Abstract

We report the filamentation and supercontinuum generation of a femtosecond pulse in a piece of bulk lead fluoride (PbF2) crystal with a high bandgap and an ultrabroadband frequency window covering 5.6 octaves. A broadband supercontinuum spanning 4.7 octaves from 350 to 9000 nm is demonstrated. The filament traces and bright conical visible emission patterns of the supercontinuums are observed. Additionally, simulations are performed to investigate the supercontinuum generation in the PbF2 crystal by using a waveguide model that considers the supercontinuum generated in the filamentation as a process of pulse propagation in waveguides written by filamentation. The findings of this study demonstrated that a PbF2 crystal is a very suitable nonlinear medium for use in supercontinuum generation by filamentation. This is of significance for the development of ultrabroadband supercontinuum sources based on bulk media and high-peak-power lasers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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2018 (3)

2017 (3)

Y. Yang, M. Liao, X. Li, W. Bi, Y. Ohishi, T. Cheng, Y. Fang, G. Zhao, and W. Gao, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation in lanthanum glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 023107 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, R. Šuminas, V. Jukna, and A. Couairon, “Ultrafast supercontinuum generation in bulk condensed media (Invited Review),” Lith. J. Phys. 57, 113–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Garejev, G. Tamošauskas, and A. Dubietis, “Comparative study of multioctave supercontinuum generation in fused silica, YAG, and LiF in the range of anomalous group velocity dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, 88–94 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

B. Zhou and M. Bache, “Invited article: multiple-octave spanning high-energy mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals,” APL Photon. 1, 2265–2267 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Bi, X. Li, Z. Xing, Q. Zhou, Y. Fang, W. Gao, L. Xiong, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Wavelength conversion through soliton self-frequency shift in tellurite microstructured fiber with picosecond pump pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 043102 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. Frolov, V. I. Trunov, V. E. Leshchenko, and E. V. Pestryakov, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation with IR radiation filamentation in transparent solid-state media,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Kaneshima, K. Takeuchi, N. Ishii, and J. Itatani, “Generation of spectrally stable 6.5-fs visible pulses via filamentation in krypton,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e17 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

H. Tu and S. A. Boppart, “Coherent fiber supercontinuum for biophotonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 628–645 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Liao, W. Q. Gao, T. L. Cheng, Z. C. Duan, X. J. Xue, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroad supercontinuum generation through filamentation in tellurite glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 036002 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Darginavičius, D. Majus, V. Jukna, N. Garejev, G. Valiulis, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum and third-harmonic generation in bulk solids with two optical-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses at 2  μm,” Opt. Express 21, 25210–25220 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, J. Hou, B. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Z. Liu, “Numerical simulation of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in telluride with pulsed laser pumping,” High Power Laser Part. Beams 24, 2031–2036 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

A. B. Seddon, “A prospective for new mid-infrared medical endoscopy using chalcogenide glasses,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 2, 177–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors 11, 32–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, G. Qin, Q. Tian, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Numerical investigation of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation up to 5  μm in single mode fluoride fiber,” Opt. Express 19, 10041–10048 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

R. S. S. Kumar, S. S. Harsha, and D. N. Rao, “Broadband supercontinuum generation in a single potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal achieved in tandem with sum frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 615–621 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Yang and G. Mu, “Multi-dimensional observation of white-light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in condensed medium,” Opt. Express 15, 4943–4952 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

A. Brodeur and S. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406–4409 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91–95 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1977 (1)

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, and A. Glass, “Nonlinear refractive index of fluoride crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 822–825 (1977).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

J. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[Crossref]

Akozbek, N.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Austin, D. R.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bache, M.

B. Zhou and M. Bache, “Invited article: multiple-octave spanning high-energy mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals,” APL Photon. 1, 2265–2267 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baudisch, M.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Béjot, P.

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared filamentation-induced supercontinuum in As–S and an As-free Ge–S counterpart chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 433–438 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bi, W.

