Abstract

We present an experimental characterization of how signal gain saturation affects the transfer of intensity modulation from the pump to the signal in single-pump, phase-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). In this work, we demonstrate experimentally for the first time, to our knowledge, how gain saturation of a FOPA reduces the noise contribution due to the transfer of pump power fluctuations to the signal. In a particular example, it is shown that the transferred noise is significantly reduced by a factor of 3, while the FOPA gain remains above 10 dB.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2006).
  2. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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  4. Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 2884–2893 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, K. K. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Pump-to-signal transfer of low-frequency intensity modulation in fiber optic parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1049–1055 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Inoue, “Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1016–1018 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Inoue and T. Mukai, “Signal wavelength dependence of gain saturation in a fiber optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 26, 10–12 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1255–1257 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Peucheret, M. Lorenzen, J. Seoane, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 872–874 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

C. Peucheret, M. Lorenzen, J. Seoane, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1255–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2002

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

K. Inoue, “Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2006).

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1255–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Peucheret, M. Lorenzen, J. Seoane, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hedekvist, P.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue and T. Mukai, “Signal wavelength dependence of gain saturation in a fiber optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 26, 10–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, “Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kalogerakis, G.

Karlsson, M.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1255–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

Kumar, P.

Kylemark, P.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1255–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzen, M.

C. Peucheret, M. Lorenzen, J. Seoane, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lundström, C.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marhic, M. E.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

Nielsen, C. V.

C. Peucheret, M. Lorenzen, J. Seoane, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noordegraaf, D.

C. Peucheret, M. Lorenzen, J. Seoane, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peucheret, C.

C. Peucheret, M. Lorenzen, J. Seoane, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rottwitt, K.

C. Peucheret, M. Lorenzen, J. Seoane, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seoane, J.

C. Peucheret, M. Lorenzen, J. Seoane, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Voss, P. L.

Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. K.

Electron. Lett.

K. Inoue, “Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1255–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Peucheret, M. Lorenzen, J. Seoane, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of the FOPA for pump-to-signal IMT characterization in pump depletion.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pump and signal output power as a function of signal input power measured at the maximum gain wavelength (λs=1550nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Wavelength dependence of the signal gain for different signal power levels. (b) IMT coefficient ρ as a function of signal wavelength for different signal power levels for 10 GHz RF modulation frequency. The marks are the measured data and the lines are the numerical simulation results.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured signal gain and (b) measured IMT coefficient as a function of the input signal power at the maximum gain (λs=1550nm). The RF modulation frequency is 10 GHz. The continuous line is a fit to the measured data.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated signal gain as a function of the input signal power at λs=1550nm for two different pump power levels (Pp=27.5dBm, 28.1 dBm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Calculated signal gain and (b) calculated IMT coefficient as a function of wavelength for two different pump power levels (Pp=27.5dBm, 28.1 dBm), in both cases of unsaturated and saturated amplifier operation. The RF modulation frequency is 10 GHz.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Measured noise spectral density as a function of the signal wavelength for different signal power levels and (b) the noise spectral density as a function of the input signal power at the maximum gain wavelength (λs=1550nm).

Equations (2)

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ρ=msmp,
mi=PimaxPiminPiavg=ΔPiPiavg.

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