Abstract

We describe optically pumping a beam of sodium atoms to >96% mS and >92% mS, mI state selection. (We have accurately measured the population of every mS, mI state in the optically pumped beam.) For the optical pumping both ground hyperfine states are pumped, using single-mode cw dye-laser radiation tuned to the 3S1/2–3P1/2 transition that is phase modulated in a LiTaO3 crystal to produce first-order sidebands at approximately the 1772-MHz hyperfine splitting of the ground state. The z-directed optical pumping is performed in a z-directed magnetic field of ~5 G. The state-selected atoms then move, in ~1 cm, into an ~200 G, z-directed field. The downstream probe laser beam is scanned through the 3S1/2 (mS, mI) → 3P3/2 (mS′, mI) transitions, which are spectroscopically resolved at 200 G, and the fluorescence intensities portray the residual populations in each of the eight 3S1/2 states.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. V. Hertel and W. Stoll, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. R. Bates and B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 13.
  2. R. F. Haglund, D. Fick, B. Horn, and E. Koch, Hyperfine Interact. 30, 73 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  3. I. N. Izosimov and Yu. V. Naumov, Fiz. Elem. Chastits At. Yadra 18, 249 (1987) [Sov. J. Part. Nucl. 18, 103 (1987)].
  4. P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, and J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. J. McClelland, M. H. Kelley, and R. J. Celotta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1362 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. J. McClelland and M. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. T. Cusma and L. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A. 28, 1195 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Hils, W. Jitschin, and H. Kleinpoppen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 39 (1981).
  9. W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, and D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Bechtel and D. Fick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 257, 77 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. J. Liu, N. B. Mansour, and R. W. Dunford, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1372 (1989).
  12. W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. F. Kelly and A. Gallagher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 563 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  14. X. L. Han, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1989).
  15. E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
    [Crossref]

1989 (1)

C. J. Liu, N. B. Mansour, and R. W. Dunford, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1372 (1989).

1988 (1)

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, and J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

I. N. Izosimov and Yu. V. Naumov, Fiz. Elem. Chastits At. Yadra 18, 249 (1987) [Sov. J. Part. Nucl. 18, 103 (1987)].

J. F. Kelly and A. Gallagher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 563 (1987).
[Crossref]

H. Bechtel and D. Fick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 257, 77 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

R. F. Haglund, D. Fick, B. Horn, and E. Koch, Hyperfine Interact. 30, 73 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. J. McClelland, M. H. Kelley, and R. J. Celotta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1362 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. J. McClelland and M. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

J. T. Cusma and L. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A. 28, 1195 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (2)

D. Hils, W. Jitschin, and H. Kleinpoppen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 39 (1981).

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, and D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[Crossref]

Anderson, L. W.

J. T. Cusma and L. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A. 28, 1195 (1983).
[Crossref]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[Crossref]

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, H.

H. Bechtel and D. Fick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 257, 77 (1987).
[Crossref]

Broermann, W.

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, and D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[Crossref]

Celotta, R. J.

J. J. McClelland, M. H. Kelley, and R. J. Celotta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1362 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cusma, J. T.

J. T. Cusma and L. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A. 28, 1195 (1983).
[Crossref]

Dreves, W.

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, and D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[Crossref]

Dunford, R. W.

C. J. Liu, N. B. Mansour, and R. W. Dunford, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1372 (1989).

Fick, D.

H. Bechtel and D. Fick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 257, 77 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. F. Haglund, D. Fick, B. Horn, and E. Koch, Hyperfine Interact. 30, 73 (1986).
[Crossref]

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, and D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[Crossref]

Gallagher, A.

J. F. Kelly and A. Gallagher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 563 (1987).
[Crossref]

Gould, P. L.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, and J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haglund, R. F.

R. F. Haglund, D. Fick, B. Horn, and E. Koch, Hyperfine Interact. 30, 73 (1986).
[Crossref]

Han, X. L.

X. L. Han, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1989).

Happer, W.

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[Crossref]

Hertel, I. V.

I. V. Hertel and W. Stoll, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. R. Bates and B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 13.

Hils, D.

D. Hils, W. Jitschin, and H. Kleinpoppen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 39 (1981).

Horn, B.

R. F. Haglund, D. Fick, B. Horn, and E. Koch, Hyperfine Interact. 30, 73 (1986).
[Crossref]

Inguscio, M.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[Crossref]

Izosimov, I. N.