Y. Yang, M. Liao, X. Li, W. Bi, Y. Ohishi, T. Cheng, Y. Fang, G. Zhao, and W. Gao, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation in lanthanum glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 023107 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Bi, X. Li, Z. Xing, Q. Zhou, Y. Fang, W. Gao, L. Xiong, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Wavelength conversion through soliton self-frequency shift in tellurite microstructured fiber with picosecond pump pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 043102 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, W. Bi, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3  μm for efficient wavelength conversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 103103 (2015).

W. Bi, X. Li, J. Gao, L. Zhang, and M. Liao, “Numerical simulations of the ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation by dual-wavelength pumping in photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 54, 4542–4548 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Billard, F.

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared filamentation-induced supercontinuum in As–S and an As-free Ge–S counterpart chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 433–438 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boppart, S. A.

H. Tu and S. A. Boppart, “Coherent fiber supercontinuum for biophotonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 628–645 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bowden, C. M.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brodeur, A.

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur and S. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406–4409 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-L.

Châteauneuf, M.

Chen, W.

X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, W. Bi, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3  μm for efficient wavelength conversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 103103 (2015).

X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, J. Gao, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Low threshold mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in short fluoride–chalcogenide multimaterial fibers,” Opt. Express 22, 24179–24191 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, T.

Y. Yang, M. Liao, X. Li, W. Bi, Y. Ohishi, T. Cheng, Y. Fang, G. Zhao, and W. Gao, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation in lanthanum glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 023107 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, T. L.

M. S. Liao, W. Q. Gao, T. L. Cheng, Z. C. Duan, X. J. Xue, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroad supercontinuum generation through filamentation in tellurite glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 036002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chin, S.

A. Brodeur and S. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406–4409 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors 11, 32–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1999).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, R. Šuminas, V. Jukna, and A. Couairon, “Ultrafast supercontinuum generation in bulk condensed media (Invited Review),” Lith. J. Phys. 57, 113–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Darginavičius, D. Majus, V. Jukna, N. Garejev, G. Valiulis, A. Couairon, and A. Dubietis, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum and third-harmonic generation in bulk solids with two optical-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses at 2  μm,” Opt. Express 21, 25210–25220 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Curley, P.

Darginavicius, J.

Deng, D.

M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Désévédavy, F.

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared filamentation-induced supercontinuum in As–S and an As-free Ge–S counterpart chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 433–438 (2015).
[Crossref]

Du, Q.

Du, T.

Duan, Z.

M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Duan, Z. C.

M. S. Liao, W. Q. Gao, T. L. Cheng, Z. C. Duan, X. J. Xue, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroad supercontinuum generation through filamentation in tellurite glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 036002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dubietis, A.

Dubois, J.

Faccio, D.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, Y.

Y. Yang, M. Liao, X. Li, W. Bi, Y. Ohishi, T. Cheng, Y. Fang, G. Zhao, and W. Gao, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation in lanthanum glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 023107 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Bi, X. Li, Z. Xing, Q. Zhou, Y. Fang, W. Gao, L. Xiong, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Wavelength conversion through soliton self-frequency shift in tellurite microstructured fiber with picosecond pump pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 043102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Faucher, O.

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared filamentation-induced supercontinuum in As–S and an As-free Ge–S counterpart chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 433–438 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, A. B.

Franco, M.

Frolov, S. A.

S. A. Frolov, V. I. Trunov, V. E. Leshchenko, and E. V. Pestryakov, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation with IR radiation filamentation in transparent solid-state media,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gadret, G.

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[Crossref]

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Gao, W.

Y. Yang, M. Liao, X. Li, W. Bi, Y. Ohishi, T. Cheng, Y. Fang, G. Zhao, and W. Gao, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation in lanthanum glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 023107 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Bi, X. Li, Z. Xing, Q. Zhou, Y. Fang, W. Gao, L. Xiong, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Wavelength conversion through soliton self-frequency shift in tellurite microstructured fiber with picosecond pump pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 043102 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, W. Bi, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3  μm for efficient wavelength conversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 103103 (2015).

