Abstract

Plane wave scattering by a planar metasurface composed of two periodically alternating rectangular dielectric rods is considered. A rigorous integral equation methodology is employed for the analysis and the accurate determination of the reflected and transmitted fields. Systematic optimizations with respect to the configuration’s parameters are performed, which reveal that it is possible to obtain significantly enhanced anomalous reflection (with simultaneously suppressed ordinary reflection predicted by Snell’s law) with power varying from 92% to almost 100% of the input one, depending on the color of the incident light. It is shown that these reflection properties are supported by metasurfaces easily realizable with specific low-loss dielectric materials. In this way, several all-dielectric optimal designs are reported that can be used in numerous applications demanding anomalous reflection in the visible range.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

4 April 2017: A correction was made to the title.

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2017 (2)

Y. Kivshar and A. Miroshnichenko, “Meta-optics with Mie resonances,” Opt. Photon. News 28(1), 24–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. L. Tsitsas, “Efficient integral equation modeling of scattering by a gradient dielectric metasurface,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Metamater. 4, 3 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

2015 (4)

N. M. Estakhri, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alù, “Graded metascreens to enable a new degree of nanoscale light management,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 373, 20140351 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, J. Kapraun, J. Ferrara, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Flexible photonic metastructures for tunable coloration,” Optica 2, 255–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. O. Byelobrov, T. L. Zinenko, K. Kobayashi, and A. I. Nosich, “Periodicity matters: grating or lattice resonances in the scattering by sparse arrays of subwavelength strips and wires,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 57(6), 34–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

D. Ohana and U. Levy, “Mode conversion based on dielectric metamaterial in silicon,” Opt. Express 22, 27617–27631 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Sihvola, “Enabling optical analog computing with metamaterials,” Science 343, 144–145 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, B. Liang, Z.-M. Gu, X.-Y. Zou, and J.-C. Cheng, “Reflected wavefront manipulation based on ultrathin planar acoustic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2646 (2013).

2012 (4)

C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and A. Alù, “Matching and funneling light at the plasmonic Brewster angle,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 024304 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburr, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Tsai, S. Larouche, T. Tyler, G. Lipworth, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Design and fabrication of a metamaterial gradient index diffraction grating at infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express 19, 24411–24423 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

N. L. Tsitsas and N. K. Uzunoglu, “Scattering by a grating slab waveguide with regular plane regions grooves: integral equation modeling,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45, 1080–1083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. K. Yang, R. H. French, and E. W. Tokarsky, “Optical properties of Teflon® AF amorphous fluoropolymers,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7, 033010 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. L. Tsitsas, N. K. Uzunoglu, and D. I. Kaklamani, “Diffraction of plane waves incident on a grated dielectric slab: an entire domain integral equation analysis,” Radio Sci. 42, RS6S22 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

J. Nakayama and A. Kashihara, “Energy balance formulas in grating theory,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1106–1108 (2003).

1995 (1)

1989 (1)

H. L. Bertoni, L.-H. S. Cheo, and T. Tamir, “Frequency-selective reflection and transmission by a periodic dielectric layer,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 78–83 (1989).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Interaction of electromagnetic waves with periodic gratings: enhanced fields and the reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2698–2709 (1983).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburr, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akozbek, N.

C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and A. Alù, “Matching and funneling light at the plasmonic Brewster angle,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 024304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

N. M. Estakhri and A. Alù, “Recent progress in gradient metasurfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, A21–A30 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Fruhnert, A. Monti, I. Fernandez-Corbaton, A. Alù, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, and C. Rockstuhl, “Tunable scattering cancellation cloak with plasmonic ellipsoids in the visible,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 245127 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. M. Estakhri, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alù, “Graded metascreens to enable a new degree of nanoscale light management,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 373, 20140351 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and A. Alù, “Matching and funneling light at the plasmonic Brewster angle,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 024304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Argyropoulos, C.

N. M. Estakhri, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alù, “Graded metascreens to enable a new degree of nanoscale light management,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 373, 20140351 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and A. Alù, “Matching and funneling light at the plasmonic Brewster angle,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 024304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bauman, S. J.

