Abstract

We review the investigation of the hole-assisted dynamical nuclear spin polarization mechanism in a singly charged InAs quantum dot. Using coherent dark state spectroscopy, we measure the locking of the Overhauser field to a value determined only by the laser frequencies. Importantly, we review data that the locking effect can suppress nuclear spin fluctuations. We determine the onset time of the nuclear spin narrowing effect and its persistence absent laser interactions by directly measuring the enhancement of the electron spin coherence. This nuclear field locking effect can be explained in terms of an anisotropic hyperfine coupling between the hole spin and the nuclear spins.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
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  2. V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994).
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  3. X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent optical spectroscopy of a strongly driven quantum dot,” Science 317, 929–932 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Melet, V. Voliotis, A. Enderlin, D. Roditchev, X. L. Wang, T. Guillet, and R. Grousson, “Resonant excitonic emission of a single quantum dot in the rabi regime,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 073301 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, J. W. Robertson, S. Founta, D. G. Deppe, M. Xiao, W. Ma, G. J. Salamo, and C. K. Shih, “Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter,” Nat. Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
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  7. M. Kroner, C. Lux, S. Seidl, A. W. Holleitner, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “Rabi splitting and ac-Stark shift of a charged exciton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031108 (2008).
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  9. I. A. Merkulov, A. L. Efros, and M. Rosen, “Electron spin relaxation by nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 205309 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Alen, F. Bickel, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, and P. M. Petroff, “Stark-shift modulation absorption spectroscopy of single quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2235–2237 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Greilich, A. Shabaev, D. R. Yakovlev, A. L. Efros, I. A. Yugova, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and M. Bayer, “Nuclei-induced frequency focusing of electron spin coherence,” Science 317, 1896–1899 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Maletinsky, C. W. Lai, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear dynamics of quantum dot nuclear spins,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035409 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Abragam, The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism (Claredon, Oxford, 1973).
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    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Atature, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Hogele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312, 551–553 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. J. Warburton, C. Schaflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J. M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Optical emission from a charge-tunable quantum ring,” Nature 405, 926–929 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Z. Gong, Z.-Q. Yin, and L. Duan, “Dynamics of the Overhauser field under nuclear spin diffusion in a quantum dot,” New J. Phys. 13, 033036 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Z. Gong, Z.-Q. Yin, and L. Duan, “Dynamics of the Overhauser field under nuclear spin diffusion in a quantum dot,” New J. Phys. 13, 033036 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. Bluhm, S. Foletti, D. Mahalu, V. Umansky, and A. Yacoby, “Enhancing the coherence of a spin qubit by operating it as a feedback loop that controls its nuclear spin bath,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 216803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Coish, J. Fischer, and D. Loss, “Free-induction decay and envelope modulations in a narrowed nuclear spin bath,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

X. Xu, W. Yao, B. Sun, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy,” Nature 459, 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, J. W. Robertson, S. Founta, D. G. Deppe, M. Xiao, W. Ma, G. J. Salamo, and C. K. Shih, “Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter,” Nat. Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Vink, K. C. Nowack, F. H. L. Koppens, J. Danon, Y. V. Nazarov, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, “Locking electron spins into magnetic resonance by electron-nuclear feedback,” Nat. Phys. 5, 764–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot,” Nat. Phys. 4, 692–695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kroner, C. Lux, S. Seidl, A. W. Holleitner, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “Rabi splitting and ac-Stark shift of a charged exciton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Press, T. D. Ladd, B. Zhang, and Y. Yamamoto, “Complete quantum control of a single quantum dot spin using ultrafast optical pulses,” Nature 456, 218–221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Melet, V. Voliotis, A. Enderlin, D. Roditchev, X. L. Wang, T. Guillet, and R. Grousson, “Resonant excitonic emission of a single quantum dot in the rabi regime,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 073301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Danon and Y. V. Nazarov, “Nuclear tuning and detuning of the electron spin resonance in a quantum dot: theoretical consideration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056603 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Reilly, J. M. Taylor, J. R. Petta, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Suppressing spin qubit dephasing by nuclear state preparation,” Science 321, 817–821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent optical spectroscopy of a strongly driven quantum dot,” Science 317, 929–932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Greilich, A. Shabaev, D. R. Yakovlev, A. L. Efros, I. A. Yugova, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and M. Bayer, “Nuclei-induced frequency focusing of electron spin coherence,” Science 317, 1896–1899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Maletinsky, C. W. Lai, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear dynamics of quantum dot nuclear spins,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rudner and L. S. Levitov, “Self-polarization and dynamical cooling of nuclear spins in double quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 036602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

