and R. C. Elton, "Solid neon targets for plasma x-ray lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

R. C. Elton and R. H. Dixon, "Absolute line emissions for x-ray laser photon pumping," J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer (to be published).

Feldman, U.

U. Feldman, A. K. Bhatia, and S. Suckewer, "Short wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in neonlike krypton (Kr XXVII)," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 2188–2197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J. L.

R. H. Dixon, J. L. Ford, and R. C. Elton, "Solid neon targets for plasma x-ray lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Forsyth, J. M.

Y. Contourie, B. Yaakobi, J. Delettrez, and J. M. Forsyth, "Soft x-ray population inversion observed in a line-focus laser plasma," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 312–318 (1982).

Fortner, R.

R. Dukart, S. L. Wong, D. Dietrich, R. Fortner, and R. Stewart, "Studies of an imploding plasma x-ray laser," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on High Power Particle Beams, R. J. Briggs and A. J. Toepfer, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 1984).

Guennou, H.

G. Jamelot, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, A. Bideau, C. Moller, H. Guennou, and A. Sureau, "Evidence of population inversion in Li-like aluminum ions in a laser produced plasma," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), pp. 178–183.

Hagelstein, P. L.

P. L. Hagelstein, "Physics of short wavelength laser design," LLNL Rep. UCRL-53100 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).
[CrossRef]

Hedden, J. D.

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, and J. F. Seely, "Short wavelength population inversions associated with charge transfer in laser-produced plasmas," in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, and B. Yaakobi, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 135–143.

Ilyukhin, A. A.

A. A. Ilyukhin, G. V. Peregudov, E. N. Ragozin, I.I. Sobel'man, and V. A. Chrikov, "Concerning the problem of lasers for the far ultraviolet λ ˜ 500–700 Å," Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 535–539 (1977).

Irons, F. E.

F. E. Irons and N. J. Peacock, "Experimental evidence for population inversion in C5+ in an expanding laser-produced plasma," J. Phys. B 7, 1109–1112 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jacoby, D.

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981); D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observations of gains in the extreme ultraviolet," J. Phys. B 15, 3557–3580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jaegle, P.

G. Jamelot, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, A. Bideau, C. Moller, H. Guennou, and A. Sureau, "Evidence of population inversion in Li-like aluminum ions in a laser produced plasma," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), pp. 178–183.

Jamelot, G.

G. Jamelot, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, A. Bideau, C. Moller, H. Guennou, and A. Sureau, "Evidence of population inversion in Li-like aluminum ions in a laser produced plasma," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), pp. 178–183.

Keane, C.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Voorhees, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, "Population inversion and gain measurements for soft x-ray laser development in a magnetically confined plasma column," Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Rep. No. PPPL-2003 (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1983).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, R. L.

R. L. Kelly, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93940 (personal communication, 1983).

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, "Atomic and ionic emission lines below 2000 Å, hydrogen through krypton," NRL Rep. No. 7599 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1973); R. L. Kelly, "Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 Å, H through Ar," ORNL Rep. ONRL-5922 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1982).
[CrossRef]

Kononov, E. Ya.

E. Ya. Kononov and K. N. Koshelev, "Inverse population of levels of multiply charged ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 1340–1343 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Korukhov, V. V.

V. V. Korukhov, N. G. Nikulin, and B. I. Troshin, "Observation of the population inversion of O VIII levels in a laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1099–1100 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Koshelev, K. N.

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, and S. V. Chekalin, "Search for amplification in the far vacuum ultraviolet due to transitions of multiply charged ions in an extended laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 48–54 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. Ya. Kononov and K. N. Koshelev, "Inverse population of levels of multiply charged ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 1340–1343 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, M.

J. Trebes and M. Krishnan, "Ultraviolet fluorescence of optical pumping with extreme ultraviolet line radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 679–682 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kryukov, P. G.

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, and S. V. Chekalin, "Search for amplification in the far vacuum ultraviolet due to transitions of multiply charged ions in an extended laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 48–54 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. N.

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, and J. F. Seely, "Short wavelength population inversions associated with charge transfer in laser-produced plasmas," in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, and B. Yaakobi, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 135–143.

Letokhov, V. S.

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, and S. V. Chekalin, "Search for amplification in the far vacuum ultraviolet due to transitions of multiply charged ions in an extended laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 48–54 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Voorhees, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, "Population inversion and gain measurements for soft x-ray laser development in a magnetically confined plasma column," Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Rep. No. PPPL-2003 (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1983).
[CrossRef]

Moller, C.

