Abstract

We present a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable entanglement distribution scheme utilizing a poled fiber-based source of broadband polarization-entangled photon pairs and dense wavelength-division multiplexing. A large bandwidth (>90  nm, centered at 1555 nm) and highly spectrally correlated nature of the entangled source can be exploited to allow for the generation of more than 25 frequency-conjugate entangled pairs when aligned to the standard 200 GHz ITU grid. In this work, three frequency-conjugate entangled pairs are used to demonstrate quantum key distribution, with the wavelength-selective switching done manually. The entangled pairs are delivered over 40 km of actual fiber, and an estimated secure key rate of up to 20 bits/s per bi-party is obtained.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

C. Autebert, J. Trapateau, A. Orieux, A. Lemaître, C. Gomez-Carbonell, E. Diamanti, I. Zaquine, and S. Ducci, “Multi-user quantum key distribution with entangled photons from an AlGaAs chip,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 1, 01LT02 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

L. Comandar, B. Fröhlich, J. Dynes, A. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Gigahertz-gated nGaAs/InP single-photon detector with detection efficiency exceeding 55% at 1550  nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 083109 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Zhong, H. Zhou, R. D. Horansky, C. Lee, V. B. Verma, A. E. Lita, A. Restelli, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, Z. Zhang, L. Wang, D. Englund, G. W. Wornell, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, “Photon-efficient quantum key distribution using time-energy entanglement with high-dimensional encoding,” New J. Phys. 17, 022002 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (1)

E. Y. Zhu, Z. Tang, L. Qian, L. G. Helt, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, C. Corbari, A. Canagasabey, M. Ibsen, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in a poled fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213902 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (5)

A. Canagasabey, C. Corbari, A. V. Gladyshev, F. Liegeois, S. Guillemet, Y. Hernandez, M. V. Yashkov, A. Kosolapov, E. M. Dianov, M. Ibsen, and P. G. Kazansky, “High-average-power second-harmonic generation from periodically poled silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2483–2485 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Avenhaus, A. Eckstein, P. J. Mosley, and C. Silberhorn, “Fiber-assisted single-photon spectrograph,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2873–2875 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, Z.-F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-X. Xu, Q.-L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X.-F. Mo, Y.-Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G.-C. Guo, “Field experiment on a star type metropolitan quantum key distribution network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575–577 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Treiber, A. Poppe, M. Hentschel, D. Ferrini, T. Lorünser, E. Querasser, T. Matyus, H. Hübel, and A. Zeilinger, “A fully automated entanglement-based quantum cryptography system for telecom fiber networks,” New J. Phys. 11, 045013 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144  km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325–360 (2004).

2002 (1)

C. Elliott, “Building the quantum network,” New J. Phys. 4, 46 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

N. Lütkenhaus, “Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. Kazansky, “Thermally poled glass: frozen-in electric field or oriented dipoles?” Opt. Commun. 110, 611–614 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[Crossref]

Allacher, A.

Alléaume, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Antonelli, C.

Asai, T.

Autebert, C.

C. Autebert, J. Trapateau, A. Orieux, A. Lemaître, C. Gomez-Carbonell, E. Diamanti, I. Zaquine, and S. Ducci, “Multi-user quantum key distribution with entangled photons from an AlGaAs chip,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 1, 01LT02 (2016).
[Crossref]

Avenhaus, M.

Barbieri, C.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barreiro, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (1984), Vol. 560, pp. 175–179.

Bienfang, J. C.

T. Zhong, H. Zhou, R. D. Horansky, C. Lee, V. B. Verma, A. E. Lita, A. Restelli, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, Z. Zhang, L. Wang, D. Englund, G. W. Wornell, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, “Photon-efficient quantum key distribution using time-energy entanglement with high-dimensional encoding,” New J. Phys. 17, 022002 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Restelli, J. C. Bienfang, and A. L. Migdall, “Single-photon detection efficiency up to 50% at 1310  nm with an nGaAs/InP avalanche diode gated at 1.25  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 141104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blauensteiner, B.

I. Herbauts, B. Blauensteiner, A. Poppe, T. Jennewein, and H. Hübel, “Demonstration of active routing of entanglement in a multi-user network,” Opt. Express 21, 29013–29024 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bouda, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boxleitner, W.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (1984), Vol. 560, pp. 175–179.

G. Brassard and L. Salvail, “Secret-key reconciliation by public discussion,” in Advances in Cryptology–EUROCRYPT’93, T. Helleseth, ed., Vol. 765 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 1994), pp. 410–423.

Brodsky, M.

Canagasabey, A.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The use of a broadband entangled source and a wavelength-selective switch allows for any two parties on the network to receive frequency-conjugate polarization-entangled photon pairs. The different figure-eights denote the use of different frequency–frequency conjugate pairs to distribute entanglement to different users. The broadband nature of the source also allows for multiple simultaneous connections.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Cross section of a twin-hole fiber used for thermal poling. Two large air holes sandwich the fiber core. (b) The thermal poling process. Electrodes are threaded through the air holes, and a large DC potential is applied across them while the fiber is heated. After the poling process, the electrodes are removed, and a frozen-in-field EDC (which is opposite in polarity to the poling field) is created along the length of the fiber. (c) Quasi-phase-matching is achieved by periodically erasing the EDC (and consequently, the SON) along the length of the fiber with UV light. The fiber is now a periodically poled silica fiber.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Joint spectral intensity (JSI) of the downconverted photons is plotted as a function of the signal and idler wavelength. A total of 6.8×103 pairs/pulse per mW of average pump power is generated over the entire spectrum. We observe that the JSI is extremely spectrally anticorrelated. This anti-correlation allows us to separate the spectrum into many frequency-conjugate pairs (green and white square boxes). The three pairs used in this work are highlighted by larger white boxes. See Table 1 for the central wavelengths of each pair.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Full experimental setup for QKD. The signal and idler photons are separated in wavelength by a DWDM filter before they each traverse a 20 km fiber spool and arrive at Alice and Bob’s polarization analyzers. (b) During a QKD experiment, Alice tabulates the number of detector “clicks” she receives as a function of their arrival times (with respect to the pump laser sync signal). (c) A two-dimensional histogram displaying all the coincidence counts observed between Alice and Bob. In a real QKD implementation, only the counts for which Alice and Bob’s bases coincided would be kept; these regions are highlighted by square boxes. The histogram data are obtained when the signal/idler WDMs are centered about 1553.3/1556.65 nm, and with a pair generation of 8.9×103  pairs/pulse. The resolution of the histogram is 64 ps.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Time evolution of the QBER for the 1533/1577 signal/idler set. The horizontal error bars denote the acquisition time for each run (usually 500 s), while the vertical bars represent the uncertainties (one standard deviation) due to statistical fluctuations.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Polarization Entanglement Figures of Merit

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Table 2. QKD Experimental Parameters and Results

Equations (5)

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k(ωp)=k(ωs)+k(ωi)+2πΛ,
|Ψ+=12(|HV+|VH).
eH=CH,H+CV,VCH,H+CV,V+CV,H+CH,V,
Rsif=CH,V+CV,H+CD,D+CA,ATacq.
Rsec=Rsif(112[h(eHu)+h(eDu)]12[f(eH)h(eH)+f(eD)h(eD)]),

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