M. Atature, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Hogele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312, 551–553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Stepanenko, G. Burkard, G. Giedke, and A. Imamoglu, “Enhancement of electron spin coherence by optical preparation of nuclear spins,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 136401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Giedke, J. M. Taylor, D. D’ Alessandro, M. D. Lukin, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum measurement of a mesoscopic spin ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 032316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Klauser, W. A. Coish, and D. Loss, “Nuclear spin state narrowing via gate-controlled rabi oscillations in a double quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 205302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. Alen, F. Bickel, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, and P. M. Petroff, “Stark-shift modulation absorption spectroscopy of single quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2235–2237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

I. A. Merkulov, A. L. Efros, and M. Rosen, “Electron spin relaxation by nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 205309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Khaetskii and Y. Nazarov, “Spin-flip transitions between zeeman sublevels in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 64125316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. J. Warburton, C. Schaflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J. M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Optical emission from a charge-tunable quantum ring,” Nature 405, 926–929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abragam, A.

A. Abragam, The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism (Claredon, Oxford, 1973).

Alen, B.

B. Alen, F. Bickel, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, and P. M. Petroff, “Stark-shift modulation absorption spectroscopy of single quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2235–2237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alessandro, D. D’

G. Giedke, J. M. Taylor, D. D’ Alessandro, M. D. Lukin, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum measurement of a mesoscopic spin ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 032316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atature, M.

C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Atature, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Hogele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312, 551–553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Axt, V. M.

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Badolato, A.

C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kroner, C. Lux, S. Seidl, A. W. Holleitner, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “Rabi splitting and ac-Stark shift of a charged exciton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Maletinsky, C. W. Lai, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear dynamics of quantum dot nuclear spins,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Atature, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Hogele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312, 551–553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, M.

A. Greilich, A. Shabaev, D. R. Yakovlev, A. L. Efros, I. A. Yugova, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and M. Bayer, “Nuclei-induced frequency focusing of electron spin coherence,” Science 317, 1896–1899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berman, P. R.

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot,” Nat. Phys. 4, 692–695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent optical spectroscopy of a strongly driven quantum dot,” Science 317, 929–932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bickel, F.

B. Alen, F. Bickel, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, and P. M. Petroff, “Stark-shift modulation absorption spectroscopy of single quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2235–2237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Warburton, C. Schaflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J. M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Optical emission from a charge-tunable quantum ring,” Nature 405, 926–929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Binder, R.

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bluhm, H.

H. Bluhm, S. Foletti, D. Mahalu, V. Umansky, and A. Yacoby, “Enhancing the coherence of a spin qubit by operating it as a feedback loop that controls its nuclear spin bath,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 216803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bracker, A. S.

X. Xu, W. Yao, B. Sun, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy,” Nature 459, 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot,” Nat. Phys. 4, 692–695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent optical spectroscopy of a strongly driven quantum dot,” Science 317, 929–932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burkard, G.

D. Stepanenko, G. Burkard, G. Giedke, and A. Imamoglu, “Enhancement of electron spin coherence by optical preparation of nuclear spins,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 136401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carusotto, I.

C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coish, W. A.

W. A. Coish, J. Fischer, and D. Loss, “Free-induction decay and envelope modulations in a narrowed nuclear spin bath,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Klauser, W. A. Coish, and D. Loss, “Nuclear spin state narrowing via gate-controlled rabi oscillations in a double quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 205302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danon, J.

