Abstract

In the present work, the experimentally determined oscillator strengths of the 3pP2ndD2 (16n43) Rydberg transitions of lithium have been reported for the first time. The experiments were performed using two dye lasers simultaneously pumped by the second harmonic (532 nm) of an Nd:YAG laser, and the vapor containment and detection system was a thermionic diode ion detector. The first frequency-doubled dye laser excites the ground-state atoms to the 3pP2 excited state at 325.35 nm, and the second dye laser was scanned up to the first ionization threshold. The f-values of the aforementioned transitions have been determined using the threshold value of the photoionization cross section (30±4.8Mb) from the 3pP2 excited state. A complete picture of the oscillator strengths from n=3 to 43 has been presented, including the previously known oscillator strength and determined in this work.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (2)

A. Nadeem and S. U. Haq, “Photoionization from the 5p P23/2 state of rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, S. U. Haq, M. Nawaz, M. Shah, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of the oscillator strengths for the 6p7s(1/2,1/2)1→6pnp(1/2,3/2)2 Rydberg transitions of lead,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 65, 842–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

A. Nadeem and S. U. Haq, “Oscillator strength measurements of the 5s5p P31→5snd D32 Rydberg transitions of cadmium,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 65, 842–846 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

W. L. Wiese and J. R. Fuhr, “Accurate transition probabilities for hydrogen, helium and lithium,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38, 565–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y.-Y. Qi, W. U. Yong, W. Jian-Guo, and D. Pei-Zhu, “Calculations of photo-ionization cross sections for lithium atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3620–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4p P1,31o→4snd D1,32 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1–8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous spectrum of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 022710 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

N. Amin, S. Mahmood, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross-section measurements from the 2p, 3d and 3s excited states of lithium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 331–337 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Saleem, S. Hussain, M. Rafiq, and M. A. Baig, “Simultaneous measurements of photoionization cross-sections of lithium isotopes from 3p P21/2,3/2,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 5025–5035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Angular momentum dependence of photoionization cross sections from the excited states of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 052705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Anwar-ul-Haq, S. Mahmood, M. Riaz, R. Ali, and M. A. Baig, “On the first ionization potential of lithium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 38, S77–S86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Chao and W. Zhi-Wen, “Resonance calculations of d−f intervals for the lithium Rydberg states,” Chin. Phys. 14, 505–510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

V. Wippel, C. Binder, W. Huber, L. Windholz, M. Allegrini, F. Fuso, and E. Arimondo, “Photoionization cross-sections of the first excited states of sodium and lithium in a magneto-optical trap,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 285–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

I. Labazan and S. Milosevic, “Lithium vapour excitation at 2S→3D two-photon resonance,” Eur. Phys. J. D 8, 47–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. T. Chung, “Photoionization of lithium from the 1  s22p state,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3518–3522 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L.-H. Qu, Z.-W. Wang, and X.-X. Guan, “Energy and oscillator strength for lithium atom,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 732–735(1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

G. Pestka and W. Wozuicki, “Hylleraas-type calculation for lithium,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 255, 281–286 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Akram and M. A. Baig, “Laser-induced dissociation and ionization of lithium vapor,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29, L381–L387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Mende and M. Kock, “Oscillator strengths of Ba I and Sr I Rydberg transitions,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 29, 655–663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Lahiri and S. T. Manson, “Radiative recombination and excited-state photoionization of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3674–3679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6p P1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131–2134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: Application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949–5952 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Peach, H. E. Saraph, and M. J. Seaton, “Atomic data for opacity calculations. IX. The lithium isoelectronic sequence,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, 3669–3683 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Peach, H. E. Saraph, and M. J. Seaton, “Atomic data for opacity calculation: IX. The lithium isoelectronic sequence,” J. Phys. B 21, 3669–3683 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. Barrientos and I. Martin, “Oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous region of alkali elements,” Can. J. Phys. 65, 435–437 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. Niemax, “Spectroscopy using thermionic diode detectors,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 147–157 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

K. Niemax, “Investigation on the thermionic diode: the ionization probablity of Rb n2PJ atoms by noble gas collisions,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 59–62 (1983).

