Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the ability of double blind frequency-resolved optical gating to simultaneously measure two independent pulses at very different wavelengths on a single shot. Our device uses polarization-gate geometry, allowing pulses at any two wavelengths and unlimited operating bandwidth. The retrieval algorithm is robust and is capable of ignoring most forms of noise in the measured spectrograms.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic, 2002).
  2. S. Akturk, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, and R. Trebino, “FROG for measuring extremely short and extremely long pulses,” 10–12Photon. Int. (2006).
  3. P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932–934 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, and R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20 fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025–1027 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Bowlan and R. Trebino, “Complete single-shot measurement of arbitrary nanosecond laser pulses in time,” Opt. Express 19, 1367–1377 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Gu, M. W. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved-optical-gating measurements of ultrabroadband continuum from microstructure optical fiber,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, Thirteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 277–278.
  7. Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of supercontinuum from an 8 mm-long microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 239–244 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, “Toward single-shot measurement of broadband ultrafast continuum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A25–A33 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and W. E. White, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463–2466 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. J. Field, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Blind frequency-resolved optical-gating pulse characterization for quantitative differential multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3369–3371(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, and T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 935–943 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Birger and S. Heinrich, “A method for unique phase retrieval of ultrafast optical fields,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 015303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. C. Wong, J. Ratner, V. Chauhan, J. Cohen, P. M. Vaughan, L. Xu, A. Consoli, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneously measuring two ultrashort laser pulses on a single-shot using double-blind frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1237–1244 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2012

T. C. Wong, J. Ratner, V. Chauhan, J. Cohen, P. M. Vaughan, L. Xu, A. Consoli, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneously measuring two ultrashort laser pulses on a single-shot using double-blind frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1237–1244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

P. Bowlan and R. Trebino, “Complete single-shot measurement of arbitrary nanosecond laser pulses in time,” Opt. Express 19, 1367–1377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. J. Field, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Blind frequency-resolved optical-gating pulse characterization for quantitative differential multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3369–3371(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Birger and S. Heinrich, “A method for unique phase retrieval of ultrafast optical fields,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 015303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, “Toward single-shot measurement of broadband ultrafast continuum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A25–A33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Akturk, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, and R. Trebino, “FROG for measuring extremely short and extremely long pulses,” 10–12Photon. Int. (2006).

2004

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, and R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20 fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025–1027 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of supercontinuum from an 8 mm-long microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932–934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, and T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 935–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and W. E. White, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463–2466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

S. Akturk, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, and R. Trebino, “FROG for measuring extremely short and extremely long pulses,” 10–12Photon. Int. (2006).

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, and R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20 fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025–1027 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birger, S.

S. Birger and S. Heinrich, “A method for unique phase retrieval of ultrafast optical fields,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 015303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowlan, P.

P. Bowlan and R. Trebino, “Complete single-shot measurement of arbitrary nanosecond laser pulses in time,” Opt. Express 19, 1367–1377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of supercontinuum from an 8 mm-long microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chauhan, V.

T. C. Wong, J. Ratner, V. Chauhan, J. Cohen, P. M. Vaughan, L. Xu, A. Consoli, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneously measuring two ultrashort laser pulses on a single-shot using double-blind frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1237–1244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clement, T. S.

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, and T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 935–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, J.

T. C. Wong, J. Ratner, V. Chauhan, J. Cohen, P. M. Vaughan, L. Xu, A. Consoli, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneously measuring two ultrashort laser pulses on a single-shot using double-blind frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1237–1244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Consoli, A.

T. C. Wong, J. Ratner, V. Chauhan, J. Cohen, P. M. Vaughan, L. Xu, A. Consoli, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneously measuring two ultrashort laser pulses on a single-shot using double-blind frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1237–1244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and W. E. White, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463–2466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J.

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of supercontinuum from an 8 mm-long microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

J. J. Field, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Blind frequency-resolved optical-gating pulse characterization for quantitative differential multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3369–3371(2010).
[CrossRef]

Field, J. J.

J. J. Field, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Blind frequency-resolved optical-gating pulse characterization for quantitative differential multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3369–3371(2010).
[CrossRef]

Gabolde, P.

D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, “Toward single-shot measurement of broadband ultrafast continuum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A25–A33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

S. Akturk, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, and R. Trebino, “FROG for measuring extremely short and extremely long pulses,” 10–12Photon. Int. (2006).

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of supercontinuum from an 8 mm-long microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932–934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, M. W. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved-optical-gating measurements of ultrabroadband continuum from microstructure optical fiber,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, Thirteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 277–278.

Heinrich, S.

S. Birger and S. Heinrich, “A method for unique phase retrieval of ultrafast optical fields,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 015303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, and T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 935–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M.

S. Akturk, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, and R. Trebino, “FROG for measuring extremely short and extremely long pulses,” 10–12Photon. Int. (2006).

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, and R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20 fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025–1027 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of supercontinuum from an 8 mm-long microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932–934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M. W.

X. Gu, M. W. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved-optical-gating measurements of ultrabroadband continuum from microstructure optical fiber,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, Thirteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 277–278.

Kuhl, J.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, “Toward single-shot measurement of broadband ultrafast continuum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A25–A33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, P.

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, and R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20 fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025–1027 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932–934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, M. W. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved-optical-gating measurements of ultrabroadband continuum from microstructure optical fiber,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, Thirteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 277–278.

Ratner, J.