X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, J. Gao, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Low threshold mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in short fluoride–chalcogenide multimaterial fibers,” Opt. Express 22, 24179–24191 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. S. Liao, W. Q. Gao, T. L. Cheng, Z. C. Duan, X. J. Xue, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroad supercontinuum generation through filamentation in tellurite glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 036002 (2013).
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R. S. S. Kumar, S. S. Harsha, and D. N. Rao, “Broadband supercontinuum generation in a single potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal achieved in tandem with sum frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 615–621 (2007).
[Crossref]

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F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
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K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91–95 (1998).
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Hou, J.

L. Yang, B. Zhang, K. Yin, T. Wu, Y. Zhao, and J. Hou, “Spectrally flat supercontinuum generation in a holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber with record power ratio beyond 3  μm,” Photon. Res. 6, 417–421 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, J. Hou, B. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Z. Liu, “Numerical simulation of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in telluride with pulsed laser pumping,” High Power Laser Part. Beams 24, 2031–2036 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Hu, L.

W. Bi, X. Li, Z. Xing, Q. Zhou, Y. Fang, W. Gao, L. Xiong, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Wavelength conversion through soliton self-frequency shift in tellurite microstructured fiber with picosecond pump pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 043102 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, W. Bi, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3  μm for efficient wavelength conversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 103103 (2015).

X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, J. Gao, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Low threshold mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in short fluoride–chalcogenide multimaterial fibers,” Opt. Express 22, 24179–24191 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Ishii, N.

K. Kaneshima, K. Takeuchi, N. Ishii, and J. Itatani, “Generation of spectrally stable 6.5-fs visible pulses via filamentation in krypton,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e17 (2016).
[Crossref]

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K. Kaneshima, K. Takeuchi, N. Ishii, and J. Itatani, “Generation of spectrally stable 6.5-fs visible pulses via filamentation in krypton,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e17 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Jukna, V.

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Kawashima, H.

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[Crossref]

M. S. Liao, W. Q. Gao, T. L. Cheng, Z. C. Duan, X. J. Xue, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroad supercontinuum generation through filamentation in tellurite glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 036002 (2013).
[Crossref]

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O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared filamentation-induced supercontinuum in As–S and an As-free Ge–S counterpart chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 433–438 (2015).
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Kumar, R. S. S.

R. S. S. Kumar, S. S. Harsha, and D. N. Rao, “Broadband supercontinuum generation in a single potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal achieved in tandem with sum frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 615–621 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Leshchenko, V. E.

S. A. Frolov, V. I. Trunov, V. E. Leshchenko, and E. V. Pestryakov, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation with IR radiation filamentation in transparent solid-state media,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Y. Yang, M. Liao, X. Li, W. Bi, Y. Ohishi, T. Cheng, Y. Fang, G. Zhao, and W. Gao, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation in lanthanum glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 023107 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Bi, X. Li, Z. Xing, Q. Zhou, Y. Fang, W. Gao, L. Xiong, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Wavelength conversion through soliton self-frequency shift in tellurite microstructured fiber with picosecond pump pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 043102 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, W. Bi, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3  μm for efficient wavelength conversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 103103 (2015).

W. Bi, X. Li, J. Gao, L. Zhang, and M. Liao, “Numerical simulations of the ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation by dual-wavelength pumping in photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 54, 4542–4548 (2015).
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X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, J. Gao, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Low threshold mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in short fluoride–chalcogenide multimaterial fibers,” Opt. Express 22, 24179–24191 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Liao, M.

