Abstract

Atomic inner-shell processes have quite different characteristics, in several important aspects, from processes in the optical regime. Energies are large, e.g., the 1s binding energy reaches 100 keV at Z = 87; relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic effects therefore are strong. Radiationless transitions vastly dominate over photon emission in most cases. Isolated inner-shell vacancies have pronounced single-particle character, with correlations generally contributing only ~1 eV to the 1s and 2p binding energies; the structure of such systems is thus well tractable by independent-particle self-consistent-field atomic models. For systems containing multiple deep inner-shell vacancies, or for highly stripped ions, the importance of relativistic intermediate coupling and configuration interaction becomes pronounced. Cancellation of the Coulomb interaction can lead to strong manifestations of the Breit interaction in such phenomena as multiplet splitting and hypersatellite x-ray shifts. Unique opportunities arise for the test of theory.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, K. N. Huang, and H. Mark, "Theoretical atomic inner-shell energy levels, 70 ≤ Z ≤ 106," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 26, 561–574 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Bambynek, B. Crasemann, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. Venugopala Rao, "X-ray fluorescence yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 716–813 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. J. McGuire, "Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions," in Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, B. Crasemann, ed. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol. I, pp. 293–330.
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Radiationless transitions to atomic M1,2,3, shells—results of relativistic theory," Phys. Rev. A 27, 2989–2994 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. H. Chen and B. Crasemann, "Gauge dependence of atomic inner-shell transition rates from Dirac-Fock wave functions," Phys. Rev. A 28, 2829–2837 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. H. Chen, E. Laiman, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, and H. Mark, "Relativistic L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig rates and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 19, 2253–2259 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic K-shell Auger rates, level widths, and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 21, 436–441 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic M-shell radiationless transitions," Phys. Rev. A 21, 449–453 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. H. Chen, "Relativistic effects in atomic inner-shell transitions," in X-Ray and Atomic Inner-Shell Physics—1982, B. Crasemann, ed., AIP Conf. Proc. 94, 331–345 (1982).
  10. L. Armstrong, Jr., "Relativistic effects in highly ionized atoms," in Structure and Collisions of Ions and Atoms, I. A. Sellin, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 69–103.
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Breit, "Dirac's equation and the spin-spin interactions of two electrons," Phys. Rev. 39, 616–624 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. B. Mann and W. R. Johnson, "Breit interaction in multielectron atoms," Phys. Rev. A 4, 41–51 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effect of the Breit interaction on K x-ray hypersatellite spectra," Phys. Rev. A 25, 391–399 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, K. R. Karim, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray deexcitation rates of highly stripped atoms," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1845–1851 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray emission rates of the 1s2s2p configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1852–1861 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effects of relativity on multiplet splitting and decay rates of the 1s2p2 configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 26, 1441–1451 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Deexcitation of light Li-like ions in the 1s2s2p state," Phys. Rev. A 27, 544–547 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. T. Cheng, C.-P. Lin, and W. R. Johnson, "Decay of 4P°5/2 au-toionizing states of ions in the Li isoelectronic sequence," Phys. Lett. A 48, 437–438 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. N. Huang, "Relativistic radiationless transitions in atoms," J. Phys. B 11, 787–795 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, and S. E. Harris, "Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(ls2s2p) 4P° deexcitation measurements in a plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767–770 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. E. Harris, "Laser spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

1983 (4)

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Radiationless transitions to atomic M1,2,3, shells—results of relativistic theory," Phys. Rev. A 27, 2989–2994 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen and B. Crasemann, "Gauge dependence of atomic inner-shell transition rates from Dirac-Fock wave functions," Phys. Rev. A 28, 2829–2837 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Deexcitation of light Li-like ions in the 1s2s2p state," Phys. Rev. A 27, 544–547 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, and S. E. Harris, "Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(ls2s2p) 4P° deexcitation measurements in a plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767–770 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effects of relativity on multiplet splitting and decay rates of the 1s2p2 configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 26, 1441–1451 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effect of the Breit interaction on K x-ray hypersatellite spectra," Phys. Rev. A 25, 391–399 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, "Relativistic effects in atomic inner-shell transitions," in X-Ray and Atomic Inner-Shell Physics—1982, B. Crasemann, ed., AIP Conf. Proc. 94, 331–345 (1982).