1979 (3)

W. A. Young, M. Y. Mirza, and W. W. Duley, “Multiphoton ionization spectra in lithium vapour,” Opt. Commun. 31, 157–160 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, G. S. Hurst, and M. G. Payne, “Resonance ionization spectroscopy of lithium,” Opt. Commun. 30, 47–50 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Koch and C. B. Collins, “Space-charge ion detection of multiphoton absorption phenomena in lithium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 1098–1105 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (5)

M. Aymar, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Combet Farnoux, “Theoretical investigation on photoionization from Rydberg states of lithium, sodium and potassium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 9, 1279–1291 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, and A. A. Puretsky, “Measuring photoionization cross-sections of excited atomic states,” Appl. Phys. 9, 335–337 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sims, S. A. Hagstrom, and J. R. Rumble, “Upper and lower bounds to atomic and molecular properties. III. Lithium oscillator strengths for various S2−P2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 242–250 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Martin and W. L. Wiese, “Atomic oscillator-strength distributions in spectral series of the lithium isoelectronic sequence,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 699–714 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Martin and W. L. Wiese, “Tables of critically evaluated oscillators for the lithium isoelectronic sequence,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, 537–570 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. C. Hanna and P. A. Kärkkäinen, “A simple beam expander for frequency narrowing of dye lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 115–119 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

D. Popescu, M. L. Popescu, C. B. Collins, B. W. Johnson, and I. Popescu, “Use of space-charge-amplification techniques in the absorption spectroscopy of Cs and Cs2,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 1666–1672 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

T. C. Caves and A. Dalgarno, “Model potential calculations of lithium transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 1539–1552 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

D. E. Rothe, “Radiative electron-ion recombination into the first excited state of lithium,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 355–365 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, and J. Richter, “Absorption spectroscopy of excited cesium atoms,” Z. Phys. 226, 160–174 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (3)

Kh. B. Gezalov and A. V. Ivanova, “Photoionization cross section of lithium,” High Temp. High Press. 6, 400–404 (1968).

W. L. Wiese, “Systematic trends of atomic oscillator strengths in isoelectronic sequences,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2361–2366 (1968).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Marr and D. M. Creek, “The absorption oscillator strengths in alkali metal vapors,” Proc. R. Soc. A. 304, 245–254 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

B. Ya’akobi, “Absorption and emission of continuous radiation by lithium ionized gas,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 92, 100–106 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

Yu. V. Moskvin, “Photoionization of atoms and recombination of ions in the vapors of alkali metals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 15, 316–319 (1963).

1959 (1)

I. Johansson, “The infrared spectrum of Li I,” Ark. Fys. 15, 169–179 (1959).

1931 (1)

A. N. Filippov, “Anomalous dispersion of lithium vapor,” J. Phys. A 69, 526–547 (1931).

Akram, M.

M. Akram and M. A. Baig, “Laser-induced dissociation and ionization of lithium vapor,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29, L381–L387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ali, R.

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4p P1,31o→4snd D1,32 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1–8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Anwar-ul-Haq, S. Mahmood, M. Riaz, R. Ali, and M. A. Baig, “On the first ionization potential of lithium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 38, S77–S86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

V. Wippel, C. Binder, W. Huber, L. Windholz, M. Allegrini, F. Fuso, and E. Arimondo, “Photoionization cross-sections of the first excited states of sodium and lithium in a magneto-optical trap,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 285–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ambartzumian, R. V.

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, and A. A. Puretsky, “Measuring photoionization cross-sections of excited atomic states,” Appl. Phys. 9, 335–337 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Amin, N.

N. Amin, S. Mahmood, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross-section measurements from the 2p, 3d and 3s excited states of lithium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 331–337 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anwar-ul-Haq, M.

M. Anwar-ul-Haq, S. Mahmood, M. Riaz, R. Ali, and M. A. Baig, “On the first ionization potential of lithium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 38, S77–S86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

V. Wippel, C. Binder, W. Huber, L. Windholz, M. Allegrini, F. Fuso, and E. Arimondo, “Photoionization cross-sections of the first excited states of sodium and lithium in a magneto-optical trap,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 285–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aymar, M.

M. Aymar, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Combet Farnoux, “Theoretical investigation on photoionization from Rydberg states of lithium, sodium and potassium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 9, 1279–1291 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Baig, M. A.