I. T. Vink, K. C. Nowack, F. H. L. Koppens, J. Danon, Y. V. Nazarov, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, “Locking electron spins into magnetic resonance by electron-nuclear feedback,” Nat. Phys. 5, 764–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Danon and Y. V. Nazarov, “Nuclear tuning and detuning of the electron spin resonance in a quantum dot: theoretical consideration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056603 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, J. W. Robertson, S. Founta, D. G. Deppe, M. Xiao, W. Ma, G. J. Salamo, and C. K. Shih, “Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter,” Nat. Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dreiser, J.

C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Atature, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Hogele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312, 551–553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L.

Z. Gong, Z.-Q. Yin, and L. Duan, “Dynamics of the Overhauser field under nuclear spin diffusion in a quantum dot,” New J. Phys. 13, 033036 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Efros, A. L.

A. Greilich, A. Shabaev, D. R. Yakovlev, A. L. Efros, I. A. Yugova, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and M. Bayer, “Nuclei-induced frequency focusing of electron spin coherence,” Science 317, 1896–1899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Merkulov, A. L. Efros, and M. Rosen, “Electron spin relaxation by nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 205309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Enderlin, A.

R. Melet, V. Voliotis, A. Enderlin, D. Roditchev, X. L. Wang, T. Guillet, and R. Grousson, “Resonant excitonic emission of a single quantum dot in the rabi regime,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 073301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrio, K.

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J.

W. A. Coish, J. Fischer, and D. Loss, “Free-induction decay and envelope modulations in a narrowed nuclear spin bath,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flagg, E. B.

E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, J. W. Robertson, S. Founta, D. G. Deppe, M. Xiao, W. Ma, G. J. Salamo, and C. K. Shih, “Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter,” Nat. Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foletti, S.

H. Bluhm, S. Foletti, D. Mahalu, V. Umansky, and A. Yacoby, “Enhancing the coherence of a spin qubit by operating it as a feedback loop that controls its nuclear spin bath,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 216803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Founta, S.

E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, J. W. Robertson, S. Founta, D. G. Deppe, M. Xiao, W. Ma, G. J. Salamo, and C. K. Shih, “Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter,” Nat. Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gammon, D.

X. Xu, W. Yao, B. Sun, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy,” Nature 459, 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot,” Nat. Phys. 4, 692–695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent optical spectroscopy of a strongly driven quantum dot,” Science 317, 929–932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J. M.

R. J. Warburton, C. Schaflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J. M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Optical emission from a charge-tunable quantum ring,” Nature 405, 926–929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giedke, G.

D. Stepanenko, G. Burkard, G. Giedke, and A. Imamoglu, “Enhancement of electron spin coherence by optical preparation of nuclear spins,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 136401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Giedke, J. M. Taylor, D. D’ Alessandro, M. D. Lukin, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum measurement of a mesoscopic spin ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 032316 (2006).
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Z. Gong, Z.-Q. Yin, and L. Duan, “Dynamics of the Overhauser field under nuclear spin diffusion in a quantum dot,” New J. Phys. 13, 033036 (2011).
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D. J. Reilly, J. M. Taylor, J. R. Petta, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Suppressing spin qubit dephasing by nuclear state preparation,” Science 321, 817–821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. Greilich, A. Shabaev, D. R. Yakovlev, A. L. Efros, I. A. Yugova, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and M. Bayer, “Nuclei-induced frequency focusing of electron spin coherence,” Science 317, 1896–1899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grousson, R.

R. Melet, V. Voliotis, A. Enderlin, D. Roditchev, X. L. Wang, T. Guillet, and R. Grousson, “Resonant excitonic emission of a single quantum dot in the rabi regime,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 073301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guillet, T.

R. Melet, V. Voliotis, A. Enderlin, D. Roditchev, X. L. Wang, T. Guillet, and R. Grousson, “Resonant excitonic emission of a single quantum dot in the rabi regime,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 073301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haft, D.

R. J. Warburton, C. Schaflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J. M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Optical emission from a charge-tunable quantum ring,” Nature 405, 926–929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, M. P.

D. J. Reilly, J. M. Taylor, J. R. Petta, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Suppressing spin qubit dephasing by nuclear state preparation,” Science 321, 817–821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hogele, A.

C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
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M. Atature, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Hogele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312, 551–553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holleitner, A. W.