1981 (3)

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, K. N. Huang, and H. Mark, "Theoretical atomic inner-shell energy levels, 70 ≤ Z ≤ 106," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 26, 561–574 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, K. R. Karim, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray deexcitation rates of highly stripped atoms," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1845–1851 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray emission rates of the 1s2s2p configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1852–1861 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic K-shell Auger rates, level widths, and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 21, 436–441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic M-shell radiationless transitions," Phys. Rev. A 21, 449–453 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

M. H. Chen, E. Laiman, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, and H. Mark, "Relativistic L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig rates and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 19, 2253–2259 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

L. Armstrong, Jr., "Relativistic effects in highly ionized atoms," in Structure and Collisions of Ions and Atoms, I. A. Sellin, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 69–103.
[CrossRef]

K. N. Huang, "Relativistic radiationless transitions in atoms," J. Phys. B 11, 787–795 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

E. J. McGuire, "Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions," in Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, B. Crasemann, ed. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol. I, pp. 293–330.
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

K. T. Cheng, C.-P. Lin, and W. R. Johnson, "Decay of 4P°5/2 au-toionizing states of ions in the Li isoelectronic sequence," Phys. Lett. A 48, 437–438 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Bambynek, B. Crasemann, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. Venugopala Rao, "X-ray fluorescence yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 716–813 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. B. Mann and W. R. Johnson, "Breit interaction in multielectron atoms," Phys. Rev. A 4, 41–51 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1932 (1)

G. Breit, "Dirac's equation and the spin-spin interactions of two electrons," Phys. Rev. 39, 616–624 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, M.

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, K. N. Huang, and H. Mark, "Theoretical atomic inner-shell energy levels, 70 ≤ Z ≤ 106," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 26, 561–574 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, E. Laiman, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, and H. Mark, "Relativistic L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig rates and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 19, 2253–2259 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong,, L.

L. Armstrong, Jr., "Relativistic effects in highly ionized atoms," in Structure and Collisions of Ions and Atoms, I. A. Sellin, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 69–103.
[CrossRef]

Bambynek, W.

W. Bambynek, B. Crasemann, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. Venugopala Rao, "X-ray fluorescence yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 716–813 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Breit, G.

G. Breit, "Dirac's equation and the spin-spin interactions of two electrons," Phys. Rev. 39, 616–624 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Caro, R. G.

J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, and S. E. Harris, "Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(ls2s2p) 4P° deexcitation measurements in a plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767–770 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. H.

M. H. Chen and B. Crasemann, "Gauge dependence of atomic inner-shell transition rates from Dirac-Fock wave functions," Phys. Rev. A 28, 2829–2837 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Radiationless transitions to atomic M1,2,3, shells—results of relativistic theory," Phys. Rev. A 27, 2989–2994 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Deexcitation of light Li-like ions in the 1s2s2p state," Phys. Rev. A 27, 544–547 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effect of the Breit interaction on K x-ray hypersatellite spectra," Phys. Rev. A 25, 391–399 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effects of relativity on multiplet splitting and decay rates of the 1s2p2 configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 26, 1441–1451 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, "Relativistic effects in atomic inner-shell transitions," in X-Ray and Atomic Inner-Shell Physics—1982, B. Crasemann, ed., AIP Conf. Proc. 94, 331–345 (1982).

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray emission rates of the 1s2s2p configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1852–1861 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, K. N. Huang, and H. Mark, "Theoretical atomic inner-shell energy levels, 70 ≤ Z ≤ 106," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 26, 561–574 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, K. R. Karim, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray deexcitation rates of highly stripped atoms," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1845–1851 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic M-shell radiationless transitions," Phys. Rev. A 21, 449–453 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic K-shell Auger rates, level widths, and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 21, 436–441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, E. Laiman, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, and H. Mark, "Relativistic L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig rates and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 19, 2253–2259 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. T.

K. T. Cheng, C.-P. Lin, and W. R. Johnson, "Decay of 4P°5/2 au-toionizing states of ions in the Li isoelectronic sequence," Phys. Lett. A 48, 437–438 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Crasemann, B.

