Abstract

The use of highly monochromatic light permits the selective excitation of atoms in vapors if excitation and detection of the fluorescence is carried out collinearly. The atoms capable of absorbing light then form an atomic beam of well-defined velocity along the direction of the laser beam, but no velocity selection occurs perpendicular to it. The potential of the technique for Doppler-free atomic spectroscopy and for the study of excited atom collisions is demonstrated by using the Na D1 line as an example.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Demtröder, in Laser Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 461.
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).
  3. R. H. Cordover, P. A. Bonczyk, and A. Javan, Phys. Rev. Letters 18, 730 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Walther, in Topics in Applied Physics, Laser Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1974), p. 99.
  5. L. Krause, in The Exeited State in Chemical Physics, J. W. McGowan, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  6. M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).

1981 (1)

W. Demtröder, in Laser Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 461.
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).

M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).

1975 (1)

L. Krause, in The Exeited State in Chemical Physics, J. W. McGowan, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).

1974 (1)

H. Walther, in Topics in Applied Physics, Laser Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1974), p. 99.

1967 (1)

R. H. Cordover, P. A. Bonczyk, and A. Javan, Phys. Rev. Letters 18, 730 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bonczyk, P. A.

R. H. Cordover, P. A. Bonczyk, and A. Javan, Phys. Rev. Letters 18, 730 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Cordover, R. H.

R. H. Cordover, P. A. Bonczyk, and A. Javan, Phys. Rev. Letters 18, 730 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, in Laser Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 461.
[CrossRef]

Elbel, M.

M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).

M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).

Hühnermann, H.

M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).

M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).

Javan, A.

R. H. Cordover, P. A. Bonczyk, and A. Javan, Phys. Rev. Letters 18, 730 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Krause, L.

L. Krause, in The Exeited State in Chemical Physics, J. W. McGowan, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Meier, T.

M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).

M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).

Walther, H.

H. Walther, in Topics in Applied Physics, Laser Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1974), p. 99.

Phys. Rev. Letters (1)

R. H. Cordover, P. A. Bonczyk, and A. Javan, Phys. Rev. Letters 18, 730 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

H. Walther, in Topics in Applied Physics, Laser Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1974), p. 99.

L. Krause, in The Exeited State in Chemical Physics, J. W. McGowan, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).

M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).

W. Demtröder, in Laser Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 461.
[CrossRef]

M. Elbel, H. Hühnermann, and T. Meier, presented at the Eighth Conference of the European Group of Atomic Spectroscopy, (Oxford, England, 1976).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for the observation of fluorescence line narrowing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy-level configurations and separation of the fluorescence line components for a three-level atom. For a fixed laser frequency, two velocity groups (solid lines v = 0, dashed lines v ≠ 0) of atoms are simultaneously in resonance if the Doppler condition is satisfied.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy-level configuration and separation of the fluorescence line components for a four-level atom. The laser frequency is fixed and detuned by δ from the atomic resonance line. Four different velocity groups (labeled 1, 2, 3, and 4) of atoms or atomic beams of well-defined velocity are simultaneously at resonance because of their different Doppler effects.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence line-narrowing spectra of the Na D1 line observed collinearly with the laser beam in the backward direction. A particular trace is obtained by sweeping the interferometer νobs at a fixed laser frequency νlaser. For high resolution the free spectral range of the interferometer is chosen to be smaller than the width of the spectrum, leading to overlapping orders. Components belonging to the same order are shown as solid peaks. Hashed peaks are due to the retrodiffused laser light. All lines are resolved and appear in the eighth trace from the bottom.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensities of fluorescence line components of the Na D1 line versus temperature or ground-state atom density. Atoms of two different velocity groups can contribute to a particular signal (see Fig. 3). The results are given as ○ for the A component, ● for the B component, ■ for the C component, and □ for the D component.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Classification of Optical Pumping Effects

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