Abstract

The milestones of attosecond optics research in the last 15 years are briefly reviewed, and the latest trends in applications in gaseous and condensed matter are introduced. An outlook on future development of attosecond soft x-ray sources and their application is provided.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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W. Cao, E. R. Warrick, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond transient absorption of argon atoms in the vacuum ultraviolet region: line energy shifts versus coherent population transfer,” New J. Phys. 18, 013041 (2016).

Y. Yin, J. Li, X. Ren, K. Zhao, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, and Z. Chang, “High-efficiency optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier in BiB3 O6 for generation of 3  mJ, two-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-stable pulses at 1.7 μm,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1142–1145 (2016).
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R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” optica 2, 405–410 (2015).
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F. Suszmann, L. Seiffert, S. Zherebtsov, V. Mondes, J. Stierle, M. Arbeiter, J. Plenge, P. Rupp, C. Peltz, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, B. Ahn, D. Kim, C. Graf, E. Ruhl, M. F. Kling, and T. Fennel, “Field propagation-induced directionality of carrier-envelope phase-controlled photoemission from nanospheres,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7944 (2015).
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O. Pedatzur, G. Orenstein, V. Serbinenko, H. Soifer, B. D. Bruner, A. J. Uzan, D. S. Brambila, A. G. Harvey, L. Torlina, F. Morales, O. Smirnova, and N. Dudovich, “Attosecond tunnelling interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 11, 815–819 (2015).
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C. Zhang, G. Vampa, D. Villeneuve, and P. Corkum, “Attosecond lighthouse driven by sub-two-cycle, 1.8 μm laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 48, 061001 (2015).
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M. Kowalewski, K. Bennett, K. E. Dorfman, and S. Mukamel, “Catching conical intersections in the act: monitoring transient electronic coherences by attosecond stimulated x-ray Raman signals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 193003 (2015).
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E. Cunningham, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase control of a 10  Hz, 25 TW laser for high-flux extreme ultraviolet quasi-continuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 201108 (2015).
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A. R. Beck, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Probing ultrafast dynamics with attosecond transient absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 624, 119–130 (2015).
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C. Lemell, S. Neppl, G. Wachter, K. Tőkési, R. Ernstorfer, P. Feulner, R. Kienberger, and J. Burgdörfer, “Real-time observation of collective excitations in photoemission,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 241101 (2015).
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A. S. Landsman and U. Keller, “Attosecond science and the tunnelling time problem,” Phys. Rep. 547, 1–24 (2015).
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R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 765–802 (2015).
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2014 (17)

A. R. Beck, B. Bernhardt, E. R. Warrick, M. Wu, S. Chen, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond transient absorption probing of electronic superpositions of bound states in neon: detection of quantum beats,” New J. Phys. 16, 113016 (2014).
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H. Vincenti, A. Borot, T. Hammond, K. T. Kim, J. Wheeler, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, J. Hergott, and D. Villeneuve, “Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. B 47, 124004 (2014).
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K. T. Kim, D. Villeneuve, and P. Corkum, “Manipulating quantum paths for novel attosecond measurement methods,” Nat. Photonics 8, 187–194 (2014).
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A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8, 543–549 (2014).
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G. Gariepy, J. Leach, K. T. Kim, T. J. Hammond, E. Frumker, R. W. Boyd, and P. B. Corkum, “Creating high-harmonic beams with controlled orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 153901 (2014).
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M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8, 178–186 (2014).
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S. R. Leone, C. W. McCurdy, J. Burgdorfer, L. S. Cederbaum, Z. Chang, N. Dudovich, J. Feist, C. H. Greene, M. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, U. Keller, M. F. Kling, Z.-H. Loh, T. Pfeifer, A. N. Pfeiffer, R. Santra, K. Schafer, A. Stolow, U. Thumm, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “What will it take to observe processes in “real time”?” Nat. Photonics 8, 162–166 (2014).
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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, and A. Fleischer, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 99–105 (2014).
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B. Mignolet, R. Levine, and F. Remacle, “Control of electronic dynamics visualized by angularly resolved photoelectron spectra: A dynamical simulation with an IR pump and XUV attosecond-pulse-train probe,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 021403 (2014).
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F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, and P. Decleva, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. Kheifets, I. Ivanov, D. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. B 47, 245003 (2014).
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K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, J. P. Siqueira, P. Krogen, J. Moses, C.-L. Chang, G. J. Stein, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Multi-mJ, kHz, 2.1  μm optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier and high-flux soft x-ray high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3145–3148 (2014).
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2013 (12)