G. Jamelot, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, A. Bideau, C. Moller, H. Guennou, and A. Sureau, "Evidence of population inversion in Li-like aluminum ions in a laser produced plasma," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), pp. 178–183.

Nikulin, N. G.

V. V. Korukhov, N. G. Nikulin, and B. I. Troshin, "Observation of the population inversion of O VIII levels in a laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1099–1100 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Norton, B. A.

B. A. Norton and N. J. Peacock, "Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadened lines," J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Palumbo, L. J.

L. J. Palumbo and R. C. Elton, "Short-wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in carbonlike and heliumlike ions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 480–488 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, "Atomic and ionic emission lines below 2000 Å, hydrogen through krypton," NRL Rep. No. 7599 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1973); R. L. Kelly, "Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 Å, H through Ar," ORNL Rep. ONRL-5922 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1982).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, N. J.

B. A. Norton and N. J. Peacock, "Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadened lines," J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Irons and N. J. Peacock, "Experimental evidence for population inversion in C5+ in an expanding laser-produced plasma," J. Phys. B 7, 1109–1112 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Peregudov, G. V.

A. A. Ilyukhin, G. V. Peregudov, E. N. Ragozin, I.I. Sobel'man, and V. A. Chrikov, "Concerning the problem of lasers for the far ultraviolet λ ˜ 500–700 Å," Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 535–539 (1977).

Pert, G. J.

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981); D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observations of gains in the extreme ultraviolet," J. Phys. B 15, 3557–3580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ragozin, E. N.

A. A. Ilyukhin, G. V. Peregudov, E. N. Ragozin, I.I. Sobel'man, and V. A. Chrikov, "Concerning the problem of lasers for the far ultraviolet λ ˜ 500–700 Å," Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 535–539 (1977).

Ramsden, S. A.

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981); D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observations of gains in the extreme ultraviolet," J. Phys. B 15, 3557–3580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rockett, P.

P. G. Burkhalter, G. Charatis, and P. Rockett, "X-ray spectroscopy to determine line coincidences," NRL Rep. No. 5022 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C, 1983).

Seely, J. F.

J. F. Seely, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (personal communication, 1983).

R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, and R. C. Elton, "Measured gain for XUV plasma lasers at various pump intensities," Appl. Opt. 22, 1309–1312 (1983); "Population density and VUV gain measurements in laser-produced plasmas"; "Calibration and diagnostic techniques for VUV plasma lasers," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 277–286, 305–311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, and J. F. Seely, "Short wavelength population inversions associated with charge transfer in laser-produced plasmas," in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, and B. Yaakobi, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 135–143.

Semet, A.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Voorhees, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, "Population inversion and gain measurements for soft x-ray laser development in a magnetically confined plasma column," Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Rep. No. PPPL-2003 (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1983).
[CrossRef]

Shorrock, L. D.

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981); D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observations of gains in the extreme ultraviolet," J. Phys. B 15, 3557–3580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, C. H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Voorhees, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, "Population inversion and gain measurements for soft x-ray laser development in a magnetically confined plasma column," Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Rep. No. PPPL-2003 (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1983).
[CrossRef]

Sobel'man, I. I.

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Population inversion of transitions in neon-like ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 32–35 (1977); L. A. Vainshtein, A. V. Vinogradov, U. I. Safranova and I. Yu. Skobelev, "Stimulated emission in the far ultraviolet due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 239–242 (1978); A. V. Vinogradov and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Calculations of population inversion due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions in the 200–2000 Å range," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 754–756 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sobel'man, I.I.

A. A. Ilyukhin, G. V. Peregudov, E. N. Ragozin, I.I. Sobel'man, and V. A. Chrikov, "Concerning the problem of lasers for the far ultraviolet λ ˜ 500–700 Å," Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 535–539 (1977).

A. V. Vinogradov, I.I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, R.

R. Dukart, S. L. Wong, D. Dietrich, R. Fortner, and R. Stewart, "Studies of an imploding plasma x-ray laser," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on High Power Particle Beams, R. J. Briggs and A. J. Toepfer, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 1984).

Stoner, J. O.

S. O. Bashkin and J. O. Stoner, Atomic Energy Levels and Grotian Diagrams (North-Holland, New York, 1975, 1978), Vols. I-IV.

Suckewer, S.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Voorhees, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, "Population inversion and gain measurements for soft x-ray laser development in a magnetically confined plasma column," Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Rep. No. PPPL-2003 (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1983).
[CrossRef]

U. Feldman, A. K. Bhatia, and S. Suckewer, "Short wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in neonlike krypton (Kr XXVII)," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 2188–2197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sureau, A.