M. Kroner, C. Lux, S. Seidl, A. W. Holleitner, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “Rabi splitting and ac-Stark shift of a charged exciton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. Z.

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
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Imamoglu, A.

C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
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P. Maletinsky, C. W. Lai, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear dynamics of quantum dot nuclear spins,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Atature, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Hogele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312, 551–553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Stepanenko, G. Burkard, G. Giedke, and A. Imamoglu, “Enhancement of electron spin coherence by optical preparation of nuclear spins,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 136401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Giedke, J. M. Taylor, D. D’ Alessandro, M. D. Lukin, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum measurement of a mesoscopic spin ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 032316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karrai, K.

M. Kroner, C. Lux, S. Seidl, A. W. Holleitner, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “Rabi splitting and ac-Stark shift of a charged exciton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Atature, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Hogele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312, 551–553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Alen, F. Bickel, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, and P. M. Petroff, “Stark-shift modulation absorption spectroscopy of single quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2235–2237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Warburton, C. Schaflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J. M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Optical emission from a charge-tunable quantum ring,” Nature 405, 926–929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. Khaetskii and Y. Nazarov, “Spin-flip transitions between zeeman sublevels in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 64125316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
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D. Klauser, W. A. Coish, and D. Loss, “Nuclear spin state narrowing via gate-controlled rabi oscillations in a double quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 205302 (2006).
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H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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I. T. Vink, K. C. Nowack, F. H. L. Koppens, J. Danon, Y. V. Nazarov, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, “Locking electron spins into magnetic resonance by electron-nuclear feedback,” Nat. Phys. 5, 764–768 (2009).
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C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kroner, C. Lux, S. Seidl, A. W. Holleitner, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “Rabi splitting and ac-Stark shift of a charged exciton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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D. Press, T. D. Ladd, B. Zhang, and Y. Yamamoto, “Complete quantum control of a single quantum dot spin using ultrafast optical pulses,” Nature 456, 218–221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. W.

P. Maletinsky, C. W. Lai, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear dynamics of quantum dot nuclear spins,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Latta, C.

C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. S. Rudner and L. S. Levitov, “Self-polarization and dynamical cooling of nuclear spins in double quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 036602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lorke, A.

R. J. Warburton, C. Schaflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J. M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Optical emission from a charge-tunable quantum ring,” Nature 405, 926–929 (2000).
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W. A. Coish, J. Fischer, and D. Loss, “Free-induction decay and envelope modulations in a narrowed nuclear spin bath,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165315 (2010).
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D. Klauser, W. A. Coish, and D. Loss, “Nuclear spin state narrowing via gate-controlled rabi oscillations in a double quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 205302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

G. Giedke, J. M. Taylor, D. D’ Alessandro, M. D. Lukin, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum measurement of a mesoscopic spin ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 032316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lux, C.

M. Kroner, C. Lux, S. Seidl, A. W. Holleitner, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “Rabi splitting and ac-Stark shift of a charged exciton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W.

E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, J. W. Robertson, S. Founta, D. G. Deppe, M. Xiao, W. Ma, G. J. Salamo, and C. K. Shih, “Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter,” Nat. Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mahalu, D.

H. Bluhm, S. Foletti, D. Mahalu, V. Umansky, and A. Yacoby, “Enhancing the coherence of a spin qubit by operating it as a feedback loop that controls its nuclear spin bath,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 216803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Maletinsky, C. W. Lai, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear dynamics of quantum dot nuclear spins,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, C. M.

D. J. Reilly, J. M. Taylor, J. R. Petta, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Suppressing spin qubit dephasing by nuclear state preparation,” Science 321, 817–821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Melet, R.

R. Melet, V. Voliotis, A. Enderlin, D. Roditchev, X. L. Wang, T. Guillet, and R. Grousson, “Resonant excitonic emission of a single quantum dot in the rabi regime,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 073301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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I. A. Merkulov, A. L. Efros, and M. Rosen, “Electron spin relaxation by nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 205309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muller, A.

E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, J. W. Robertson, S. Founta, D. G. Deppe, M. Xiao, W. Ma, G. J. Salamo, and C. K. Shih, “Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter,” Nat. Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).
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A. Khaetskii and Y. Nazarov, “Spin-flip transitions between zeeman sublevels in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 64125316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nazarov, Y. V.