Y. Yang, M. Liao, X. Li, W. Bi, Y. Ohishi, T. Cheng, Y. Fang, G. Zhao, and W. Gao, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation in lanthanum glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 023107 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Bi, X. Li, Z. Xing, Q. Zhou, Y. Fang, W. Gao, L. Xiong, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Wavelength conversion through soliton self-frequency shift in tellurite microstructured fiber with picosecond pump pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 043102 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, W. Bi, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3  μm for efficient wavelength conversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 103103 (2015).

W. Bi, X. Li, J. Gao, L. Zhang, and M. Liao, “Numerical simulations of the ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation by dual-wavelength pumping in photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 54, 4542–4548 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, J. Gao, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Low threshold mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in short fluoride–chalcogenide multimaterial fibers,” Opt. Express 22, 24179–24191 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. S. Liao, W. Q. Gao, T. L. Cheng, Z. C. Duan, X. J. Xue, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroad supercontinuum generation through filamentation in tellurite glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 036002 (2013).
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W. Yang, J. Hou, B. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Z. Liu, “Numerical simulation of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in telluride with pulsed laser pumping,” High Power Laser Part. Beams 24, 2031–2036 (2012).
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D. Milam, M. J. Weber, and A. Glass, “Nonlinear refractive index of fluoride crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 822–825 (1977).
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K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91–95 (1998).
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O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared filamentation-induced supercontinuum in As–S and an As-free Ge–S counterpart chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 433–438 (2015).
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H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Nagasaka, T. H. Tuan, T. S. Saini, X. Luo, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Highly coherent supercontinuum in the mid-infrared region with cascaded tellurite and chalcogenide fibers,” Appl. Opt. 57, 6153–6163 (2018).
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Y. Yang, M. Liao, X. Li, W. Bi, Y. Ohishi, T. Cheng, Y. Fang, G. Zhao, and W. Gao, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation in lanthanum glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 023107 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Liao, W. Q. Gao, T. L. Cheng, Z. C. Duan, X. J. Xue, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroad supercontinuum generation through filamentation in tellurite glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 036002 (2013).
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M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
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S. A. Frolov, V. I. Trunov, V. E. Leshchenko, and E. V. Pestryakov, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation with IR radiation filamentation in transparent solid-state media,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 1–7 (2016).
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W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
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R. S. S. Kumar, S. S. Harsha, and D. N. Rao, “Broadband supercontinuum generation in a single potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal achieved in tandem with sum frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 615–621 (2007).
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F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
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O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared filamentation-induced supercontinuum in As–S and an As-free Ge–S counterpart chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 433–438 (2015).
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M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
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K. Kaneshima, K. Takeuchi, N. Ishii, and J. Itatani, “Generation of spectrally stable 6.5-fs visible pulses via filamentation in krypton,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e17 (2016).
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Tian, Q.

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W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

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S. A. Frolov, V. I. Trunov, V. E. Leshchenko, and E. V. Pestryakov, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation with IR radiation filamentation in transparent solid-state media,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 1–7 (2016).
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D. Milam, M. J. Weber, and A. Glass, “Nonlinear refractive index of fluoride crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 822–825 (1977).
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W. Bi, X. Li, Z. Xing, Q. Zhou, Y. Fang, W. Gao, L. Xiong, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Wavelength conversion through soliton self-frequency shift in tellurite microstructured fiber with picosecond pump pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 043102 (2016).
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W. Bi, X. Li, Z. Xing, Q. Zhou, Y. Fang, W. Gao, L. Xiong, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Wavelength conversion through soliton self-frequency shift in tellurite microstructured fiber with picosecond pump pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 043102 (2016).
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X. Li, W. Chen, T. Xue, J. Gao, W. Gao, L. Hu, and M. Liao, “Low threshold mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in short fluoride–chalcogenide multimaterial fibers,” Opt. Express 22, 24179–24191 (2014).
[Crossref]

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M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. S. Liao, W. Q. Gao, T. L. Cheng, Z. C. Duan, X. J. Xue, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroad supercontinuum generation through filamentation in tellurite glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 036002 (2013).
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Y. Yang, M. Liao, X. Li, W. Bi, Y. Ohishi, T. Cheng, Y. Fang, G. Zhao, and W. Gao, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation in lanthanum glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 023107 (2017).
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Yin, K.