G. Jamelot, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, A. Bideau, C. Moller, H. Guennou, and A. Sureau, "Evidence of population inversion in Li-like aluminum ions in a laser produced plasma," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), pp. 178–183.

Tallents, G. J.

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981); D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observations of gains in the extreme ultraviolet," J. Phys. B 15, 3557–3580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J.

J. Trebes and M. Krishnan, "Ultraviolet fluorescence of optical pumping with extreme ultraviolet line radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 679–682 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Troshin, B. I.

V. V. Korukhov, N. G. Nikulin, and B. I. Troshin, "Observation of the population inversion of O VIII levels in a laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1099–1100 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Population inversion of transitions in neon-like ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 32–35 (1977); L. A. Vainshtein, A. V. Vinogradov, U. I. Safranova and I. Yu. Skobelev, "Stimulated emission in the far ultraviolet due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 239–242 (1978); A. V. Vinogradov and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Calculations of population inversion due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions in the 200–2000 Å range," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 754–756 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vinogradov, I.I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Voorhees, D.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Voorhees, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, "Population inversion and gain measurements for soft x-ray laser development in a magnetically confined plasma column," Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Rep. No. PPPL-2003 (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1983).
[CrossRef]

Waynant, R. W.

R. W. Waynant and R. C. Elton, "Review of short wavelength laser research," Proc. IEEE 64, 1059–1092 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, K. G.

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, and K. G. Whitney, "Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum XII and neon IX," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. L.

R. Dukart, S. L. Wong, D. Dietrich, R. Fortner, and R. Stewart, "Studies of an imploding plasma x-ray laser," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on High Power Particle Beams, R. J. Briggs and A. J. Toepfer, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 1984).

Yaakobi, B.

Y. Contourie, B. Yaakobi, J. Delettrez, and J. M. Forsyth, "Soft x-ray population inversion observed in a line-focus laser plasma," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 312–318 (1982).

V. A. Bhagavatula and B. Yaakobi, "Direct observation of population inversion between Al+11 levels in a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Commun. 24, 331–335 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yukov, E. A.

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Population inversion of transitions in neon-like ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 32–35 (1977); L. A. Vainshtein, A. V. Vinogradov, U. I. Safranova and I. Yu. Skobelev, "Stimulated emission in the far ultraviolet due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 239–242 (1978); A. V. Vinogradov and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Calculations of population inversion due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions in the 200–2000 Å range," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 754–756 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vinogradov, I.I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Zherikhin, A. N.

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, and S. V. Chekalin, "Search for amplification in the far vacuum ultraviolet due to transitions of multiply charged ions in an extended laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 48–54 (1981).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

Y. Contourie, B. Yaakobi, J. Delettrez, and J. M. Forsyth, "Soft x-ray population inversion observed in a line-focus laser plasma," AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 312–318 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. A. Bhagavatula, "Experimental evidence for soft-x-ray population inversions by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 726–728 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Comments At. Mol. Phys. (1)

R. C. Elton, "Parameter regimes for x-ray lasing in plasmas," Comments At. Mol. Phys. 13, 59–67 (1983).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

V. A. Bhagavatula, "Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, and K. G. Whitney, "Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum XII and neon IX," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 (1982).
[CrossRef]

U. Feldman, A. K. Bhatia, and S. Suckewer, "Short wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in neonlike krypton (Kr XXVII)," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 2188–2197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. B (2)

F. E. Irons and N. J. Peacock, "Experimental evidence for population inversion in C5+ in an expanding laser-produced plasma," J. Phys. B 7, 1109–1112 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Norton and N. J. Peacock, "Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadened lines," J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

V. A. Bhagavatula and B. Yaakobi, "Direct observation of population inversion between Al+11 levels in a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Commun. 24, 331–335 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981); D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observations of gains in the extreme ultraviolet," J. Phys. B 15, 3557–3580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. C. Elton, "Progress and trends in x-ray laser research," Opt. Eng. 21, 307–312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Trebes and M. Krishnan, "Ultraviolet fluorescence of optical pumping with extreme ultraviolet line radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 679–682 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Dixon and R. C. Elton, "Resonance charge transfer and population inversion following C5+ and C6+ interactions with carbon atoms in a laser-generated plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1072–1075 (1977); R. H. Dixon, J. F. Seely, and R. C. Elton, "Intensity inversion in the Balmer spectrum of C5+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 122–125 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. W. Waynant and R. C. Elton, "Review of short wavelength laser research," Proc. IEEE 64, 1059–1092 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (5)