I. T. Vink, K. C. Nowack, F. H. L. Koppens, J. Danon, Y. V. Nazarov, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, “Locking electron spins into magnetic resonance by electron-nuclear feedback,” Nat. Phys. 5, 764–768 (2009).
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J. Danon and Y. V. Nazarov, “Nuclear tuning and detuning of the electron spin resonance in a quantum dot: theoretical consideration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056603 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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I. T. Vink, K. C. Nowack, F. H. L. Koppens, J. Danon, Y. V. Nazarov, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, “Locking electron spins into magnetic resonance by electron-nuclear feedback,” Nat. Phys. 5, 764–768 (2009).
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M. Kroner, C. Lux, S. Seidl, A. W. Holleitner, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “Rabi splitting and ac-Stark shift of a charged exciton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Alen, F. Bickel, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, and P. M. Petroff, “Stark-shift modulation absorption spectroscopy of single quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2235–2237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Warburton, C. Schaflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J. M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Optical emission from a charge-tunable quantum ring,” Nature 405, 926–929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petta, J. R.

D. J. Reilly, J. M. Taylor, J. R. Petta, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Suppressing spin qubit dephasing by nuclear state preparation,” Science 321, 817–821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Press, D.

D. Press, T. D. Ladd, B. Zhang, and Y. Yamamoto, “Complete quantum control of a single quantum dot spin using ultrafast optical pulses,” Nature 456, 218–221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, D. J.

D. J. Reilly, J. M. Taylor, J. R. Petta, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Suppressing spin qubit dephasing by nuclear state preparation,” Science 321, 817–821 (2008).
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A. Greilich, A. Shabaev, D. R. Yakovlev, A. L. Efros, I. A. Yugova, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and M. Bayer, “Nuclei-induced frequency focusing of electron spin coherence,” Science 317, 1896–1899 (2007).
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Robertson, J. W.

E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, J. W. Robertson, S. Founta, D. G. Deppe, M. Xiao, W. Ma, G. J. Salamo, and C. K. Shih, “Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter,” Nat. Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roditchev, D.

R. Melet, V. Voliotis, A. Enderlin, D. Roditchev, X. L. Wang, T. Guillet, and R. Grousson, “Resonant excitonic emission of a single quantum dot in the rabi regime,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 073301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, M.

I. A. Merkulov, A. L. Efros, and M. Rosen, “Electron spin relaxation by nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 205309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rudner, M. S.

M. S. Rudner and L. S. Levitov, “Self-polarization and dynamical cooling of nuclear spins in double quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 036602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, J. W. Robertson, S. Founta, D. G. Deppe, M. Xiao, W. Ma, G. J. Salamo, and C. K. Shih, “Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter,” Nat. Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).
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R. J. Warburton, C. Schaflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J. M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Optical emission from a charge-tunable quantum ring,” Nature 405, 926–929 (2000).
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Schoenfeld, W.

R. J. Warburton, C. Schaflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J. M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Optical emission from a charge-tunable quantum ring,” Nature 405, 926–929 (2000).
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Schuh, D.

C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seidl, S.

M. Kroner, C. Lux, S. Seidl, A. W. Holleitner, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “Rabi splitting and ac-Stark shift of a charged exciton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shabaev, A.

A. Greilich, A. Shabaev, D. R. Yakovlev, A. L. Efros, I. A. Yugova, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and M. Bayer, “Nuclei-induced frequency focusing of electron spin coherence,” Science 317, 1896–1899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sham, L. J.

X. Xu, W. Yao, B. Sun, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy,” Nature 459, 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot,” Nat. Phys. 4, 692–695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent optical spectroscopy of a strongly driven quantum dot,” Science 317, 929–932 (2007).
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W. Yang and L. J. Sham, “Collective nuclear stabilization by optically excited hole in quantum dot,” arXiv: 1012.0060v2 (2010).

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E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, J. W. Robertson, S. Founta, D. G. Deppe, M. Xiao, W. Ma, G. J. Salamo, and C. K. Shih, “Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter,” Nat. Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
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V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994).
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Steel, D. G.