S. Mukamel, D. Healion, Y. Zhang, and J. D. Biggs, “Multidimensional attosecond resonant X-ray spectroscopy of molecules: Lessons from the optical regime,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 64, 101–127 (2013).
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Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, H. Zang, J. Li, M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of high-flux attosecond extreme ultraviolet continuum with a 10 TW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201104 (2013).
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C. Hernández-García, A. Picón, J. San Román, and L. Plaja, “Attosecond extreme ultraviolet vortices from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 083602 (2013).
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K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. Villeneuve, and P. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9, 159–163 (2013).
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K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, D. Villeneuve, and P. Corkum, “Petahertz optical oscilloscope,” Nat. Photonics 7, 958–962 (2013).
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H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
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M. Wu, S. Chen, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Time-domain perspective on Autler-Townes splitting in attosecond transient absorption of laser-dressed helium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043416 (2013).
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C. Ott, A. Kaldun, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, J. Evers, C. H. Keitel, C. H. Greene, and T. Pfeifer, “Lorentz meets Fano in spectral line shapes: a universal phase and its laser control,” Science 340, 716–720 (2013).
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S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Quantum interference in attosecond transient absorption of laser-dressed helium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 033408 (2013).
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S. Chen, M. J. Bell, A. R. Beck, H. Mashiko, M. Wu, A. N. Pfeiffer, M. B. Gaarde, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, and K. J. Schafer, “Light-induced states in attosecond transient absorption spectra of laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 063408 (2012).
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S. Pabst, A. Sytcheva, A. Moulet, A. Wirth, E. Goulielmakis, and R. Santra, “Theory of attosecond transient-absorption spectroscopy of krypton for overlapping pump and probe pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 063411 (2012).
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M. Zürch, C. Kern, P. Hansinger, A. Dreischuh, and C. Spielmann, “Strong-field physics with singular light beams,” Nat. Phys. 8, 743–746 (2012).
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B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, M. Giguère, P. Lassonde, C. A. Trallero-Herrero, J. Kieffer, P. Corkum, D. Villeneuve, and F. Légaré, “High harmonic generation with long-wavelength few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 45, 074008 (2012).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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A. D. Dutoi, M. Wormit, and L. S. Cederbaum, “Ultrafast charge separation driven by differential particle and hole mobilities,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024303 (2011).
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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, and T. Mercouris, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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H. Worner, J. Bertrand, D. Kartashov, P. Corkum, and D. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic spectroscope,” Nature 466, 604–607 (2010).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2010).
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2008 (2)

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Effects of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet spectra from double optical gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111105 (2008).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).

2007 (4)

H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, C. Li, E. Moon, H. Wang, J. Tackett, and Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilized 5.6  fs, 1.2  mJ pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161114 (2007).
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F. Tavella, Y. Nomura, L. Veisz, V. Pervak, A. Marcinkevičius, and F. Krausz, “Dispersion management for a sub-10-fs, 10 TW optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2227–2229 (2007).
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2006 (5)

C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase shift caused by variation of grating separation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3113–3115 (2006).
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2005 (5)

H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, K. L. Ishikawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Multiphoton ionization of He by using intense high-order harmonics in the soft-x-ray region,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 023407 (2005).
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2004 (1)

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M.-G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub–50–attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805 (2004).
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2002 (2)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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2001 (4)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
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B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804 (2001).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
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1999 (3)

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
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1998 (1)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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1997 (2)

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, G. Taft, E. Zeek, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, I. Christov, and V. Stoev, “Ultrafast laser and amplifier sources,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 161–174 (1997).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X rays at 2.7  nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
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1996 (1)

P. Antoine, A. L’huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
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1995 (3)

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1994 (3)

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Phys. Rev. X (1)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

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Rev. Mod. Phys. (3)

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 765–802 (2015).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

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Science (11)

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P. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. Penka, G. Grassi, O. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, and F. Jensen, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
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N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Sub-two-cycle millijoule optical pulses at 1600  nm from a BiB3 O6 optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper SF1M.3.