A. Nadeem, S. U. Haq, M. Nawaz, M. Shah, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of the oscillator strengths for the 6p7s(1/2,1/2)1→6pnp(1/2,3/2)2 Rydberg transitions of lead,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 65, 842–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4p P1,31o→4snd D1,32 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1–8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous spectrum of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 022710 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Saleem, S. Hussain, M. Rafiq, and M. A. Baig, “Simultaneous measurements of photoionization cross-sections of lithium isotopes from 3p P21/2,3/2,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 5025–5035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Angular momentum dependence of photoionization cross sections from the excited states of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 052705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Amin, S. Mahmood, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross-section measurements from the 2p, 3d and 3s excited states of lithium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 331–337 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Anwar-ul-Haq, S. Mahmood, M. Riaz, R. Ali, and M. A. Baig, “On the first ionization potential of lithium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 38, S77–S86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Akram and M. A. Baig, “Laser-induced dissociation and ionization of lithium vapor,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29, L381–L387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barrientos, C.

C. Barrientos and I. Martin, “Oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous region of alkali elements,” Can. J. Phys. 65, 435–437 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Binder, C.

V. Wippel, C. Binder, W. Huber, L. Windholz, M. Allegrini, F. Fuso, and E. Arimondo, “Photoionization cross-sections of the first excited states of sodium and lithium in a magneto-optical trap,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 285–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burkhardt, C. E.

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6p P1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131–2134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: Application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949–5952 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Caves, T. C.

T. C. Caves and A. Dalgarno, “Model potential calculations of lithium transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 1539–1552 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.

C. Chao and W. Zhi-Wen, “Resonance calculations of d−f intervals for the lithium Rydberg states,” Chin. Phys. 14, 505–510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K. T.

K. T. Chung, “Photoionization of lithium from the 1  s22p state,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3518–3522 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ciocca, M.

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6p P1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131–2134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Collins, C. B.

M. E. Koch and C. B. Collins, “Space-charge ion detection of multiphoton absorption phenomena in lithium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 1098–1105 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Popescu, M. L. Popescu, C. B. Collins, B. W. Johnson, and I. Popescu, “Use of space-charge-amplification techniques in the absorption spectroscopy of Cs and Cs2,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 1666–1672 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Combet Farnoux, F.

M. Aymar, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Combet Farnoux, “Theoretical investigation on photoionization from Rydberg states of lithium, sodium and potassium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 9, 1279–1291 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Connerade, J. P.

J. P. Connerade, Highly Excited Atoms (Cambridge University, 1994).

Creek, D. M.

G. V. Marr and D. M. Creek, “The absorption oscillator strengths in alkali metal vapors,” Proc. R. Soc. A. 304, 245–254 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Dalgarno, A.

T. C. Caves and A. Dalgarno, “Model potential calculations of lithium transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 1539–1552 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2008).

Duley, W. W.

W. A. Young, M. Y. Mirza, and W. W. Duley, “Multiphoton ionization spectra in lithium vapour,” Opt. Commun. 31, 157–160 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Filippov, A. N.

A. N. Filippov, “Anomalous dispersion of lithium vapor,” J. Phys. A 69, 526–547 (1931).

Fuhr, J. R.

W. L. Wiese and J. R. Fuhr, “Accurate transition probabilities for hydrogen, helium and lithium,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38, 565–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Furzikov, N. P.

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, and A. A. Puretsky, “Measuring photoionization cross-sections of excited atomic states,” Appl. Phys. 9, 335–337 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fuso, F.

V. Wippel, C. Binder, W. Huber, L. Windholz, M. Allegrini, F. Fuso, and E. Arimondo, “Photoionization cross-sections of the first excited states of sodium and lithium in a magneto-optical trap,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 285–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gezalov, Kh. B.

Kh. B. Gezalov and A. V. Ivanova, “Photoionization cross section of lithium,” High Temp. High Press. 6, 400–404 (1968).

Guan, X.-X.

L.-H. Qu, Z.-W. Wang, and X.-X. Guan, “Energy and oscillator strength for lithium atom,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 732–735(1997).
[CrossRef]

Hagstrom, S. A.

J. S. Sims, S. A. Hagstrom, and J. R. Rumble, “Upper and lower bounds to atomic and molecular properties. III. Lithium oscillator strengths for various S2−P2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 242–250 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna and P. A. Kärkkäinen, “A simple beam expander for frequency narrowing of dye lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 115–119 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haq, S. U.