M. H. Chen and B. Crasemann, "Gauge dependence of atomic inner-shell transition rates from Dirac-Fock wave functions," Phys. Rev. A 28, 2829–2837 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Radiationless transitions to atomic M1,2,3, shells—results of relativistic theory," Phys. Rev. A 27, 2989–2994 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Deexcitation of light Li-like ions in the 1s2s2p state," Phys. Rev. A 27, 544–547 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effect of the Breit interaction on K x-ray hypersatellite spectra," Phys. Rev. A 25, 391–399 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effects of relativity on multiplet splitting and decay rates of the 1s2p2 configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 26, 1441–1451 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, K. N. Huang, and H. Mark, "Theoretical atomic inner-shell energy levels, 70 ≤ Z ≤ 106," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 26, 561–574 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray emission rates of the 1s2s2p configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1852–1861 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, K. R. Karim, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray deexcitation rates of highly stripped atoms," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1845–1851 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic M-shell radiationless transitions," Phys. Rev. A 21, 449–453 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic K-shell Auger rates, level widths, and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 21, 436–441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, E. Laiman, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, and H. Mark, "Relativistic L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig rates and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 19, 2253–2259 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. Bambynek, B. Crasemann, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. Venugopala Rao, "X-ray fluorescence yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 716–813 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fink, R. W.

W. Bambynek, B. Crasemann, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. Venugopala Rao, "X-ray fluorescence yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 716–813 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Freund, H. U.

W. Bambynek, B. Crasemann, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. Venugopala Rao, "X-ray fluorescence yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 716–813 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, and S. E. Harris, "Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(ls2s2p) 4P° deexcitation measurements in a plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767–770 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, "Laser spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Huang, K. N.

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, K. N. Huang, and H. Mark, "Theoretical atomic inner-shell energy levels, 70 ≤ Z ≤ 106," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 26, 561–574 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Huang, "Relativistic radiationless transitions in atoms," J. Phys. B 11, 787–795 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. R.

K. T. Cheng, C.-P. Lin, and W. R. Johnson, "Decay of 4P°5/2 au-toionizing states of ions in the Li isoelectronic sequence," Phys. Lett. A 48, 437–438 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Mann and W. R. Johnson, "Breit interaction in multielectron atoms," Phys. Rev. A 4, 41–51 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Karim, K. R.

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, K. R. Karim, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray deexcitation rates of highly stripped atoms," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1845–1851 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Laiman, E.

M. H. Chen, E. Laiman, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, and H. Mark, "Relativistic L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig rates and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 19, 2253–2259 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-P.

K. T. Cheng, C.-P. Lin, and W. R. Johnson, "Decay of 4P°5/2 au-toionizing states of ions in the Li isoelectronic sequence," Phys. Lett. A 48, 437–438 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mann, J. B.

J. B. Mann and W. R. Johnson, "Breit interaction in multielectron atoms," Phys. Rev. A 4, 41–51 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Mark, H.

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Radiationless transitions to atomic M1,2,3, shells—results of relativistic theory," Phys. Rev. A 27, 2989–2994 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Deexcitation of light Li-like ions in the 1s2s2p state," Phys. Rev. A 27, 544–547 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effect of the Breit interaction on K x-ray hypersatellite spectra," Phys. Rev. A 25, 391–399 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effects of relativity on multiplet splitting and decay rates of the 1s2p2 configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 26, 1441–1451 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray emission rates of the 1s2s2p configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1852–1861 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, K. N. Huang, and H. Mark, "Theoretical atomic inner-shell energy levels, 70 ≤ Z ≤ 106," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 26, 561–574 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, K. R. Karim, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray deexcitation rates of highly stripped atoms," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1845–1851 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic M-shell radiationless transitions," Phys. Rev. A 21, 449–453 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic K-shell Auger rates, level widths, and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 21, 436–441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, E. Laiman, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, and H. Mark, "Relativistic L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig rates and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 19, 2253–2259 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. Bambynek, B. Crasemann, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. Venugopala Rao, "X-ray fluorescence yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 716–813 (1972).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, E. J.

E. J. McGuire, "Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions," in Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, B. Crasemann, ed. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol. I, pp. 293–330.
[CrossRef]

Price, R. E.

W. Bambynek, B. Crasemann, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. Venugopala Rao, "X-ray fluorescence yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 716–813 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rao, P. Venugopala

W. Bambynek, B. Crasemann, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. Venugopala Rao, "X-ray fluorescence yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 716–813 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Swift, C. D.

W. Bambynek, B. Crasemann, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. Venugopala Rao, "X-ray fluorescence yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 716–813 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. C.

J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, and S. E. Harris, "Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(ls2s2p) 4P° deexcitation measurements in a plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767–770 (1983).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, K. N. Huang, and H. Mark, "Theoretical atomic inner-shell energy levels, 70 ≤ Z ≤ 106," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 26, 561–574 (1981).
[CrossRef]

in X-Ray and Atomic Inner-Shell Physics—1982, B. Crasemann, ed., AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

M. H. Chen, "Relativistic effects in atomic inner-shell transitions," in X-Ray and Atomic Inner-Shell Physics—1982, B. Crasemann, ed., AIP Conf. Proc. 94, 331–345 (1982).