Bertoni, H. L.

H. L. Bertoni, L.-H. S. Cheo, and T. Tamir, “Frequency-selective reflection and transmission by a periodic dielectric layer,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 78–83 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bilotti, F.

M. Fruhnert, A. Monti, I. Fernandez-Corbaton, A. Alù, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, and C. Rockstuhl, “Tunable scattering cancellation cloak with plasmonic ellipsoids in the visible,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 245127 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Monti, A. Toscano, and F. Bilotti, “Exploiting the surface dispersion of nanoparticles to design optical-resistive sheets and Salisbury absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3383–3386 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bloemer, M. J.

C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and A. Alù, “Matching and funneling light at the plasmonic Brewster angle,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 024304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Byelobrov, V. O.

V. O. Byelobrov, T. L. Zinenko, K. Kobayashi, and A. I. Nosich, “Periodicity matters: grating or lattice resonances in the scattering by sparse arrays of subwavelength strips and wires,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 57(6), 34–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburr, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chen, K.-P.

Chen, W. T.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.-C.

Y. Li, B. Liang, Z.-M. Gu, X.-Y. Zou, and J.-C. Cheng, “Reflected wavefront manipulation based on ultrathin planar acoustic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2646 (2013).

Cheo, L.-H. S.

H. L. Bertoni, L.-H. S. Cheo, and T. Tamir, “Frequency-selective reflection and transmission by a periodic dielectric layer,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 78–83 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

D’Aguanno, G.

C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and A. Alù, “Matching and funneling light at the plasmonic Brewster angle,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 024304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Darweesh, A. A.

Ding, F.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Emani, N. K.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2011).
[Crossref]

Estakhri, N. M.

N. M. Estakhri and A. Alù, “Recent progress in gradient metasurfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, A21–A30 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. M. Estakhri, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alù, “Graded metascreens to enable a new degree of nanoscale light management,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 373, 20140351 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, P.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fernandez-Corbaton, I.

M. Fruhnert, A. Monti, I. Fernandez-Corbaton, A. Alù, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, and C. Rockstuhl, “Tunable scattering cancellation cloak with plasmonic ellipsoids in the visible,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 245127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferrara, J.

Feshbach, H.

P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics, Part I (McGraw-Hill, 1953).

French, R. H.

M. K. Yang, R. H. French, and E. W. Tokarsky, “Optical properties of Teflon® AF amorphous fluoropolymers,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7, 033010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fruhnert, M.

M. Fruhnert, A. Monti, I. Fernandez-Corbaton, A. Alù, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, and C. Rockstuhl, “Tunable scattering cancellation cloak with plasmonic ellipsoids in the visible,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 245127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gaburr, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburr, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaylord, T. K.

Genevet, P.

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburr, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grann, E. B.

Gu, Z.-M.

Y. Li, B. Liang, Z.-M. Gu, X.-Y. Zou, and J.-C. Cheng, “Reflected wavefront manipulation based on ultrathin planar acoustic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2646 (2013).

Guo, G.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hasman, E.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, S.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Herzog, J. B.

Jacob, Z.

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jahani, S.

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jokerst, N. M.

Juan, T.-K.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kaklamani, D. I.

Kanhaiya, P.

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kapraun, J.

Kashihara, A.

J. Nakayama and A. Kashihara, “Energy balance formulas in grating theory,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1106–1108 (2003).

Kathman, A. D.

D. C. O’Shea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prather, Diffractive Optics Design, Fabrication and Test (SPIE, 2004).

Kats, M. A.

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburr, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khorasaninejad, M.

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y.

Y. Kivshar and A. Miroshnichenko, “Meta-optics with Mie resonances,” Opt. Photon. News 28(1), 24–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, K.

V. O. Byelobrov, T. L. Zinenko, K. Kobayashi, and A. I. Nosich, “Periodicity matters: grating or lattice resonances in the scattering by sparse arrays of subwavelength strips and wires,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 57(6), 34–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kung, W.-T.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Larouche, S.

Lee, W.

Levy, U.

