Abstract

The nonlinear optical properties of silver-nanoparticle-decorated functionalized (hydrogen-induced reduction, exfoliated) multilayered graphene (AgNP/fG) composite have been investigated in the picosecond time scale by using the Z-scan technique. Drastic changes in the Z-scan profiles are obtained in AgNP/fG at 1064 nm as the profile flips from the behavior of strong saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) on increasing the incident intensity. On the other hand, in graphene, the effect of weaker SA is observed at low intensities, but it flips to RSA at higher incident intensities. The strong SA in the case of the composite has been attributed to the electronic interaction between graphene and silver nanoparticles. The metallic plasmonic transition has a contribution to the optical nonlinearity in AgNP/fG at 532 nm.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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T. T. Baby and S. Ramaprabhu, “Synthesis and nanofluid application of silver nanoparticles decorated graphene,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 9702–9709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, F. Xu, W. Yang, M. Guo, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Tang, “A facile one-pot method to high-quality Ag-graphene composite nanosheets for efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Commun. 47, 6440–6442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

A. Kaniyoor, T. T. Baby, and S. Ramaprabhu, “Graphene synthesis via hydrogen induced low temperature exfoliation of graphite oxide,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 8467–8469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photon. 4, 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Manna, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “A study of graphene decorated with metal nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 497, 70–75 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Kalanoor and P. B. Bisht, “Wavelength dependent resonant nonlinearities in a standard saturable absorber IR26 on picosecond time scale,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

G. Goncalves, P. A. A. P. Marques, C. M. Granadeiro, H. I. S. Nogueira, M. K. Singh, and J. Grácio, “Surface modification of graphene nanosheets with gold nanoparticles: the role of oxygen moieties at graphene surface on gold nucleation and growth,” Chem. Mater. 21, 4796–4802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (8)

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16, 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Li and R. B. Kaner, “Graphene-based materials,” Science 320, 1170–1171 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Das, R. Voggu, C. S. Rout, and C. N. R. Rao, “Changes in the electronic structure and properties of graphene induced by molecular charge-transfer,” Chem. Commun. 44, 5155–5157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Rana, “Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 91–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

C. Wang, Y. Fu, Z. Zhou, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond filamentation and supercontinuum generation in silver-nanoparticle-doped water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Williams, L. DiCarlo, and C. M. Marcus, “Quantum hall effect in a gate-controlled p-n junction of graphene,” Science 317, 638–641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Lakowicz, “Plasmonics in biology and plasmon-controlled fluorescence,” Plasmonics 1, 5–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Wildgoose, C. E. Banks, and R. G. Compton, “Metal nanoparticles and related materials supported on carbon nanotubes: methods and applications,” Small 2, 182–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251, 429–433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. He, Y. Qu, H. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 9235–9247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

R. A. Ganeev and et al., “Nonlinear susceptibilities, absorption coefficients and refractive indices of colloidal metals,” J. Phys. D 34, 1602–1611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

P. V. Kamat, M. Flumiani, and G. V. Hartland, “Picosecond dynamics of silver nanoclusters. Photoejection of electrons and fragmentation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3123–3128 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

P. Mulvaney, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of nanosized metal particles,” Langmuir 12, 788–800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Wei and T.-H. Huang, “A study of photophysics using the Z-scan technique: lifetime determination for high-lying excited states,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1495–1508 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots,” Science 271, 933–937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, and M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman scattering by pyridine adsorbed on silver or gold sol particles of size comparable to the excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790–798 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 1339–1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M. G.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, and M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman scattering by pyridine adsorbed on silver or gold sol particles of size comparable to the excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790–798 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots,” Science 271, 933–937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anija, M.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baby, T. T.

T. T. Baby and S. Ramaprabhu, “Synthesis and nanofluid application of silver nanoparticles decorated graphene,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 9702–9709 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaniyoor, T. T. Baby, and S. Ramaprabhu, “Graphene synthesis via hydrogen induced low temperature exfoliation of graphite oxide,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 8467–8469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Banks, C. E.

G. G. Wildgoose, C. E. Banks, and R. G. Compton, “Metal nanoparticles and related materials supported on carbon nanotubes: methods and applications,” Small 2, 182–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbarin, Y.

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bellancourt, A. R.

Bisht, P. B.

B. S. Kalanoor and P. B. Bisht, “Wavelength dependent resonant nonlinearities in a standard saturable absorber IR26 on picosecond time scale,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blatchford, C. G.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, and M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman scattering by pyridine adsorbed on silver or gold sol particles of size comparable to the excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790–798 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photon. 4, 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, E.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bubb, D. M.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, B.

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chandrashekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Q.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251, 429–433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Chen, Y.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

C. Wang, Y. Fu, Z. Zhou, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond filamentation and supercontinuum generation in silver-nanoparticle-doped water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

Coleman, J. N.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Compton, R. G.

G. G. Wildgoose, C. E. Banks, and R. G. Compton, “Metal nanoparticles and related materials supported on carbon nanotubes: methods and applications,” Small 2, 182–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Creighton, J. A.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, and M. G. Albrecht, “Plasma resonance enhancement of Raman scattering by pyridine adsorbed on silver or gold sol particles of size comparable to the excitation wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790–798 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Das, A.

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Das, B.

B. Das, R. Voggu, C. S. Rout, and C. N. R. Rao, “Changes in the electronic structure and properties of graphene induced by molecular charge-transfer,” Chem. Commun. 44, 5155–5157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DiCarlo, L.

J. R. Williams, L. DiCarlo, and C. M. Marcus, “Quantum hall effect in a gate-controlled p-n junction of graphene,” Science 317, 638–641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photon. 4, 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flumiani, M.

P. V. Kamat, M. Flumiani, and G. V. Hartland, “Picosecond dynamics of silver nanoclusters. Photoejection of electrons and fragmentation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3123–3128 (1998).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for Z-scan for measuring the nonlinear absorption and scattering. L, lens; S, sample; D1, D2, photodiodes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption spectrum of (a) fG and (b) AgNP/fG in ethylene glycol. Curve (c) gives the Gaussian analysis of the plasmonic peak at 420 nm and curve (d) is the absorption spectrum of solvent.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) XRD pattern and (b) Raman spectrum of AgNP/fG and fG.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) TEM image of graphene composite. The encircled area shows the nearly uniform distribution of AgNPs. (b) Magnified image used for size determination of AgNPs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

OA Z-scan profile of the (a) AgNP/fG, (b) fG, and (c) AgNPs at 1064 nm at different pump energies with constant concentration 1mg/ml. Inset of (a) shows the ratio of CA to OA profiles (with error bars of 10%) at an intensity of 45GW/cm2. (d) OA Z-scan profile of SA IR26 in 1,2 di-chloroethane.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

OA Z-scan profile of (a) AgNP/fG, (b) fG, and (c) AgNPs at 532 nm at different pump energies with constant concentration of 1mg/ml.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Energy diagram of the metal–graphene interface and resulting Fermi level with respect to the Dirac point. Fermi level EF shifts due to the charge transfer, the work function of the metal (φM=5.0eV), and graphene (φG=4.5eV) are also indicated. ΔW is caused by the charge built up at the interface.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

OL properties of AgNP/fG, fG, and AgNPs at 1064 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical Nonlinear Properties of AgNP/fG, fG, and AgNPs

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(z,r,t)=I0[ω0ω(z)]2exp[2r2ω(z)2]exp[t2τ02].
α(I)=αo1+I/Is+βI,
dIdl=α(I)I.
T(z)=m=0[q]m(1+m)3/2,

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