A. Nadeem and S. U. Haq, “Photoionization from the 5p P23/2 state of rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem, S. U. Haq, M. Nawaz, M. Shah, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of the oscillator strengths for the 6p7s(1/2,1/2)1→6pnp(1/2,3/2)2 Rydberg transitions of lead,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 65, 842–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem and S. U. Haq, “Oscillator strength measurements of the 5s5p P31→5snd D32 Rydberg transitions of cadmium,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 65, 842–846 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4p P1,31o→4snd D1,32 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1–8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, L.-W.

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6p P1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131–2134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huber, W.

V. Wippel, C. Binder, W. Huber, L. Windholz, M. Allegrini, F. Fuso, and E. Arimondo, “Photoionization cross-sections of the first excited states of sodium and lithium in a magneto-optical trap,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 285–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, G. S.

S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, G. S. Hurst, and M. G. Payne, “Resonance ionization spectroscopy of lithium,” Opt. Commun. 30, 47–50 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, S.

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous spectrum of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 022710 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Angular momentum dependence of photoionization cross sections from the excited states of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 052705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Saleem, S. Hussain, M. Rafiq, and M. A. Baig, “Simultaneous measurements of photoionization cross-sections of lithium isotopes from 3p P21/2,3/2,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 5025–5035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, A. V.

Kh. B. Gezalov and A. V. Ivanova, “Photoionization cross section of lithium,” High Temp. High Press. 6, 400–404 (1968).

Jian-Guo, W.

Y.-Y. Qi, W. U. Yong, W. Jian-Guo, and D. Pei-Zhu, “Calculations of photo-ionization cross sections for lithium atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3620–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, I.

I. Johansson, “The infrared spectrum of Li I,” Ark. Fys. 15, 169–179 (1959).

Johnson, B. W.

D. Popescu, M. L. Popescu, C. B. Collins, B. W. Johnson, and I. Popescu, “Use of space-charge-amplification techniques in the absorption spectroscopy of Cs and Cs2,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 1666–1672 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kalyar, M. A.

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4p P1,31o→4snd D1,32 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1–8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Amin, S. Mahmood, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross-section measurements from the 2p, 3d and 3s excited states of lithium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 331–337 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kärkkäinen, P. A.

D. C. Hanna and P. A. Kärkkäinen, “A simple beam expander for frequency narrowing of dye lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 115–119 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, J. D.

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: Application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949–5952 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M. E.

M. E. Koch and C. B. Collins, “Space-charge ion detection of multiphoton absorption phenomena in lithium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 1098–1105 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kock, M.

W. Mende and M. Kock, “Oscillator strengths of Ba I and Sr I Rydberg transitions,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 29, 655–663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, S. D.

S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, G. S. Hurst, and M. G. Payne, “Resonance ionization spectroscopy of lithium,” Opt. Commun. 30, 47–50 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Labazan, I.

I. Labazan and S. Milosevic, “Lithium vapour excitation at 2S→3D two-photon resonance,” Eur. Phys. J. D 8, 47–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lahiri, J.

J. Lahiri and S. T. Manson, “Radiative recombination and excited-state photoionization of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3674–3679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, and A. A. Puretsky, “Measuring photoionization cross-sections of excited atomic states,” Appl. Phys. 9, 335–337 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Leventhal, J. J.

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6p P1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131–2134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: Application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949–5952 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Libbert, J. L.

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: Application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949–5952 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Luc-Koenig, E.

M. Aymar, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Combet Farnoux, “Theoretical investigation on photoionization from Rydberg states of lithium, sodium and potassium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 9, 1279–1291 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, S.

N. Amin, S. Mahmood, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross-section measurements from the 2p, 3d and 3s excited states of lithium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 331–337 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Anwar-ul-Haq, S. Mahmood, M. Riaz, R. Ali, and M. A. Baig, “On the first ionization potential of lithium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 38, S77–S86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manson, S. T.

J. Lahiri and S. T. Manson, “Radiative recombination and excited-state photoionization of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3674–3679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L.-W. He, C. E. Burkhardt, M. Ciocca, J. J. Leventhal, and S. T. Manson, “Absolute cross sections for the photoionization of the 6s6p P1 excited state of barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2131–2134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marr, G. V.

G. V. Marr and D. M. Creek, “The absorption oscillator strengths in alkali metal vapors,” Proc. R. Soc. A. 304, 245–254 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Martin, G. A.