Li, X.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, B. Liang, Z.-M. Gu, X.-Y. Zou, and J.-C. Cheng, “Reflected wavefront manipulation based on ultrathin planar acoustic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2646 (2013).

Liang, B.

Y. Li, B. Liang, Z.-M. Gu, X.-Y. Zou, and J.-C. Cheng, “Reflected wavefront manipulation based on ultrathin planar acoustic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2646 (2013).

Liao, C. Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, D.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lipworth, G.

Mattiucci, N.

C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and A. Alù, “Matching and funneling light at the plasmonic Brewster angle,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 024304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mills, D. L.

M. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Interaction of electromagnetic waves with periodic gratings: enhanced fields and the reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2698–2709 (1983).
[Crossref]

Miroshnichenko, A.

Y. Kivshar and A. Miroshnichenko, “Meta-optics with Mie resonances,” Opt. Photon. News 28(1), 24–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

Moharam, M. G.

Monti, A.

M. Fruhnert, A. Monti, I. Fernandez-Corbaton, A. Alù, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, and C. Rockstuhl, “Tunable scattering cancellation cloak with plasmonic ellipsoids in the visible,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 245127 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Monti, A. Toscano, and F. Bilotti, “Exploiting the surface dispersion of nanoparticles to design optical-resistive sheets and Salisbury absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3383–3386 (2016).
[Crossref]

Monticone, F.

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morse, P. M.

P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics, Part I (McGraw-Hill, 1953).

Nakayama, J.

J. Nakayama and A. Kashihara, “Energy balance formulas in grating theory,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1106–1108 (2003).

Ni, X.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nosich, A. I.

V. O. Byelobrov, T. L. Zinenko, K. Kobayashi, and A. I. Nosich, “Periodicity matters: grating or lattice resonances in the scattering by sparse arrays of subwavelength strips and wires,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 57(6), 34–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Shea, D. C.

D. C. O’Shea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prather, Diffractive Optics Design, Fabrication and Test (SPIE, 2004).

Ohana, D.

Petit, R.

R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer, 1980).

Pommet, D. A.

Prather, D. W.

D. C. O’Shea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prather, Diffractive Optics Design, Fabrication and Test (SPIE, 2004).

Rockstuhl, C.

M. Fruhnert, A. Monti, I. Fernandez-Corbaton, A. Alù, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, and C. Rockstuhl, “Tunable scattering cancellation cloak with plasmonic ellipsoids in the visible,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 245127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rousso, D.

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sihvola, A.

A. Sihvola, “Enabling optical analog computing with metamaterials,” Science 343, 144–145 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

Studna, A. A.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

Suleski, T. J.

D. C. O’Shea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prather, Diffractive Optics Design, Fabrication and Test (SPIE, 2004).

Sun, M.-G.

Sun, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tamir, T.

H. L. Bertoni, L.-H. S. Cheo, and T. Tamir, “Frequency-selective reflection and transmission by a periodic dielectric layer,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 78–83 (1989).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburr, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tokarsky, E. W.

M. K. Yang, R. H. French, and E. W. Tokarsky, “Optical properties of Teflon® AF amorphous fluoropolymers,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7, 033010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Toscano, A.

M. Fruhnert, A. Monti, I. Fernandez-Corbaton, A. Alù, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, and C. Rockstuhl, “Tunable scattering cancellation cloak with plasmonic ellipsoids in the visible,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 245127 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Monti, A. Toscano, and F. Bilotti, “Exploiting the surface dispersion of nanoparticles to design optical-resistive sheets and Salisbury absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3383–3386 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsai, D. P.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, Y.-J.

Tsitsas, N. L.

N. L. Tsitsas, “Efficient integral equation modeling of scattering by a gradient dielectric metasurface,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Metamater. 4, 3 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. L. Tsitsas and N. K. Uzunoglu, “Scattering by a grating slab waveguide with regular plane regions grooves: integral equation modeling,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45, 1080–1083 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. L. Tsitsas, N. K. Uzunoglu, and D. I. Kaklamani, “Diffraction of plane waves incident on a grated dielectric slab: an entire domain integral equation analysis,” Radio Sci. 42, RS6S22 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. L. Tsitsas, D. I. Kaklamani, and N. K. Uzunoglu, “Integral equation analysis of coupling in symmetric grating assisted optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1488–1502 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. L. Tsitsas, D. I. Kaklamani, and N. K. Uzunoglu, “Rigorous integral equation analysis of nonsymmetric coupled grating slab waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2888–2905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tyler, T.

