Abstract

We theoretically and experimentally investigated the transition between modulation instability and Raman gain in a small silica microcavity with a large free-spectral range, which reveals that we can selectively switch from a four-wave mixing dominant state to a stimulated Raman scattering dominant state. Both the theoretical analysis and the experiment show that a Raman-dominant region is present between transitions of Kerr combs with different free-spectral range spacings. We can obtain a stable Kerr comb and a stable Raman state selectively by changing the driving power, coupling between the cavity and the waveguide, and laser detuning. Such a controllable transition is achieved thanks to the presence of gain competition between modulation instability and Raman gain in silica whispering gallery mode microcavities.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (6)

2016 (7)

2015 (5)

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Latawiec, V. Venkataraman, M. J. Burek, B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “On-chip diamond Raman laser,” Optica 2, 924–928 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ooka, Y. Yang, J. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 092001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Milián, A. V. Gorbach, M. Taki, A. V. Yulin, and D. V. Skryabin, “Solitons and frequency combs in silica microring resonators: interplay of the Raman and higher-order dispersion effects,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033851 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Chembo, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of Kerr-Raman optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 043818 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Laser-machined ultra-high-Q microrod resonators for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221119 (2013).
[Crossref]

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, Q.-F. Yang, L. Shao, W. R. Clements, and Q. Gong, “Free-space coupled, ultralow-threshold Raman lasing from a silica microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2845–2847 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Passively mode-locked Raman laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093902 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin and L. Maleki, “Efficient Raman laser based on a CaF2 resonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 594–598 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-threshold Raman lasing with CaF2 resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32, 166–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Controlled transition between parametric and Raman oscillations in ultrahigh-Q silica toroidal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181109 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold microcavity Raman laser on a microelectronic chip,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1224–1226 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Hollenbeck and C. D. Cantrell, “Multiple-vibrational-mode model for fiber-optic Raman gain spectrum and response function,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2886–2892 (2002).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

L. A. Lugiato and R. Lefever, “Spatial dissipative structures in passive optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2209–2211 (1987).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Armani, D. K.

Beha, K.

Brasch, V.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bulu, I.

Burek, M. J.

Cantrell, C. D.

Cardenas, J.

Carmon, T.

Castelló-Lurbe, D.

Chembo, Y. K.

Chen, L.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen-Jinnai, A.

Clements, W. R.

B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, X.-C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 111, 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref]

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, Q.-F. Yang, L. Shao, W. R. Clements, and Q. Gong, “Free-space coupled, ultralow-threshold Raman lasing from a silica microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Del’Haye, P.

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Laser-machined ultra-high-Q microrod resonators for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221119 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diallo, S.

Diddams, S. A.

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Laser-machined ultra-high-Q microrod resonators for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221119 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dudley, J. M.

Eliyahu, D.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ferdous, F.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fujii, S.

Gaeta, A. L.

Geiselmann, M.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, X.-C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 111, 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref]

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, Q.-F. Yang, L. Shao, W. R. Clements, and Q. Gong, “Free-space coupled, ultralow-threshold Raman lasing from a silica microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gorbach, A. V.

C. Milián, A. V. Gorbach, M. Taki, A. V. Yulin, and D. V. Skryabin, “Solitons and frequency combs in silica microring resonators: interplay of the Raman and higher-order dispersion effects,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033851 (2015).
[Crossref]

Griffith, A. G.

Grudinin, I. S.

Guo, H.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haelterman, M.

Hausmann, B. J. M.

Hollenbeck, D.

Holzwarth, R.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hori, A.

Ilchenko, V. S.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2845–2847 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Passively mode-locked Raman laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.-F.

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, Q.-F. Yang, L. Shao, W. R. Clements, and Q. Gong, “Free-space coupled, ultralow-threshold Raman lasing from a silica microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jinnai, A.-C.

Karpov, M.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kato, T.

Kippenberg, T. J.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold microcavity Raman laser on a microelectronic chip,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1224–1226 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Compact, fiber-compatible, cascaded Raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1507–1509 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kobatake, T.

Kordts, A.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Latawiec, P.

Latawiec, P. M.

Leaird, D. E.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
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Lee, H.

Lefever, R.

L. A. Lugiato and R. Lefever, “Spatial dissipative structures in passive optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2209–2211 (1987).
[Crossref]

Levy, J. S.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, B.-B.

B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, X.-C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 111, 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2845–2847 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Passively mode-locked Raman laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.

Lipson, M.

Loncar, M.