G. A. Martin and W. L. Wiese, “Atomic oscillator-strength distributions in spectral series of the lithium isoelectronic sequence,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 699–714 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Martin and W. L. Wiese, “Tables of critically evaluated oscillators for the lithium isoelectronic sequence,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, 537–570 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Martin, I.

C. Barrientos and I. Martin, “Oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous region of alkali elements,” Can. J. Phys. 65, 435–437 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mende, W.

W. Mende and M. Kock, “Oscillator strengths of Ba I and Sr I Rydberg transitions,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 29, 655–663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, S.

I. Labazan and S. Milosevic, “Lithium vapour excitation at 2S→3D two-photon resonance,” Eur. Phys. J. D 8, 47–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mirza, M. Y.

W. A. Young, M. Y. Mirza, and W. W. Duley, “Multiphoton ionization spectra in lithium vapour,” Opt. Commun. 31, 157–160 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Moskvin, Yu. V.

Yu. V. Moskvin, “Photoionization of atoms and recombination of ions in the vapors of alkali metals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 15, 316–319 (1963).

Nadeem, A.

A. Nadeem, S. U. Haq, M. Nawaz, M. Shah, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of the oscillator strengths for the 6p7s(1/2,1/2)1→6pnp(1/2,3/2)2 Rydberg transitions of lead,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 65, 842–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem and S. U. Haq, “Photoionization from the 5p P23/2 state of rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Nadeem and S. U. Haq, “Oscillator strength measurements of the 5s5p P31→5snd D32 Rydberg transitions of cadmium,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 65, 842–846 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4p P1,31o→4snd D1,32 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1–8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nawaz, M.

A. Nadeem, S. U. Haq, M. Nawaz, M. Shah, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of the oscillator strengths for the 6p7s(1/2,1/2)1→6pnp(1/2,3/2)2 Rydberg transitions of lead,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 65, 842–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Niemax, K.

K. Niemax, “Spectroscopy using thermionic diode detectors,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 147–157 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Niemax, “Investigation on the thermionic diode: the ionization probablity of Rb n2PJ atoms by noble gas collisions,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 59–62 (1983).

Payne, M. G.

S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, G. S. Hurst, and M. G. Payne, “Resonance ionization spectroscopy of lithium,” Opt. Commun. 30, 47–50 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Peach, G.

G. Peach, H. E. Saraph, and M. J. Seaton, “Atomic data for opacity calculations. IX. The lithium isoelectronic sequence,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, 3669–3683 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Peach, H. E. Saraph, and M. J. Seaton, “Atomic data for opacity calculation: IX. The lithium isoelectronic sequence,” J. Phys. B 21, 3669–3683 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pei-Zhu, D.

Y.-Y. Qi, W. U. Yong, W. Jian-Guo, and D. Pei-Zhu, “Calculations of photo-ionization cross sections for lithium atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3620–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pestka, G.

G. Pestka and W. Wozuicki, “Hylleraas-type calculation for lithium,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 255, 281–286 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, D.

D. Popescu, M. L. Popescu, C. B. Collins, B. W. Johnson, and I. Popescu, “Use of space-charge-amplification techniques in the absorption spectroscopy of Cs and Cs2,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 1666–1672 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, and J. Richter, “Absorption spectroscopy of excited cesium atoms,” Z. Phys. 226, 160–174 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, I.

D. Popescu, M. L. Popescu, C. B. Collins, B. W. Johnson, and I. Popescu, “Use of space-charge-amplification techniques in the absorption spectroscopy of Cs and Cs2,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 1666–1672 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, and J. Richter, “Absorption spectroscopy of excited cesium atoms,” Z. Phys. 226, 160–174 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, M. L.

D. Popescu, M. L. Popescu, C. B. Collins, B. W. Johnson, and I. Popescu, “Use of space-charge-amplification techniques in the absorption spectroscopy of Cs and Cs2,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 1666–1672 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Puretsky, A. A.

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, and A. A. Puretsky, “Measuring photoionization cross-sections of excited atomic states,” Appl. Phys. 9, 335–337 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Qi, W. U. Yong, W. Jian-Guo, and D. Pei-Zhu, “Calculations of photo-ionization cross sections for lithium atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3620–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qu, L.-H.