T. C. Wong, J. Ratner, V. Chauhan, J. Cohen, P. M. Vaughan, L. Xu, A. Consoli, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneously measuring two ultrashort laser pulses on a single-shot using double-blind frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1237–1244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, and T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 935–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

J. J. Field, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Blind frequency-resolved optical-gating pulse characterization for quantitative differential multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3369–3371(2010).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, and T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 935–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

T. C. Wong, J. Ratner, V. Chauhan, J. Cohen, P. M. Vaughan, L. Xu, A. Consoli, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneously measuring two ultrashort laser pulses on a single-shot using double-blind frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1237–1244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Bowlan and R. Trebino, “Complete single-shot measurement of arbitrary nanosecond laser pulses in time,” Opt. Express 19, 1367–1377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, “Toward single-shot measurement of broadband ultrafast continuum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A25–A33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, and R. Trebino, “FROG for measuring extremely short and extremely long pulses,” 10–12Photon. Int. (2006).

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, and R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20 fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025–1027 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of supercontinuum from an 8 mm-long microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932–934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and W. E. White, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463–2466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, M. W. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved-optical-gating measurements of ultrabroadband continuum from microstructure optical fiber,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, Thirteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 277–278.

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic, 2002).

Vaughan, P. M.

T. C. Wong, J. Ratner, V. Chauhan, J. Cohen, P. M. Vaughan, L. Xu, A. Consoli, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneously measuring two ultrashort laser pulses on a single-shot using double-blind frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1237–1244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

White, W. E.

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and W. E. White, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463–2466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of supercontinuum from an 8 mm-long microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, M. W. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved-optical-gating measurements of ultrabroadband continuum from microstructure optical fiber,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, Thirteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 277–278.

Wong, T. C.

T. C. Wong, J. Ratner, V. Chauhan, J. Cohen, P. M. Vaughan, L. Xu, A. Consoli, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneously measuring two ultrashort laser pulses on a single-shot using double-blind frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1237–1244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

T. C. Wong, J. Ratner, V. Chauhan, J. Cohen, P. M. Vaughan, L. Xu, A. Consoli, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneously measuring two ultrashort laser pulses on a single-shot using double-blind frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1237–1244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, E.

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of supercontinuum from an 8 mm-long microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, M. W. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved-optical-gating measurements of ultrabroadband continuum from microstructure optical fiber,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, Thirteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 277–278.

Appl. Phys. B

Q. Cao, X. Gu, E. Zeek, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, and R. S. Windeler, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of supercontinuum from an 8 mm-long microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, “Toward single-shot measurement of broadband ultrafast continuum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A25–A33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and W. E. White, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463–2466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, G. Rodriguez, A. J. Taylor, and T. S. Clement, “Simultaneous measurement of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram in a single shot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 935–943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Wong, J. Ratner, V. Chauhan, J. Cohen, P. M. Vaughan, L. Xu, A. Consoli, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneously measuring two ultrashort laser pulses on a single-shot using double-blind frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1237–1244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. Birger and S. Heinrich, “A method for unique phase retrieval of ultrafast optical fields,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 015303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

P. Bowlan and R. Trebino, “Complete single-shot measurement of arbitrary nanosecond laser pulses in time,” Opt. Express 19, 1367–1377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

J. J. Field, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Blind frequency-resolved optical-gating pulse characterization for quantitative differential multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3369–3371(2010).
[CrossRef]

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932–934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, and R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20 fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025–1027 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Gu, M. W. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved-optical-gating measurements of ultrabroadband continuum from microstructure optical fiber,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XIII, Thirteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 277–278.

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic, 2002).

S. Akturk, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, and R. Trebino, “FROG for measuring extremely short and extremely long pulses,” 10–12Photon. Int. (2006).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of single-shot DB PG FROG for measuring an unknown pulse pair.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pulse retrieval algorithm in DB PG FROG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of single-shot DB PG FROG for measuring an unknown pulse pair at different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm in our experiment).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured trace 1 for a chirped pulse train; (b) Retrieved trace 1 with a FROG error of 0.81%; (c) Retrieved pulse intensity and phase in temporal domain showing structures from chirped pulse beating; (d) The measured spectrum and the spectral phase compared with measurement made by a spectrometer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measured trace 2 for a chirped double pulse; (b) Retrieved trace 2 with a FROG error of 0.74%; (c) Retrieved pulse intensity and phase in temporal domain showing structures from chirped pulse beating; (d) The measured spectrum and the spectral phase compared with measurement made by a spectrometer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Measured trace for a simple pulse at 400 nm; (b) Retrieved trace with a FROG error of 0.32%; (c) Retrieved pulse intensity and phase in temporal domain showing structures from chirped pulse beating; (d) The measured spectrum and the spectral phase compared with measurement made by a spectrometer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Measured trace for a simple pulse at 800 nm; (b) Retrieved trace with a FROG error of 0.30%; (c) Retrieved pulse intensity and phase in time compared with an independent GRENOUILLE measurement; (d) The measured spectrum and the spectral phase compared with those made using a GRENOUILLE.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Measured DB PG FROG trace for a simple pulse at 400 nm; (b) Retrieved trace with a FROG error of 0.83%; (c) Retrieved pulse intensity and phase in temporal domain; (d) The measured spectrum and the spectral phase compared with a measurement made by a spectrometer.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Measured DB PG FROG trace for a well separated double pulse at 800 nm; (b) Retrieved trace with a FROG error of 0.52%; (c) Retrieved pulse intensity and phase in temporal domain; (d) The measured spectrum and the spectral phase compared with a measurement made by a spectrometer.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Four spectra of the same pulse measured at different times. The spectra have same fringes separation but a slightly different envelope.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Higher resolution plot of the DB PG FROG trace captured in the 400 nm arm showing the higher frequency fringe artifact due to etalon effects in the nonlinear medium.

Equations (3)

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P1NLχ(3)E2E2*E1,
P2NLχ(3)E1E1*E2,
Δλ=|λ22n(λ)L|.

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