Abstract

A fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (FL-NICE-OHMS) system for white-noise-limited Doppler-broadened detection down to 5.6×1012cm1Hz1/2 is demonstrated. The system is based on a previous FL-NICE-OHMS instrumentation in which the locking of the laser frequency to a cavity mode has been improved by the use of an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and provision of a more stable environment by the employment of a noise-isolating enclosed double-layer table, a temperature regulation of the laboratory, and an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) gas system. White-noise behavior up to 10 s provides the instrument with a minimum detectable on-resonance absorbance per unit length of 1.8×1012cm1 and a relative single-pass absorption (ΔI/I) of 7.2×1011. The system was applied to detection of acetylene on a transition at 1531.588 nm, yielding a detection sensitivity of C2H2 in atmospheric pressure gas of 4 ppt (measured over 10 s).

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

C. L. Bell, G. Hancock, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, J. H. van Helden, and N. J. van Leeuwen, “Characterization of an external cavity diode laser based ring cavity NICE-OHMS system,” Opt. Express 17, 9834–9839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Wavelength-modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signal line shapes in the Doppler limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1384–1394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Taubmann, T. Myers, B. Cannon, and R. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457–3468 (2004).

N. van Leeuwen and A. Wilson, “Measurement of pressure-broadened, ultraweak transitions with noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1713–1721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. van Leeuwen, H. Kjaergaard, D. Howard, and A. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228, 83–91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Near-infrared laser spectrometer with sub-Doppler resolution, high sensitivity, and wide tunability: a case study in the 1.65 μm region of CH3I spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 200, 147–149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

L. Gianfrani, R. Fox, and L. Hollberg, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of molecular oxygen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2247–2254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Highly sensitive cavity-enhanced sub-doppler spectroscopy of a molecular overtone band with a 1.66 μm tunable diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 920–922 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. Hall, “Ultrasensitive frequency-modulation spectroscopy enhanced by a high-finesse optical cavity: theory and application to overtone transitions of C2H2 and C2HD,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2255–2268 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye and J. Hall, “Optical phase locking in the microradian domain: potential applications to NASA spaceborne optical measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 1838–1840 (1999).

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

J. Weideman, “Computation of the complex error function,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 31, 1497–1518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption-spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

J. Hall and T. Haensch, “External dye-laser frequency stabilizer,” Opt. Lett. 9, 502–504 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. DeVoe and R. Brewer, “Laser frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827–2829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, and H. Chuan, “Recent developments in high-resolution saturation spectroscopy obtained by means of acoustooptic modulators,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357–363 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D.

D. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, T. Udem, and T. W. Haensch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry–Perot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Auwera, J. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2797–2805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Dicke narrowing in the dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopytheory and experimental verification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2390–2401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, J. Wang, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Distributed-feedback-laser-based NICE-OHMS in the pressure-broadened regime,” Opt. Express 18, 18580–18591 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Wavelength-modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signal line shapes in the Doppler limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1384–1394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16, 14689–14702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Theoretical description of Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy under optically saturated conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1144–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1156–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Axner, W. Ma, and A. Foltynowicz, “Sub-Doppler dispersion and noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy revised,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1166–1177 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1392–1405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened fiber-laser-based NICE-OHMS—Improved detectability,” Opt. Express 15, 10822–10831 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kluczynski, A. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Characterization of background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of a Fourier based theoretical formalism,” Appl. Opt. 40, 770–782 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Influence of environmental conditions to a fiber-laser based NICE-OHMS system” (available from ove.axner@physics.umu.se).

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Frequency modulation background signals from fiber-based electro optic modulators are caused by crosstalk,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.29, 916–923 (2012).

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bell, C. L.

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G.

Black, E.

E. Black, “An introduction to Pound–Drever–Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69, 79–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bood, J.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, R.

R. DeVoe and R. Brewer, “Laser frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827–2829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Camy, G.

G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, and H. Chuan, “Recent developments in high-resolution saturation spectroscopy obtained by means of acoustooptic modulators,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357–363 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, B.