L.-H. Qu, Z.-W. Wang, and X.-X. Guan, “Energy and oscillator strength for lithium atom,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 732–735(1997).
[CrossRef]

Rafiq, M.

S. U. Haq, R. Ali, M. A. Kalyar, M. Rafiq, A. Nadeem, and M. A. Baig, “Oscillator strengths of the 4s4p P1,31o→4snd D1,32 transitions of neutral calcium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 1–8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Saleem, S. Hussain, M. Rafiq, and M. A. Baig, “Simultaneous measurements of photoionization cross-sections of lithium isotopes from 3p P21/2,3/2,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 5025–5035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riaz, M.

M. Anwar-ul-Haq, S. Mahmood, M. Riaz, R. Ali, and M. A. Baig, “On the first ionization potential of lithium,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 38, S77–S86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richter, J.

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, and J. Richter, “Absorption spectroscopy of excited cesium atoms,” Z. Phys. 226, 160–174 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, D. E.

D. E. Rothe, “Radiative electron-ion recombination into the first excited state of lithium,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 355–365 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rumble, J. R.

J. S. Sims, S. A. Hagstrom, and J. R. Rumble, “Upper and lower bounds to atomic and molecular properties. III. Lithium oscillator strengths for various S2−P2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 242–250 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Saleem, M.

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Measurement of oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous spectrum of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 022710 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hussain, M. Saleem, and M. A. Baig, “Angular momentum dependence of photoionization cross sections from the excited states of lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 052705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Amin, S. Mahmood, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross-section measurements from the 2p, 3d and 3s excited states of lithium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 331–337 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Saleem, S. Hussain, M. Rafiq, and M. A. Baig, “Simultaneous measurements of photoionization cross-sections of lithium isotopes from 3p P21/2,3/2,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 5025–5035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saraph, H. E.

G. Peach, H. E. Saraph, and M. J. Seaton, “Atomic data for opacity calculation: IX. The lithium isoelectronic sequence,” J. Phys. B 21, 3669–3683 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Peach, H. E. Saraph, and M. J. Seaton, “Atomic data for opacity calculations. IX. The lithium isoelectronic sequence,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, 3669–3683 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, M. J.

G. Peach, H. E. Saraph, and M. J. Seaton, “Atomic data for opacity calculations. IX. The lithium isoelectronic sequence,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, 3669–3683 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Peach, H. E. Saraph, and M. J. Seaton, “Atomic data for opacity calculation: IX. The lithium isoelectronic sequence,” J. Phys. B 21, 3669–3683 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shah, M.

A. Nadeem, S. U. Haq, M. Nawaz, M. Shah, and M. A. Baig, “Measurements of the oscillator strengths for the 6p7s(1/2,1/2)1→6pnp(1/2,3/2)2 Rydberg transitions of lead,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 65, 842–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sims, J. S.

J. S. Sims, S. A. Hagstrom, and J. R. Rumble, “Upper and lower bounds to atomic and molecular properties. III. Lithium oscillator strengths for various S2−P2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 242–250 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.-W.

L.-H. Qu, Z.-W. Wang, and X.-X. Guan, “Energy and oscillator strength for lithium atom,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 732–735(1997).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, W. L.

W. L. Wiese and J. R. Fuhr, “Accurate transition probabilities for hydrogen, helium and lithium,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38, 565–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Martin and W. L. Wiese, “Tables of critically evaluated oscillators for the lithium isoelectronic sequence,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, 537–570 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Martin and W. L. Wiese, “Atomic oscillator-strength distributions in spectral series of the lithium isoelectronic sequence,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 699–714 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Wiese, “Systematic trends of atomic oscillator strengths in isoelectronic sequences,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2361–2366 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Windholz, L.

V. Wippel, C. Binder, W. Huber, L. Windholz, M. Allegrini, F. Fuso, and E. Arimondo, “Photoionization cross-sections of the first excited states of sodium and lithium in a magneto-optical trap,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 285–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wippel, V.

V. Wippel, C. Binder, W. Huber, L. Windholz, M. Allegrini, F. Fuso, and E. Arimondo, “Photoionization cross-sections of the first excited states of sodium and lithium in a magneto-optical trap,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 285–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wozuicki, W.

