Abstract

This paper presents novel designs and simulation results of electro-optic modulators in integrated silicon photonics platforms. The electro-optic modulators described in this paper are based on the modulation of the photonic bandgap in a silicon photonic crystal slab waveguide, consisting of a phase change material (germanium selenide) sandwiched in between silicon layers. Three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling is employed to simulate two configurations of electro-optic modulators based on mode-gap shifting in photonic crystal slab waveguides—one that is designed for operation with the transverse electric (TE) polarization of light and the other for the transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. When the electric field is applied across the germanium selenide layer surrounded by doped silicon layers, there is a change of phase of the germanium selenide layer. A large refractive index contrast between the two phases of the germanium selenide layer—i.e., between the amorphous phase and the crystalline phase—on application of the electric field is responsible for shifting of the mode gap in the dispersion characteristics of the PhC slab waveguide. Our results show excellent performance of the electro-optic modulators in terms of the high On/Off extinction ratio (${\gt}{37}\;{\rm dB}$ in the TE configuration and ${\gt}{28}\;{\rm dB}$ in the TM configuration), broadband switching capability (${\sim}{100}\;{\rm nm}$), low insertion loss in the On state (${\lt}{2}\;{\rm dB}$), high range of tunability (by changing the lattice constant and radius of air holes), and low operating voltage (${\lt}{4}\;{\rm V}$). The proposed devices can be used as electro-optic modulators in future nanoscale photonic integrated circuits.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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