M. Taubmann, T. Myers, B. Cannon, and R. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457–3468 (2004).

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chuan, H.

G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, and H. Chuan, “Recent developments in high-resolution saturation spectroscopy obtained by means of acoustooptic modulators,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357–363 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Courtier, N.

G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, and H. Chuan, “Recent developments in high-resolution saturation spectroscopy obtained by means of acoustooptic modulators,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357–363 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeVoe, R.

R. DeVoe and R. Brewer, “Laser frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827–2829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dube, P.

Ehlers, P.

J. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Dicke narrowing in the dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopytheory and experimental verification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2390–2401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, J. Wang, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Distributed-feedback-laser-based NICE-OHMS in the pressure-broadened regime,” Opt. Express 18, 18580–18591 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Frequency modulation background signals from fiber-based electro optic modulators are caused by crosstalk,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.29, 916–923 (2012).

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Influence of environmental conditions to a fiber-laser based NICE-OHMS system” (available from ove.axner@physics.umu.se).

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foltynowicz, A.

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2797–2805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, J. Wang, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Distributed-feedback-laser-based NICE-OHMS in the pressure-broadened regime,” Opt. Express 18, 18580–18591 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Wavelength-modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signal line shapes in the Doppler limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1384–1394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16, 14689–14702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Theoretical description of Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy under optically saturated conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1144–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Axner, W. Ma, and A. Foltynowicz, “Sub-Doppler dispersion and noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy revised,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1166–1177 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1156–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1392–1405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened fiber-laser-based NICE-OHMS—Improved detectability,” Opt. Express 15, 10822–10831 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fox, R.

L. Gianfrani, R. Fox, and L. Hollberg, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of molecular oxygen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2247–2254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Fox, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “Stabilizing diode lasers to high-finesse cavities,” in Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies, R. D. van Zee and J. P. Looney, eds. (Elsevier Science, 2002).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gehrtz, M.

Gianfrani, L.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haensch, T.

Haensch, T. W.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, T. Udem, and T. W. Haensch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry–Perot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J.

Hancock, G.

Hollberg, L.

L. Gianfrani, R. Fox, and L. Hollberg, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of molecular oxygen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2247–2254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Fox, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “Stabilizing diode lasers to high-finesse cavities,” in Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies, R. D. van Zee and J. P. Looney, eds. (Elsevier Science, 2002).

Hough, J.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Howard, D.

N. van Leeuwen, H. Kjaergaard, D. Howard, and A. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228, 83–91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, C.

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Near-infrared laser spectrometer with sub-Doppler resolution, high sensitivity, and wide tunability: a case study in the 1.65 μm region of CH3I spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 200, 147–149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Highly sensitive cavity-enhanced sub-doppler spectroscopy of a molecular overtone band with a 1.66 μm tunable diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 920–922 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kjaergaard, H.

N. van Leeuwen, H. Kjaergaard, D. Howard, and A. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228, 83–91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kluczynski, P.

Kolachevsky, N.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, T. Udem, and T. W. Haensch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry–Perot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, A.

Lock, T.

Ma, L.

Ma, W.

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Wavelength-modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signal line shapes in the Doppler limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1384–1394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16, 14689–14702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Theoretical description of Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy under optically saturated conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1144–1155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1156–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Axner, W. Ma, and A. Foltynowicz, “Sub-Doppler dispersion and noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy revised,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1166–1177 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1392–1405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened fiber-laser-based NICE-OHMS—Improved detectability,” Opt. Express 15, 10822–10831 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matveev, A.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, T. Udem, and T. W. Haensch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry–Perot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McIlroy, A.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption-spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Myers, T.

M. Taubmann, T. Myers, B. Cannon, and R. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457–3468 (2004).

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C.

R. Fox, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “Stabilizing diode lasers to high-finesse cavities,” in Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies, R. D. van Zee and J. P. Looney, eds. (Elsevier Science, 2002).