G. Pestka and W. Wozuicki, “Hylleraas-type calculation for lithium,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 255, 281–286 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, and J. D. Kelley, “Absolute measurement of photoionization cross sections of excited atoms: Application to determination of atomic beam densities,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949–5952 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ya’akobi, B.

B. Ya’akobi, “Absorption and emission of continuous radiation by lithium ionized gas,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 92, 100–106 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Yong, W. U.

Y.-Y. Qi, W. U. Yong, W. Jian-Guo, and D. Pei-Zhu, “Calculations of photo-ionization cross sections for lithium atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3620–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. P.

S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, G. S. Hurst, and M. G. Payne, “Resonance ionization spectroscopy of lithium,” Opt. Commun. 30, 47–50 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Young, W. A.

W. A. Young, M. Y. Mirza, and W. W. Duley, “Multiphoton ionization spectra in lithium vapour,” Opt. Commun. 31, 157–160 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zhi-Wen, W.

C. Chao and W. Zhi-Wen, “Resonance calculations of d−f intervals for the lithium Rydberg states,” Chin. Phys. 14, 505–510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, and A. A. Puretsky, “Measuring photoionization cross-sections of excited atomic states,” Appl. Phys. 9, 335–337 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

K. Niemax, “Spectroscopy using thermionic diode detectors,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 147–157 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Niemax, “Investigation on the thermionic diode: the ionization probablity of Rb n2PJ atoms by noble gas collisions,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 59–62 (1983).

Ark. Fys. (1)

I. Johansson, “The infrared spectrum of Li I,” Ark. Fys. 15, 169–179 (1959).

Can. J. Phys. (1)

C. Barrientos and I. Martin, “Oscillator strength distribution in the discrete and continuous region of alkali elements,” Can. J. Phys. 65, 435–437 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Pestka and W. Wozuicki, “Hylleraas-type calculation for lithium,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 255, 281–286 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. (1)

C. Chao and W. Zhi-Wen, “Resonance calculations of d−f intervals for the lithium Rydberg states,” Chin. Phys. 14, 505–510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y.-Y. Qi, W. U. Yong, W. Jian-Guo, and D. Pei-Zhu, “Calculations of photo-ionization cross sections for lithium atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3620–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Qu, Z.-W. Wang, and X.-X. Guan, “Energy and oscillator strength for lithium atom,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 732–735(1997).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (4)

I. Labazan and S. Milosevic, “Lithium vapour excitation at 2S→3D two-photon resonance,” Eur. Phys. J. D 8, 47–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Wippel, C. Binder, W. Huber, L. Windholz, M. Allegrini, F. Fuso, and E. Arimondo, “Photoionization cross-sections of the first excited states of sodium and lithium in a magneto-optical trap,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 285–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Amin, S. Mahmood, M. Saleem, M. A. Kalyar, and M. A. Baig, “Photoionization cross-section measurements from the 2p, 3d and 3s excited states of lithium,” Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 331–337 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two-step laser excitation scheme for the investigation of Rydberg states and photoionization cross-section measurement of lithium.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photoionization signals from the 3pP2 excited state plotted against the ionization laser energies. The solid curve represents the least-square fit of [Eq. (1)]. The absolute value of the cross section σ (Mb) from the 3pP2 excited at 796 nm ionizing laser wavelength is extracted as 30±4.8Mb. The error bars show pulse-to-pulse variation in the photoionizing signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Portion of the spectrum showing the strongest 3pP2ndD2 (22n50) transitions. The low-intensity series is assigned as nsS2 series of lithium.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Log–log plot of the f-values versus the principal quantum number n. The lower n data are taken from Wiese and Fuhr [32], and the center line is the extrapolation connecting the present work with lower n data. The inset in figure shows the trend of the f-values with increasing principal quantum n on a log–log scale it varies as 1/n2.79±0.056.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plot of the n3f/2R versus the excess energies corresponding to the 3pP2ndD2 (16n43) transitions of lithium showing trend of the oscillator strength density at first ionization threshold.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Principal Quantum Number n, Wavelengths, Term Energies, and the f-Values of the 3pP2ndD2 Rydberg Transitions

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A=πwo2[1+(λzπwo2)2].
n=nex[1exp(σU2ωA)].
n*=REEn,
fn=3.77x105SRydλ+S+λnσ(λ+).
(n*)3fn2R=dfdE,dfdE=9.11×1015σ(E)cm2(eV)1.

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