J. Phys. B (1)

K. N. Huang, "Relativistic radiationless transitions in atoms," J. Phys. B 11, 787–795 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

K. T. Cheng, C.-P. Lin, and W. R. Johnson, "Decay of 4P°5/2 au-toionizing states of ions in the Li isoelectronic sequence," Phys. Lett. A 48, 437–438 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

G. Breit, "Dirac's equation and the spin-spin interactions of two electrons," Phys. Rev. 39, 616–624 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (11)

J. B. Mann and W. R. Johnson, "Breit interaction in multielectron atoms," Phys. Rev. A 4, 41–51 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effect of the Breit interaction on K x-ray hypersatellite spectra," Phys. Rev. A 25, 391–399 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, K. R. Karim, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray deexcitation rates of highly stripped atoms," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1845–1851 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic Auger and x-ray emission rates of the 1s2s2p configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1852–1861 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Effects of relativity on multiplet splitting and decay rates of the 1s2p2 configuration of Li-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 26, 1441–1451 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Deexcitation of light Li-like ions in the 1s2s2p state," Phys. Rev. A 27, 544–547 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Radiationless transitions to atomic M1,2,3, shells—results of relativistic theory," Phys. Rev. A 27, 2989–2994 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen and B. Crasemann, "Gauge dependence of atomic inner-shell transition rates from Dirac-Fock wave functions," Phys. Rev. A 28, 2829–2837 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, E. Laiman, B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, and H. Mark, "Relativistic L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig rates and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 19, 2253–2259 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic K-shell Auger rates, level widths, and fluorescence yields," Phys. Rev. A 21, 436–441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, "Relativistic M-shell radiationless transitions," Phys. Rev. A 21, 449–453 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, and S. E. Harris, "Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(ls2s2p) 4P° deexcitation measurements in a plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767–770 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

W. Bambynek, B. Crasemann, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. Venugopala Rao, "X-ray fluorescence yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 716–813 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. J. McGuire, "Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions," in Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, B. Crasemann, ed. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol. I, pp. 293–330.
[CrossRef]

L. Armstrong, Jr., "Relativistic effects in highly ionized atoms," in Structure and Collisions of Ions and Atoms, I. A. Sellin, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 69–103.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, "Laser spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Shifts produced in the K binding energies of heavy atoms by the Breit interaction, self energy, and vacuum polarization. From Ref. 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean lives of atomic K, L, and M vacancies, as functions of atomic number Z. The inset scale shows corresponding level widths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nonrelativistic Hartree–Slater and relativistic Dirac–Hartree–Slater 4s and 4f wave functions of mercury.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

KL1L1 and KL3L3 Auger transition probabilities (in milliatomic units), as functions of atomic number Z (1 ma.u. = 4.134 × 1013 sec−1). Results from a nonrelativistic Hartree–Slater calculation are compared with results from a relativistic Dirac–Hartree–Slater calculation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

KL1L3 and KL2L3 Auger transition probabilities (in milliatomic units), as functions of atomic number Z. Nonrelativistic Hartree–Slater results are compared with relativistic Dirac–Hartree–Slater rates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical KL1L1 and KL3L3 Auger rates, in milliatomic units, as functions of atomic number. Nonrelativistic Hartree–Slater results (- - -) are compared with results calculated with relativistic wave functions (—), with relativistic wave functions and including the magnetic interaction (– · – · –), and with the full Breit operator including magnetic interaction and retardation (– · · – · · – · ·). Some typical nonrelativistic Hartree–Slater results based on nonrelativistic transition energies are indicated by open squares; relativistic transition energies lead to the results indicated by filled squares.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Theoretical L3M2M5, L3M2M3, and L3M3M5 Auger rates, in milliatomic units, as functions of atomic number Z. The notation is as described in the caption of Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Theoretical K-level Auger width (in electron volts), as a function of atomic number Z. The notation is as described in the caption of Fig. 6.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Atomic K-shell fluorescence yield, as a function of atomic number Z. Theoretical results from the authors’ relativistic Dirac–Hartree–Slater calculations (PRESENT DHS) are compared with nonrelativistic Hartree–Slater calculations [HS(WB)] and with experimental data selected as “most reliable” by Bambynek et al.2 From Ref. 7.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Magnetic interaction energy and retardation energy, as fractions of the total 1s binding energy for atomic number Z. The binding energy is reduced in magnitude by the former, and increased by the latter, correction.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fine-structure splitting between the J = 0 and J = 1 multiplet states of the [1s2p1/2] two-hole configuration, as a function of atomic number Z. Inclusion of the Breit interaction in addition to the Coulomb interaction (solid curves) causes the splitting to increase greatly at high Z and inverts the order of the J = 0 and J = 1 levels. From Ref. 13.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Splitting between the J = 1 and J = 2 multiplet states of the [2p3/22p1/2] two-hole configuration, as a function of atomic number Z. A calculation with the Coulomb interaction alone (dashed curves) shows splitting that increases with Z. When the Breit interaction is included in the calculation (solid curves), splitting is predicted to decrease with increasing atomic numbers, and the level order is inverted above Z = 93. From Ref. 13.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