Lugiato, L. A.

L. A. Lugiato and R. Lefever, “Spatial dissipative structures in passive optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2209–2211 (1987).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2845–2847 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Passively mode-locked Raman laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093902 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin and L. Maleki, “Efficient Raman laser based on a CaF2 resonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 594–598 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-threshold Raman lasing with CaF2 resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32, 166–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2845–2847 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Passively mode-locked Raman laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miao, H.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Milián, C.

C. Milián, A. V. Gorbach, M. Taki, A. V. Yulin, and D. V. Skryabin, “Solitons and frequency combs in silica microring resonators: interplay of the Raman and higher-order dispersion effects,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033851 (2015).
[Crossref]

Min, B.

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Controlled transition between parametric and Raman oscillations in ultrahigh-Q silica toroidal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181109 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Compact, fiber-compatible, cascaded Raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1507–1509 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mohanty, A.

Nagano, T.

Nic Chormaic, S.

Y. Ooka, Y. Yang, J. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 092001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Okabe, Y.

Okawachi, Y.

Ooka, Y.

Y. Ooka, Y. Yang, J. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 092001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Papp, S. B.

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Laser-machined ultra-high-Q microrod resonators for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Quinlan, F.

Savchenkov, A. A.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2845–2847 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Passively mode-locked Raman laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seidel, D.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2845–2847 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Passively mode-locked Raman laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143903 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shao, L.

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, Q.-F. Yang, L. Shao, W. R. Clements, and Q. Gong, “Free-space coupled, ultralow-threshold Raman lasing from a silica microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, K.

B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, X.-C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 111, 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref]

Silvestre, E.

Skryabin, D. V.

C. Milián, A. V. Gorbach, M. Taki, A. V. Yulin, and D. V. Skryabin, “Solitons and frequency combs in silica microring resonators: interplay of the Raman and higher-order dispersion effects,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033851 (2015).
[Crossref]

Solomatine, I.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold microcavity Raman laser on a microelectronic chip,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1224–1226 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suh, M.-G.

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, R.

Taki, M.

C. Milián, A. V. Gorbach, M. Taki, A. V. Yulin, and D. V. Skryabin, “Solitons and frequency combs in silica microring resonators: interplay of the Raman and higher-order dispersion effects,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033851 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tanabe, T.

Torres-Company, V.

Trillo, S.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

Q.-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Stokes solitons in optical microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 13, 53–57 (2017).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Theory and measurement of the soliton self-frequency shift and efficiency in optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3419–3422 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Controlled transition between parametric and Raman oscillations in ultrahigh-Q silica toroidal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181109 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold microcavity Raman laser on a microelectronic chip,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1224–1226 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Compact, fiber-compatible, cascaded Raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1507–1509 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref]

Varghese, L. T.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Venkataraman, V.

Wabnitz, S.

Wang, J.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ward, J.

Y. Ooka, Y. Yang, J. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 092001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.-F.

B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, X.-C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 111, 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref]

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, Q.-F. Yang, L. Shao, W. R. Clements, and Q. Gong, “Free-space coupled, ultralow-threshold Raman lasing from a silica microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. Y.

Q.-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Stokes solitons in optical microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 13, 53–57 (2017).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Theory and measurement of the soliton self-frequency shift and efficiency in optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3419–3422 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Controlled transition between parametric and Raman oscillations in ultrahigh-Q silica toroidal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181109 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.-F.

Q.-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Stokes solitons in optical microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 13, 53–57 (2017).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Theory and measurement of the soliton self-frequency shift and efficiency in optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3419–3422 (2016).
[Crossref]

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, Q.-F. Yang, L. Shao, W. R. Clements, and Q. Gong, “Free-space coupled, ultralow-threshold Raman lasing from a silica microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Ooka, Y. Yang, J. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 092001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yi, X.

Q.-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Stokes solitons in optical microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 13, 53–57 (2017).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Theory and measurement of the soliton self-frequency shift and efficiency in optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3419–3422 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoshiki, W.

Yu, M.

Yu, N.

Y. K. Chembo, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of Kerr-Raman optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 043818 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.-C.

B.-B. Li, W. R. Clements, X.-C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y.-F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 111, 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yulin, A. V.

C. Milián, A. V. Gorbach, M. Taki, A. V. Yulin, and D. V. Skryabin, “Solitons and frequency combs in silica microring resonators: interplay of the Raman and higher-order dispersion effects,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033851 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M.