I. N. Izosimov and Yu. V. Naumov, Fiz. Elem. Chastits At. Yadra 18, 249 (1987) [Sov. J. Part. Nucl. 18, 103 (1987)].

Jitschin, W.

D. Hils, W. Jitschin, and H. Kleinpoppen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 39 (1981).

Julienne, P. S.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, and J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamke, W.

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, and D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kelley, M. H.

J. J. McClelland, M. H. Kelley, and R. J. Celotta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1362 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. McClelland and M. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, J. F.

J. F. Kelly and A. Gallagher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 563 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kleinpoppen, H.

D. Hils, W. Jitschin, and H. Kleinpoppen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 39 (1981).

Koch, E.

R. F. Haglund, D. Fick, B. Horn, and E. Koch, Hyperfine Interact. 30, 73 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lett, P. D.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, and J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C. J.

C. J. Liu, N. B. Mansour, and R. W. Dunford, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1372 (1989).

Mansour, N. B.

C. J. Liu, N. B. Mansour, and R. W. Dunford, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1372 (1989).

McClelland, J. J.

J. J. McClelland, M. H. Kelley, and R. J. Celotta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1362 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. McClelland and M. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naumov, Yu. V.

I. N. Izosimov and Yu. V. Naumov, Fiz. Elem. Chastits At. Yadra 18, 249 (1987) [Sov. J. Part. Nucl. 18, 103 (1987)].

Orriols, G.

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[Crossref]

Phillips, W. D.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, and J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoll, W.

I. V. Hertel and W. Stoll, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. R. Bates and B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 13.

Thorsheim, H. R.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, and J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Violino, P.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[Crossref]

Weiner, J.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, and J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Hils, W. Jitschin, and H. Kleinpoppen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 39 (1981).

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

C. J. Liu, N. B. Mansour, and R. W. Dunford, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1372 (1989).

Fiz. Elem. Chastits At. Yadra (1)

I. N. Izosimov and Yu. V. Naumov, Fiz. Elem. Chastits At. Yadra 18, 249 (1987) [Sov. J. Part. Nucl. 18, 103 (1987)].

Hyperfine Interact. (1)

R. F. Haglund, D. Fick, B. Horn, and E. Koch, Hyperfine Interact. 30, 73 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lett. Nuovo Cimento (1)

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

H. Bechtel and D. Fick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 257, 77 (1987).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. J. McClelland and M. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

J. T. Cusma and L. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A. 28, 1195 (1983).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, and J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. McClelland, M. H. Kelley, and R. J. Celotta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1362 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[Crossref]

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. F. Kelly and A. Gallagher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 563 (1987).
[Crossref]

Z. Phys. A (1)

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, and D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

I. V. Hertel and W. Stoll, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. R. Bates and B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 13.

X. L. Han, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1989).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement. The ν1 laser beam is used for optical pumping of the collimated sodium atomic beam in the ~5-G field within the magnetic shield. The ν2 laser beam probes the resulting state selection downstream in a ≈218-G field. These atoms are used as part of a larger electron–atom collision experiment, described in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Magnetic shield used to reduce the ≈220-G background field to ~5 G in the optical-pumping region. It is 18 mm long.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of optical pumping of the 3S1/2(F′ = 2) hyperfine level through the 3P3/2(F = 3) hyperfine level. At best, 62.5% of the atoms can be polarized in this way.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In this experiment, optical pumping is carried out on the 3S1/2–3P1/2 transitions. The first-order, phase-modulated sidebands produced in a rf electro-optic modulator straddle the 1772-MHz ground-state hyperfine splitting, allowing atoms in the F′ = 1 state to be pumped back into F′ = 2 with a significant probability. In principle, complete state selection to F′ = 2, mF′ = 2 can be achieved.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Observed 3P fluorescence with the ν2 probe laser tuned to the 3S1/2–3P3/2 transition. Scan (a) is with optical pumping, and (b) is without. The relative sensitivity of (a) has been increased to 2.5 times that of (b). The states are labeled by the low-field 3S1/2|F, mF〉 levels from which they have adiabatically evolved in the ~220-G field. The 3P3/2-state mJ value associated with the transitions in each frequency range is shown at the top of (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Probing the residual populations through the 3S1/2–3P1/2 transition. Scan (a), with optical pumping, has five times the sensitivity of scan (b), taken without optical pumping.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Populations of the Eight 3S1/2 state F′, mF′ Levels as a Percentage of the Total Beama

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