K x-ray hypersatellites arise from radiative transitions to a [1s2] double-hole state.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Contribution (in percent) of the Breit energy to the energy shifts of 1 and 1 hypersatellites with reference to the respective diagram lines. From Ref. 13.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Calculated shift of the 1 x-ray hypersatellite with respect to the diagram line, as a function of atomic number Z, compared with available experimental data. From Ref. 13.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Calculated shift of the 1,3 x-ray hypersatellites with respect to the diagram lines, as a function of atomic number Z, compared with the available experimental results. From Ref. 13.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Calculated mean life (in nanoseconds) of the 1s2s2p4P5/2 state of Li-like ions, as a function of atomic number Z. Predictions by the present authors are compared with calculations by Cheng, Lin, and Johnson (CLJ).18 From Ref. 15.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Fine-structure splitting (in electron volts) between 4P3/2 and 4P1/2 levels of Li-like ions with the 1s2s2p configuration, as a function of atomic number Z. When the Breit interaction is included in the energy matrix that determines the intermediate-coupling coefficients (Coulomb + Breit), the splitting is reduced and the level order is actually reversed above Z = 75.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Relativistic multiplet Auger decay rates of the 1 s 2 s 2 p P 2 3 / 2 ( - ) state of Li-like ions, calculated in intermediate coupling as a function of atomic number. The curve labeled DHS (C + B) was computed including both Breit and Coulomb interactions in the energy matrices that determine the intermediate-coupling coefficients; the curve labeled DHS (C) was computed including only the Coulomb interaction in these matrices. For comparison, two sets of nonrelativistic intermediate-coupling results are shown: those of Vainshtein and Safronova, based on Coulomb wave functions [labeled NRC (VS)], and those of Bhalla et al., based on Hartree–Slater wave functions [labeled HS (BGP)]. All rates are given in atomic units (1 a.u. = 4.134 × 1016 sec−1).

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Relativistic multiplet Auger decay rates of the 1s2s2p4P3/2 state of Li-like ions, calculated in intermediate coupling: The results labeled DSH Møller were obtained with the full Møller operator and included both Coulomb and Breit interactions in the energy matrices that determine the intermediate-coupling coefficients; the curve labeled DHS Retarded Coulomb was computed with the full Møller operator but included only the Coulomb interaction in the energy matrices for the intermediate-coupling calculations. For comparison, nonrelativistic results derived with Coulomb wave functions [NRC (VS)] and with Hartree–Slater wave functions [HS (BGP)] are shown. Rates are given in atomic units as functions of atomic number Z. From Ref. 15.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Auger decay rate of the 1s2p2 2S state of Li-like ions, as a function of atomic number Z. Results from a Dirac–Hartree–Slater calculation in intermediate coupling [DHS (IC)] are compared with relativistic [DHS (ICCI)] and nonrelativistic [HS (ICCI)] calculations that include configuration interaction. From Ref. 16.

Equations (3)

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H Rel = i = 1 N ( c α i · p i + β i m c 2 - Z e 2 r i ) i < j e 2 r i j + H Breit .
H Breit = - e 2 2 r j [ α i · α j + ( α i · r i j ) ( α j · r i j ) r i j 2 ] = α i · α j r i j magnetic + 1 2 [ α i · α j r i j - ( α i · r i j ) ( α i · r i j ) r i j 3 ] retardation .
H Breit ( ω ) = - 1 r i j [ α i · α i cos ω r i j retarded Gaunt + ( 1 - cos ω r i j ) ] retardation correction to the charge - charge interaction .

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