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, and S. V. Chekalin, "Search for amplification in the far vacuum ultraviolet due to transitions of multiply charged ions in an extended laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 48–54 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vinogradov, I.I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Korukhov, N. G. Nikulin, and B. I. Troshin, "Observation of the population inversion of O VIII levels in a laser plasma," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1099–1100 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobel'man, and E. A. Yukov, "Population inversion of transitions in neon-like ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 32–35 (1977); L. A. Vainshtein, A. V. Vinogradov, U. I. Safranova and I. Yu. Skobelev, "Stimulated emission in the far ultraviolet due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 239–242 (1978); A. V. Vinogradov and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Calculations of population inversion due to transitions in multiply charged neonlike ions in the 200–2000 Å range," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 754–756 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. Ya. Kononov and K. N. Koshelev, "Inverse population of levels of multiply charged ions," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 1340–1343 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. A. Ilyukhin, G. V. Peregudov, E. N. Ragozin, I.I. Sobel'man, and V. A. Chrikov, "Concerning the problem of lasers for the far ultraviolet λ ˜ 500–700 Å," Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 535–539 (1977).

Other (18)

R. Dukart, S. L. Wong, D. Dietrich, R. Fortner, and R. Stewart, "Studies of an imploding plasma x-ray laser," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on High Power Particle Beams, R. J. Briggs and A. J. Toepfer, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 1984).

G. Jamelot, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, A. Bideau, C. Moller, H. Guennou, and A. Sureau, "Evidence of population inversion in Li-like aluminum ions in a laser produced plasma," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), pp. 178–183.

The upper 3p level may also be filled by recombination and cascade (discussed in Section 4) or by collisional ionization of the next lower species.

W. B. Bridges and A. N. Chester, "Ionized gas lasers," in Handbook of Lasers, R. J. Pressley, ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), Chap. 7.

W. R. Bennett, Jr., Atomic Gas Laser Transition Data (IFI/ Plenum, New York, 1979).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Bridges, "Ionized gas lasers," in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1982), Vol. 2, Chap. 2.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Voorhees, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, and A. Semet, "Population inversion and gain measurements for soft x-ray laser development in a magnetically confined plasma column," Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Rep. No. PPPL-2003 (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1983).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, R. H. Dixon, J. D. Hedden, and J. F. Seely, "Short wavelength population inversions associated with charge transfer in laser-produced plasmas," in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, H. J. Schwarz, H. Hora, M. Lubin, and B. Yaakobi, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 135–143.

R. C. Elton, "X-ray lasers," in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla. 1982), Vol. 1, Chap. 4.

R. C. Elton, ed., "ARPA/NRL X-ray laser program," NRL Rep. No. 3482 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1977), pp. 92–114.

P. L. Hagelstein, "Physics of short wavelength laser design," LLNL Rep. UCRL-53100 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, "Atomic and ionic emission lines below 2000 Å, hydrogen through krypton," NRL Rep. No. 7599 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1973); R. L. Kelly, "Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 Å, H through Ar," ORNL Rep. ONRL-5922 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1982).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Bashkin and J. O. Stoner, Atomic Energy Levels and Grotian Diagrams (North-Holland, New York, 1975, 1978), Vols. I-IV.

R. L. Kelly, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93940 (personal communication, 1983).

J. F. Seely, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (personal communication, 1983).

P. G. Burkhalter, G. Charatis, and P. Rockett, "X-ray spectroscopy to determine line coincidences," NRL Rep. No. 5022 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C, 1983).

R. H. Dixon, J. L. Ford, and R. C. Elton, "Solid neon targets for plasma x-ray lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

R. C. Elton and R. H. Dixon, "Absolute line emissions for x-ray laser photon pumping," J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer (to be published).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Grazing-incidence spectrum of neon initially in solid form irradiated with a laser beam. In addition to the strong Ne vii and Ne viii series shown connected, the filled circle refers to a possible Ne ix 3d3D → 2p3P line, while open symbols (except diamonds) refer to lines of specific Ne vii series. Open diamonds and +’s refer to various weaker Ne vii and Ne vi lines, respectively.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Line Matches for (Mostly) He-like Pump Ions

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Table 2 Line Matches for (Mostly) Li-like Pump Ions

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Table 3 Line Matches for H-like Ions

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Table 4 Measured Line Matches for Fluorine Lasant Ions

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Table 5 Electron-Capture Pumping Results

Equations (5)

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G = N u σ ind - N l σ abs = π r 0 c f Δ ν × g l g u × N u × I .
I = ( 1 - N l N u × g u g l ) .
N u = N 0 P ( λ ) D u ,
P ν = 1 2 × g u g 0 × A u 0 × ρ ,
ρ = [ exp ( h ν p k T B ) - 1 ] - 1 photon / mode

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