Zhang, B.

L. Yang, B. Zhang, K. Yin, T. Wu, Y. Zhao, and J. Hou, “Spectrally flat supercontinuum generation in a holmium-doped ZBLAN fiber with record power ratio beyond 3  μm,” Photon. Res. 6, 417–421 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, J. Hou, B. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Z. Liu, “Numerical simulation of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in telluride with pulsed laser pumping,” High Power Laser Part. Beams 24, 2031–2036 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Zhang, W.

Zhang, Y.

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Y. Yang, M. Liao, X. Li, W. Bi, Y. Ohishi, T. Cheng, Y. Fang, G. Zhao, and W. Gao, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation in lanthanum glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 023107 (2017).
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APL Photon. (1)

B. Zhou and M. Bache, “Invited article: multiple-octave spanning high-energy mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals,” APL Photon. 1, 2265–2267 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared filamentation-induced supercontinuum in As–S and an As-free Ge–S counterpart chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 433–438 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. A. Frolov, V. I. Trunov, V. E. Leshchenko, and E. V. Pestryakov, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation with IR radiation filamentation in transparent solid-state media,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. S. S. Kumar, S. S. Harsha, and D. N. Rao, “Broadband supercontinuum generation in a single potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal achieved in tandem with sum frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 615–621 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, and A. Glass, “Nonlinear refractive index of fluoride crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 822–825 (1977).
[Crossref]

High Power Laser Part. Beams (1)

W. Yang, J. Hou, B. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Z. Liu, “Numerical simulation of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in telluride with pulsed laser pumping,” High Power Laser Part. Beams 24, 2031–2036 (2012).
[Crossref]

High Power Laser Sci. Eng. (1)

K. Kaneshima, K. Takeuchi, N. Ishii, and J. Itatani, “Generation of spectrally stable 6.5-fs visible pulses via filamentation in krypton,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (1)

A. B. Seddon, “A prospective for new mid-infrared medical endoscopy using chalcogenide glasses,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 2, 177–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Dependence of bandgaps on their nonlinearity for some representative nonlinear media. n2 is the nonlinear refractive index of a medium. (b) Corresponding transparency ranges of these representative nonlinear media.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the experimental setup for the first scheme. The other scheme is without a lens to focus the pump laser. L1 is a CaF2 aspheric lens with a focal length of 50 mm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Transmittance spectrum of the PbF2 crystal sample. (b) Material dispersion curve of the PbF2 crystal sample.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SC spectra generated under different experiment conditions. The insets show the amplification of the short-wavelength edge. The pump wavelengths of the launched pulse are shown: [(a), (b)] without any lens to focus the pump laser and [(c), (d)] under lens focusing (f=50  mm).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. [(a)–(c)] Optical microscope images of the spots in the sample after 4 h of irradiation at pump wavelengths of 1460 and 1600 nm under lens focusing. (a) A collection of randomly distributed spots of multi-filaments. (b) 1460 nm pump wavelength. (c) 1600 nm pump wavelength. (d) Far-field pattern of the visible emission corresponding to Fig. 4(d).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. SC spectra simulated in the sample under different pump wavelengths. (a) 1460 nm pump wavelength. The inset shows amplification of the short-wavelength edge. (b) 1600 nm pump wavelength.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Transparency Ranges of the Nonlinear Media in the Frequency Domain

Equations (2)

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Az+α2Ak2ik+1k!βkkAtk=iγ(1fR)(|A|2A2iω0t(|A2|A))+iγfR(1+iω0t)(A0hR(t)|A(tτ)|2dτ).
hR(t)=τ1+τ2τ1τ2exp(tτ2)sin(tτ1).

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