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, D.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peverall, R.

Pinaud, D.

G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, and H. Chuan, “Recent developments in high-resolution saturation spectroscopy obtained by means of acoustooptic modulators,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357–363 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, G. A. D.

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sasada, H.

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Near-infrared laser spectrometer with sub-Doppler resolution, high sensitivity, and wide tunability: a case study in the 1.65 μm region of CH3I spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 200, 147–149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Highly sensitive cavity-enhanced sub-doppler spectroscopy of a molecular overtone band with a 1.66 μm tunable diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 920–922 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F. M.

Silander, I.

J. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Dicke narrowing in the dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopytheory and experimental verification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2390–2401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2797–2805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Influence of environmental conditions to a fiber-laser based NICE-OHMS system” (available from ove.axner@physics.umu.se).

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Frequency modulation background signals from fiber-based electro optic modulators are caused by crosstalk,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.29, 916–923 (2012).

Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption-spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taubmann, M.

M. Taubmann, T. Myers, B. Cannon, and R. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457–3468 (2004).

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, T. Udem, and T. W. Haensch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry–Perot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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J. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Dicke narrowing in the dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopytheory and experimental verification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2390–2401 (2011).
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I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Influence of environmental conditions to a fiber-laser based NICE-OHMS system” (available from ove.axner@physics.umu.se).

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N. van Leeuwen and A. Wilson, “Measurement of pressure-broadened, ultraweak transitions with noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1713–1721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. van Leeuwen, H. Kjaergaard, D. Howard, and A. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228, 83–91 (2004).
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N. van Leeuwen and A. Wilson, “Measurement of pressure-broadened, ultraweak transitions with noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1713–1721 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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Other (3)

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Influence of environmental conditions to a fiber-laser based NICE-OHMS system” (available from ove.axner@physics.umu.se).

R. Fox, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “Stabilizing diode lasers to high-finesse cavities,” in Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies, R. D. van Zee and J. P. Looney, eds. (Elsevier Science, 2002).

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Frequency modulation background signals from fiber-based electro optic modulators are caused by crosstalk,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.29, 916–923 (2012).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of the FL-NICE-OHMS instrumentation realized in this work. Red solid lines, optical fibers; red dotted lines, free-space light path; +,output coupler or collimating lens; P, polarizer; λ/2, half-wave plate; PBC, polarizing beam splitter cube; D1, reflection detector with RF-amplification at 20 and 380 MHz; D2, transmission detector with RF-amplification at 380 MHz; DBM, double-balanced mixer; LP, low-pass-filter; BP, 360 MHz bandpass filter; Δφ, phase shifter; 20 MHz, fixed 20 MHz-source for PDH and FSR locking; 110 MHz, VCO1 (followed by an amplifier; see text); 380 MHz, VCO2 (see text). The green elements on each side of the cavity are the PZT for changing the cavity length, onto which the cavity-mirrors are attached.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Frequency transfer function of the laser frequency control servo system, illustrated as gain (a) and phase shift (b). The three curves in each panel correspond to PZT-servo (dash-dotted, blue in color), AOM-servo (dashed, red in color), and their combination (solid, black in color). See text for details.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Picture of the experimental setup. A thermoplastic box enclosed the upper breadboard of a double-table construction. Window panels can be opened independently to allow for access to the optical equipment. Electronics were placed in a rack beside the box. The fiber laser was placed on a free-standing instrumentation shelf above the table.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Power spectrum of the Pound–Drever–Hall error signal at the input of the PDH-servo (point “A” in Fig. 1) from DC to 100 kHz. The three curves correspond to PZT-locking-scheme (upper curve, blue in color), AOM-locking-scheme (middle curve, red in color), and laser amplitude noise (lower curve, black in color). The bump in the upper curve around 33 kHz originates from the intrinsic laser PZT resonance.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Pound–Drever–Hall error signals (as a measure of the laser-cavity jitter) as a function of time at the input of the locking servo (point “A” in Fig. 1) and their amplitude distributions for PZT (a) and (b) and AOM locking (c) and (d). The jagged black traces in (a) and (c) show the error signals versus time (over a period of 40 s), whereas the thin red curves indicate a running average over 100 samples. (b) and (d) display the amplitude distribution of the two data sets, each consisting of 7000 samples. The vertical axis of the upper distribution has been enlarged by a factor of 3.6 to more clearly show the distribution.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