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D. H. Ko and P. B. Corkum, “All-optical single-shot measurement of time-dependent fields in short pulses,” paper #2, Atto2015, July 6-10, 2015 in Saint-Sauveur, Québec, Canada.

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E. Cunningham, Towards High-flux Isolated Attosecond Pulses with A 200 TW CPA (University of Central Florida Orlando, 2015).

Z. Chang, Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics (CRC Press, 2011), Vol. 1.

http://www.eli-hu.hu/?q=en/02_Parameters .

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectrum of 10 as transform-limited Gaussian pulses. The photon energies of x-ray emission lines from several elements are labeled.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Ti:Sapphire laser for driving the first-generation attosecond light sources.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Carrier-envelope phase, which becomes important when the gating (blue online) approaches a laser cycle, T 0 . Republished with permission of Taylor & Francis, from [3].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Double chirped pulse amplification for generating Joule level pulses with < 15    fs duration. Reproduced from [33], with the permission of AIP Publishing.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effects of CE phase on the XUV spectrum generated with a 10 Hz laser. Reproduced from [33], with the permission of AIP Publishing.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculated maximum photon energy as a function of driving laser wavelength. Republished with permission of Taylor & Francis, from [3].

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Soft x-ray spectrum generated by CE phase stabilized OPA laser [41]. Reprinted with permission from Optical Society of America.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Two-cycle OPCPA laser at 1.6 μm pumped by Ti:Sapphire lasers [44]. Reprinted with permission from Optical Society of America.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Illustration of the electron wave packet that separates from the bound state of an atom, molecule or solid near a field crest but re-collides after motion in the continuum. Quantum trajectories link moments of birth in the wave packet to time and energy of re-collision.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Illustration of polarization gating. Left and right circular polarized beams are combined to produce a fundamental beam with time-dependent polarization. Re-collision and, therefore, harmonic generation are only possible during a brief interval when the polarization is near linear. Republished with permission of Taylor & Francis, from [56].

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Taken from [59] showing a diffraction-limited few-cycle pulse passing through two complementary wedges that are slightly unbalanced (equivalent to a very small angle wedge). In the far field, the beam has a time-dependent wavefront. High harmonics produced with such a pulse break into isolated pulses that propagate in slightly different directions. These many phase-related attosecond beams can be independently controlled.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Sketch taken from [64] of an attosecond streak camera, showing the source jet, labeled the HHG target and the measurement jet, labeled the photoelectron target. Streaking is performed with the fundamental beam (red) separated from the attosecond pulse (blue) by a filter.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Adapted from [75]. Reprinted with permission from AAAS. A beam of NO 2 molecules is ejected into the vacuum. Excited by 400 nm light, the NO 2 molecules bend toward a conical intersection. High harmonic radiation created by a delayed, intense 800 nm beam is diffracted by the patterned medium. A fully coherent spectroscopy, the diffraction pattern encodes the time dependence of the amplitude and phase of the transition moment of the excited state relative to the fixed ground state of the molecule.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Setup for attosecond transient absorption, showing a partial polarization gate (PASSAGE) [58].

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Attosecond transient absorption spectrum in argon [91]. Static spectrum on left.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Streaking delays of the Mg 2p resonance and the first plasmon-like satellite feature in the metal. Reprinted with permission from [94] by the American Physical Society.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Transient absorption spectra of krypton in strong field ionization [79].

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Predicted helical vortex structures of He photoionization as a function of circularly polarized attosecond pulse delays. Reprinted with permission from [117] by the American Physical Society.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Silicon attosecond conduction band excitation experiment, showing (a) persistent shifts and broadening and transient shifts in derivative spectra, (b) step-like features in the electronic response, (c) conduction band shift, and (d) slower lattice response. From [119]. Reprinted with permission from AAAS.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Driving laser development at the ELI-ALPS [120]. Reprinted with permission.

Equations (2)

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ω c = I P + 0.5 I p 3.5 λ 2 [ ln ( 0.86 I p 3 2 n * 1 G l m C n * l * 2 ln ( 1 p s ) τ p ) ] 2 ,
ω c , p m = I P + 0.5 I p 3.5 λ 2 [ ln ( 0.86 I p 3 2 n * 1 G l m C n * l * 2 ln ( 1 p p m ) τ p ) ] 2 .

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