X. Xu, W. Yao, B. Sun, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy,” Nature 459, 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot,” Nat. Phys. 4, 692–695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent optical spectroscopy of a strongly driven quantum dot,” Science 317, 929–932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stepanenko, D.

D. Stepanenko, G. Burkard, G. Giedke, and A. Imamoglu, “Enhancement of electron spin coherence by optical preparation of nuclear spins,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 136401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

X. Xu, W. Yao, B. Sun, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy,” Nature 459, 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot,” Nat. Phys. 4, 692–695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent optical spectroscopy of a strongly driven quantum dot,” Science 317, 929–932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. M.

D. J. Reilly, J. M. Taylor, J. R. Petta, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Suppressing spin qubit dephasing by nuclear state preparation,” Science 321, 817–821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Giedke, J. M. Taylor, D. D’ Alessandro, M. D. Lukin, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum measurement of a mesoscopic spin ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 032316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Umansky, V.

H. Bluhm, S. Foletti, D. Mahalu, V. Umansky, and A. Yacoby, “Enhancing the coherence of a spin qubit by operating it as a feedback loop that controls its nuclear spin bath,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 216803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vamivakas, A. N.

C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vandersypen, L. M. K.

I. T. Vink, K. C. Nowack, F. H. L. Koppens, J. Danon, Y. V. Nazarov, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, “Locking electron spins into magnetic resonance by electron-nuclear feedback,” Nat. Phys. 5, 764–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vink, I. T.

I. T. Vink, K. C. Nowack, F. H. L. Koppens, J. Danon, Y. V. Nazarov, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, “Locking electron spins into magnetic resonance by electron-nuclear feedback,” Nat. Phys. 5, 764–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Melet, V. Voliotis, A. Enderlin, D. Roditchev, X. L. Wang, T. Guillet, and R. Grousson, “Resonant excitonic emission of a single quantum dot in the rabi regime,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 073301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

R. Melet, V. Voliotis, A. Enderlin, D. Roditchev, X. L. Wang, T. Guillet, and R. Grousson, “Resonant excitonic emission of a single quantum dot in the rabi regime,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 073301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, R. J.

M. Kroner, C. Lux, S. Seidl, A. W. Holleitner, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, “Rabi splitting and ac-Stark shift of a charged exciton,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Alen, F. Bickel, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, and P. M. Petroff, “Stark-shift modulation absorption spectroscopy of single quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2235–2237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Warburton, C. Schaflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J. M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Optical emission from a charge-tunable quantum ring,” Nature 405, 926–929 (2000).
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X. Xu, W. Yao, B. Sun, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy,” Nature 459, 1105–1109 (2009).
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X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot,” Nat. Phys. 4, 692–695 (2008).
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X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
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X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Coherent optical spectroscopy of a strongly driven quantum dot,” Science 317, 929–932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. Bluhm, S. Foletti, D. Mahalu, V. Umansky, and A. Yacoby, “Enhancing the coherence of a spin qubit by operating it as a feedback loop that controls its nuclear spin bath,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 216803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Greilich, A. Shabaev, D. R. Yakovlev, A. L. Efros, I. A. Yugova, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and M. Bayer, “Nuclei-induced frequency focusing of electron spin coherence,” Science 317, 1896–1899 (2007).
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D. Press, T. D. Ladd, B. Zhang, and Y. Yamamoto, “Complete quantum control of a single quantum dot spin using ultrafast optical pulses,” Nature 456, 218–221 (2008).
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W. Yang and L. J. Sham, “Collective nuclear stabilization by optically excited hole in quantum dot,” arXiv: 1012.0060v2 (2010).