NICE-OHMS dispersion signals for the cases with PZT locking (a) and AOM locking (b). The upper part of each panel shows the recorded signal (jagged black) and the corresponding fit of Eq. (1) (smooth red); the lower parts illustrate the residuals of the fits. The signals were taken at 150 mTorr of 10 ppm C2H2 in N2.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

NICE-OHMS dispersion signal strength expressed as length-normalized absorbance (i.e., α0/L) as a function of time (over a time period of 2 hours) for the cases with (a) 150 mTorr (2×104atm) of 10 ppm C2H2 in N2 [hence with a C2H2 partial pressure, pC2H2, of 1500 nTorr (2×109atm)] locked with the PZT (upper jagged black curve) or the AOM (lower downward-slanting jagged black curve), where the thin upward-slanting blue curve and the thin smooth downward-slanting red curve, both within the black jagged curves, represent running averages over 10 s; (b) zero gas locked with the AOM (black curves), taken on two different occasions (downward- and upward-slanting jagged gray curves), with their corresponding (overlapping) running averages as thin smooth downard-slanting black and upward-slanting green curves; and (c) a blocked detector (black curve, running-average violet curve). Note the differences in scales.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Various NICE-OHMS Allan deviation curves for the instrumentation realized. The lowest curve (black) indicates the shot-noise limit. The second lowest curve (violet) represents the instrumentation noise (measured with a blocked detector). The uppermost (blue) curve shows the NICE-OHMS signal from 150 mTorr of 10 ppm of C2H2 in N2 solely locked by the PZT, corresponding to the upper curve in Fig. 7(a). The curve with similar long-time dependence (red) illustrates the corresponding signal when also the AOM lock was activated and corresponds to the lower curve in Fig. 7(a). The two remaining curves (both in black) correspond to the two curves in Fig. 7(b) and represent the extreme Allan deviation curves for a set of repeated measurements of zero gas over a longer period of time (several days). The yellow area between the two black curves thus shows the region in which long-integration time drifts typically appeared.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The Allan deviation of NICE-OHMS dispersion signals from a gas mixture with 10 ppm C2H2 in N2 (in terms of the Allan deviation at the shot-noise limit) as a function of total pressure as well as absorbance per unit length. The horizontal bar around 6.5 is the noise-level of zero gas (i.e., pure N2), which is constant for all pressures and also equal to the noise-level of an empty cavity.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Normalized signal strength Sfm/(ηfmP0) as a function of pressure for the targeted transition and the experimental parameters given in Section 3. The maximum value, 8.3×105, is reached at a pressure around 63 Torr and is 140 times larger than the normalized signal strength at 150 mTorr, i.e., 6×107.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Sfm=S0χfm.
S0=ηfmFπJ0(β)J1(β)P0α0,
α0=S^crelpLχ0,
χ0=ln(2)πcΓD,
ΓD=(ν0/c)2ln(2)kBT/m,
χfm(Δν,νm)=[χdisp(Δν+νm)2χdisp(Δν)+χdisp(Δννm)]cos(θfm)+[χabs(Δν+νm)χabs(Δννm)]sin(θfm),
χabs(Δν+ϵνm)=11+G±1Re[w(z)],
χdisp(Δν+ϵνm)=Im[w(z)],
w(z)=ez2(1+2iπ0zes2ds),
x=ln(2)(Δν+ϵνm)/ΓD
y=ln(2)(1+G±1)ΓL/ΓD,
α0min=π2F2eBηP02J0(β)J1(β)1max[χfm(Δν,νm)],
σA2(τ)=12(m1)s=1m1[As+1(k)As(k)]2,

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