Uzunoglu, N. K.

N. L. Tsitsas and N. K. Uzunoglu, “Scattering by a grating slab waveguide with regular plane regions grooves: integral equation modeling,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45, 1080–1083 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. L. Tsitsas, N. K. Uzunoglu, and D. I. Kaklamani, “Diffraction of plane waves incident on a grated dielectric slab: an entire domain integral equation analysis,” Radio Sci. 42, RS6S22 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. L. Tsitsas, D. I. Kaklamani, and N. K. Uzunoglu, “Integral equation analysis of coupling in symmetric grating assisted optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1488–1502 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. L. Tsitsas, D. I. Kaklamani, and N. K. Uzunoglu, “Rigorous integral equation analysis of nonsymmetric coupled grating slab waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2888–2905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-M.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weber, M.

M. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Interaction of electromagnetic waves with periodic gratings: enhanced fields and the reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2698–2709 (1983).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.-Y.

Yang, K.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, M. K.

M. K. Yang, R. H. French, and E. W. Tokarsky, “Optical properties of Teflon® AF amorphous fluoropolymers,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7, 033010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.-H.

Ye, S.-C.

Ye, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburr, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhong, S.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

Zinenko, T. L.

V. O. Byelobrov, T. L. Zinenko, K. Kobayashi, and A. I. Nosich, “Periodicity matters: grating or lattice resonances in the scattering by sparse arrays of subwavelength strips and wires,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 57(6), 34–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.-Y.

Y. Li, B. Liang, Z.-M. Gu, X.-Y. Zou, and J.-C. Cheng, “Reflected wavefront manipulation based on ultrathin planar acoustic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2646 (2013).

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Metamater. (1)

N. L. Tsitsas, “Efficient integral equation modeling of scattering by a gradient dielectric metasurface,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Metamater. 4, 3 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. (1)

V. O. Byelobrov, T. L. Zinenko, K. Kobayashi, and A. I. Nosich, “Periodicity matters: grating or lattice resonances in the scattering by sparse arrays of subwavelength strips and wires,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 57(6), 34–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

H. L. Bertoni, L.-H. S. Cheo, and T. Tamir, “Frequency-selective reflection and transmission by a periodic dielectric layer,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 78–83 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

N. L. Tsitsas and N. K. Uzunoglu, “Scattering by a grating slab waveguide with regular plane regions grooves: integral equation modeling,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45, 1080–1083 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

J. Nakayama and A. Kashihara, “Energy balance formulas in grating theory,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1106–1108 (2003).

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS (1)

M. K. Yang, R. H. French, and E. W. Tokarsky, “Optical properties of Teflon® AF amorphous fluoropolymers,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7, 033010 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15, 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

Y. Kivshar and A. Miroshnichenko, “Meta-optics with Mie resonances,” Opt. Photon. News 28(1), 24–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A (1)

N. M. Estakhri, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alù, “Graded metascreens to enable a new degree of nanoscale light management,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 373, 20140351 (2015).
[Crossref]

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

M. Fruhnert, A. Monti, I. Fernandez-Corbaton, A. Alù, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, and C. Rockstuhl, “Tunable scattering cancellation cloak with plasmonic ellipsoids in the visible,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 245127 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and A. Alù, “Matching and funneling light at the plasmonic Brewster angle,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 024304 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Interaction of electromagnetic waves with periodic gratings: enhanced fields and the reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2698–2709 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Radio Sci. (1)

N. L. Tsitsas, N. K. Uzunoglu, and D. I. Kaklamani, “Diffraction of plane waves incident on a grated dielectric slab: an entire domain integral equation analysis,” Radio Sci. 42, RS6S22 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Li, B. Liang, Z.-M. Gu, X.-Y. Zou, and J.-C. Cheng, “Reflected wavefront manipulation based on ultrathin planar acoustic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2646 (2013).