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X. Xu, W. Yao, B. Sun, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy,” Nature 459, 1105–1109 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

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D. Press, T. D. Ladd, B. Zhang, and Y. Yamamoto, “Complete quantum control of a single quantum dot spin using ultrafast optical pulses,” Nature 456, 218–221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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C. Latta, A. Hogele, Y. Zhao, A. N. Vamivakas, P. Maletinsky, M. Kroner, J. Dreiser, I. Carusotto, A. Badolato, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization,” Nat. Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, J. W. Robertson, S. Founta, D. G. Deppe, M. Xiao, W. Ma, G. J. Salamo, and C. K. Shih, “Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter,” Nat. Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227401 (2008).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) (Inset) Four-level energy structure of the QD with applied magnetic field of 1.32 T in the Voigt geometry. (Main figure) Pump and probe lasers excite a three-level lambda (Λ) subsystem. (b) Probe absorption spectrum for both forward and backward scans. The V2 peak is distorted from the normal dark state lineshape. Hysteresis appears at both the trailing edge and at the dark state dip. (c)–(g) Probe absorption spectra for various scan rates. Longer lock-in time constants denote slower scan rates. (g) Hysteresis occurs even at the fastest scan rate, with a 1 ms lock-in time constant.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Simulated dark state absorption spectrum in the absence of the hole-assisted DNP effect. (b) Plot of ρtρtδ, which is proportional to the nuclear spin flip rate. (c) Simulated absorption spectrum for a slow laser scan including the hole-assisted DNP effect. (d) Overhauser shift experienced by the electron spin, giving rise to the spectrum in (c). (e), (f) Simulated absorption spectrum for a fast laser scan including the hole-assisted DNP effect for backward (e) and forward (f) scans. (g) Larger hysteresis loops can be generated by changing the pump detuning.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Data taken at a magnetic field of 2.64 T. (a) Black (red) curve is a full (partial) forward scan. L, D, and R label three different system configurations. (b) Probe absorption as a function of time taken immediately after stopping the laser at L. (c) Black (red) curve is forward (backward) scan spectrum with the pump laser detuned to maximize the hysteresis loop. (d) Green curve is a partial backward scan. (e) Probe absorption as a function of time taken immediately after the green curve in (d). (f) Partial forward scan taken after the system switches hysteresis states.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic of the DNP feedback mechanism. (b) Example of the spectra measured using a fast forward scan. (c) Estimated electron spin decoherence rate (γs2π) from two beam absorption spectra. I0=2Wcm2. The black dots are rates inferred from absorption peak to dark state depth ratios while the triangles are values extracted from best-fit simulations. The dashed line is the thermal value of the decoherence rate, 360 MHz. The red dot is the value from a fit of the three beam spectrum in (d). (d) Three-beam laser geometry. (e) Three-beam measurement. The red curve is a fit to the optical Bloch equations. The blue arrow indicates the position of pump 2 [also the dashed arrow in (c) for reference].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Cartoon illustrating the timing of the laser gating at each point of an absorption spectrum. The nuclear spins (green arrows in the background with Gaussian envelopes) start in a state of large fluctuation. The NSN state is represented by narrower Gaussian envelopes, but has a similar average field. (b) Dark period is inserted into the gating sequence. (c) Band diagram as a function of position along the growth direction. Ef is the Fermi level and V1 and V2 represent the peak-to-peak modulation voltages.

Equations (12)

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Hn=μ04πγNγekI^k·[8π3S^δ(rk)rk2S^3rk(S^·rk)rk5+L^rk3],
Hhn=kAh,k(SzIkz+O(η)(SyIky)+O(η2)(SxIkz+SyIkz)),
Ah,k=Ah,αkfh(Rk)2c034,
rk±2π|ψf|O(η2)Ah,kShxIk±|ψi|2D(±ωN),
rk±π2ρt,iρt,fO(η4)Ah,k2(j±mk)(jmk+1)D(±ωN),
ddtmk=γnmk+rk+rk,
rk+rkπρtAh,k2O(η4)D[ρtδAe,k(j2mk2+j)+ρtmk].
dΔdt=γNΔ+αρtρtδ,
α=πO(η4)DkAh,k2Ae,k2(j2mk2+j),
α0χ2γs+γt(γs2+(δprobeδpump)2)χ4+(γt2+δprobe2)(γs2+(δprobeδpump)2)+2χ2(γtγs+δprobe(δpumpδprobe)),
αdip=α0χ2γs+γt(γs2)χ4+2χ2γtγs+γt2γs2,
αpeak=α0χ2γs+γt(γs2+χ2)2χ2γtγs+γt2γs2+(γt2+γs2)χ2,

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