M. Karpov, H. Guo, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Raman self-frequency shift of dissipative Kerr solitons in an optical microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 103902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Ooka, Y. Yang, J. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 092001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X.-F. Jiang, Y.-F. Xiao, Q.-F. Yang, L. Shao, W. R. Clements, and Q. Gong, “Free-space coupled, ultralow-threshold Raman lasing from a silica microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101102 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Controlled transition between parametric and Raman oscillations in ultrahigh-Q silica toroidal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181109 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Laser-machined ultra-high-Q microrod resonators for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221119 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Commun. (1)

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

Q.-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Stokes solitons in optical microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 13, 53–57 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (9)

Y. Okawachi, M. Yu, V. Venkataraman, P. M. Latawiec, A. G. Griffith, M. Lipson, M. Lončar, and A. L. Gaeta, “Competition between Raman and Kerr effects in microresonator comb generation,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2786–2789 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2845–2847 (2011).
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S. Fujii, T. Kato, R. Suzuki, and T. Tanabe, “Third-harmonic blue light generation from Kerr clustered combs and dispersive waves,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2010–2013 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Theory and measurement of the soliton self-frequency shift and efficiency in optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3419–3422 (2016).
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M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, “Additive-modulation-instability ring laser in the normal dispersion regime of a fiber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 745–747 (1992).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. MI gain spectra for a (a) fiber and (b) microcavity system with different pump powers. The peak of the MI gain shifts away from the pump frequency in both cases, but the gain is zero close to the pump frequency in the cavity case.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Raman gain spectrum in silica. Blue and green solid lines show an intermediate-broadening model and a single-damped-oscillator model, respectively [36].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic illustration explaining the competition between the MI and Raman gains in a small silica microcavity system. (a) At a low pump power. The peak of the MI gain overlaps a pair of longitudinal modes 1-FSR from the pump frequency. (b) At a medium pump power. The peak of the MI gain is between the longitudinal modes of the small microcavity. The longitudinal modes overlap the broad Raman gain. (c) At a high pump power. The peak of the MI gain overlaps a pair of longitudinal modes 2-FSR from the pump frequency.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Calculated MI gains at two different frequencies (1-FSR and 2-FSR from the pump), and the Raman gain per round trip as a function of the input power when Qext is 1×108. Only the Raman gain interacts with the cavity modes when the input power is in the 6.5–17 mW range, because the MI gain is located between the 1-FSR and 2-FSR resonant modes. (b) ΔPin versus the cavity FSR at three different coupling conditions. ΔPin=P2-FSRP1-FSR is the allowed power range for obtaining the Raman-dominant state. The arrow is at the condition for (a).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Output spectrum of a silica WGM microcavity obtained with LLE for different input powers. (a) Output spectrum when the system is pumped with a 2.5 mW input. 1-FSR Turing pattern comb is observed. (b) At 10 mW input. The peak of the output spectrum at 1657 nm wavelength corresponds to the peak of the Raman shift of silica. (c) At 40 mW input. A 2-FSR Turing pattern comb is obtained.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Measured output spectra from a silica toroid microcavity pumped at different detuning (i.e., different coupling power). The wavelength of the input laser is swept from a shorter (a) to a longer (d) wavelength. (a) When the pump is largely blue detuned, a 1-FSR comb is obtained. The inset shows the measured transmission spectrum. (b) When the wavelength of the input laser is lengthened (i.e., smaller detuning), the spectral envelope of the 1-FSR comb becomes broader. In addition, long wavelength components start to appear. (c) When the detuning is smaller than (b), the FWM lines disappear and only the SRS comb is observed. (d) When the detuning is at its smallest, a 2-FSR comb is observed.

Equations (9)

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gfib(Ω)=αfib+|β2Ω|Ωc2Ω2,
Ωc2=4γP0|β2|
gcav(Ω)=αcav+(γLP0)2(δmiss)2,
δmiss=δ0β22LΩ22γLP0
gR=α+gbulkRP0AeffLeff,
Leff=1α[1exp(αL)],
θPin=(γL)2P032δ0γLP02+(δ02+α2)P0,
E(ϕ,t)t=(κtot2+iδ0νFSR)E+ivgk=2(iΩFSR)kβkk!kEϕk+ivgγfR[E(ϕ,t)hR(ϕ/ΩFSR)|E(ϕϕ,t)|2dϕ]+ivgγ(1fR)|E|2E+κextνFSRPin,
hR(t)=τ12+τ22τ1τ22exp(tτ2)sin(tτ1),

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