Science (4)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburr, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Sihvola, “Enabling optical analog computing with metamaterials,” Science 343, 144–145 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics, Part I (McGraw-Hill, 1953).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visible_spectrum (accessed January 25, 2017).

http://refractiveindex.info/ (accessed January 11, 2017).

D. C. O’Shea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prather, Diffractive Optics Design, Fabrication and Test (SPIE, 2004).

R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer, 1980).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The considered all-dielectric Λ -periodic metasurface composed of two dielectric materials with refractive indices n 2 and n 1 , widths s Λ and ( 1 s ) Λ , and common thickness w . The metasurface is excited by a unit amplitude TE-polarized plane wave with angle of incidence θ .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Contour plot of | θ 1 r θ | as a function of θ and Λ / λ 0 .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Contour plot of metric m as function of w and Λ for λ 0 = 532    nm (green).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Powers of 1 - and zero-diffracted orders versus the inclusion’s period Λ for (a)  λ 0 = 470    nm (blue), (b)  λ 0 = 532    nm (green), (c)  λ 0 = 580    nm (yellow), (d)  λ 0 = 605    nm (orange), and (e)  λ 0 = 685    nm (red).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic of the energy balance criterion for a lossless metasurface supporting two propagating diffracted orders. (b) Optimized values of the diffracted order powers from the metasurface under consideration for each color of visible light. (c) Visual representation of the diffraction performance for the different colors, according to the data of Table 1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Contour plots of metric m in dB as a function of the wavelength λ 0 and the angle of incidence θ for the optimal values of w and Λ of Table 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optimal Pairs of w and Λ Yielding Maximum P 1 r and Angles θ 1 r for Each Considered Wavelength

Equations (18)

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E i ( x , z ) = Ψ i ( x , z ) y ^ = exp [ i k 0 n 0 ( sin θ x cos θ z ) ] y ^ ,
Ψ ( x , z ) = Ψ 0 ( x , z ) + k 0 2 ( n 2 2 n 1 2 ) S G ( x , z ; x , z ) Ψ ( x , z ) d x d z , ( x , z ) R 2 ,
Ψ ( x , z ) = exp ( i k 0 n 0 cos θ z ) u ( x , z ) ,
u ( x , z ) = Ψ 0 ( x , z ) exp ( i k 0 n 0 cos θ z ) + k 0 2 ( n 2 2 n 1 2 ) 2 Λ p = + [ exp ( i 2 π p Λ z ) × 0 s Λ w 2 w 2 u ( x , ζ ) exp ( i 2 π p Λ ζ ) γ p ( x , x ) d x d ζ ] ,
u ( x , z ) = n = + [ c n + exp ( g n x ) + c n exp ( g n x ) ] × exp ( i 2 π n Λ z ) ,
[ A ++ A + A + A ] [ c + c ] = [ b + b ] ,
Ψ r ( x , z ) = p = + r p exp [ i ( k x , p x k z , p z ) ] , x > w 2 , z R ,
Ψ t ( x , z ) = p = + t p exp [ i ( k x , p x + k z , p z ) ] , x < w 2 , z R ,
k x , p = i ( k 0 n 0 cos θ + 2 π p Λ ) 2 k 0 2 n 0 2 ,
k z , p = k 0 n 0 cos θ + 2 π p Λ .
p ± = ± Λ λ 0 n 0 ( 1 cos θ )
max { 1 cos θ , 1 + cos θ 2 } < λ 0 Λ < 1 + cos θ .
cos θ < λ 0 Λ .
θ 1 r = arctan ( 1 ( cos θ λ 0 Λ ) 2 cos θ λ 0 Λ ) .
P p r = | r p | 2 sin θ 1 ( cos θ + p λ 0 Λ ) 2 ,
P p t = | t p | 2 sin θ 1 ( cos θ + p λ 0 Λ ) 2 .
p P ( P p r + P p t ) = 1 ,
m = P 1 r + P 1 t P 0 r + P 0 t .

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