Abstract

The propagation in a new microstructured plasmon optical fiber specifically designed for sensing of water dissolved chemicals is investigated using a finite element method. The fiber is made by a silica core with a small air hole in the center of the structure, surrounded by six air holes placed at the vertices of a hexagon, and further enclosed by gold and water layers. In order to enhance the sensitivity, the structure is designed to have the phase matching point corresponding to the maximum of the power fraction for a core guided mode in the water and gold layers and to a minimum in the glass layer, and vice versa for the plasmon mode. This way, near the phase matching point there is a strong interaction between the core and plasmon modes, causing a splitting in the real part of the propagation constant and also a shift of the imaginary part of the effective index toward the higher wavelengths. The real part of the group refractive index shows a minimum (maximum for the group velocity) and a very small value of the imaginary part of the group refractive index near the phase matching point for the degenerate core mode. When the analyte refractive index is increased by 0.001 RIU, the phase matching point is shifted by 4 nm toward longer wavelengths, with a corresponding sensitivity better than 2.5×105RIU.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

V. A. Popescu, “Power absorption efficiency in superconducting fiber optical waveguides,” J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 25, 1–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20, 5974–5986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Skorobogatiy, “Microstructured and photonic bandgap fibers for applications in the resonant bio-and chemical sensors,” J. Sens. 2009, 1–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biochemical species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Verma, A. K. Sharma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based tapered fiber optic sensor with different taper profiles,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

2006 (1)

1983 (1)

Alexander, R. W.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bozhevolnyi, S.

T. Holmgaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric -loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).

Daimon, M.

Fassi Fehri, M.

Gauvreau, B.

Ghatak, A. K.

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Gupta, B. D.

R. K. Verma, A. K. Sharma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based tapered fiber optic sensor with different taper profiles,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R. B. D.

A. K. Sharma, Rajan, and R. B. D. Gupta, “Influence of dopants on the performance of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Opt. Commun. 274, 320–326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hassani, A.

Holmgaard, T.

T. Holmgaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric -loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biochemical species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A.

Liu, D.

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20, 5974–5986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Masumura, A.

Ordal, M. A.

Popescu, V. A.

V. A. Popescu, “Power absorption efficiency in superconducting fiber optical waveguides,” J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 25, 1–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rajan,

A. K. Sharma, Rajan, and R. B. D. Gupta, “Influence of dopants on the performance of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Opt. Commun. 274, 320–326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A. K.

R. K. Verma, A. K. Sharma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based tapered fiber optic sensor with different taper profiles,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sharma, Rajan, and R. B. D. Gupta, “Influence of dopants on the performance of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Opt. Commun. 274, 320–326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shuai, B.

Skorobogatiy, M.

Thyagarajan, K.

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Verma, R. K.

R. K. Verma, A. K. Sharma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based tapered fiber optic sensor with different taper profiles,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Xia, L.

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20, 5974–5986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University, 2006).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University, 2006).

Yu, X.

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20, 5974–5986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biochemical species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Sens. (1)

M. Skorobogatiy, “Microstructured and photonic bandgap fibers for applications in the resonant bio-and chemical sensors,” J. Sens. 2009, 1–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Supercond. Novel Magn. (1)

V. A. Popescu, “Power absorption efficiency in superconducting fiber optical waveguides,” J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 25, 1–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. K. Sharma, Rajan, and R. B. D. Gupta, “Influence of dopants on the performance of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Opt. Commun. 274, 320–326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Verma, A. K. Sharma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based tapered fiber optic sensor with different taper profiles,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Holmgaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric -loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).

Other (2)

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University, 2006).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross section of a microstructured optical fiber made by a small air hole (radius r1) in the center of the structure, six air holes (radii r2=r3=r4=r5=r6=r7), which are placed at the vertices of a hexagon with vertice-to-vertice distance d and are inserted in a SiO2 core (radius r8), which is surrounded by a gold layer (thickness r9r8), and a very thickness distilled water layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Contour plot of the z component Sz(x,y) of the Poynting vector for the first (a) and the second (b) of twofold degenerate core guided mode in a microstructured optical fiber at the maximum of the power fraction in the water (λ=0.623μm and λ=0.624μm for the first and the second degenerate mode, respectively). The analyte is a distilled water layer, r1=0.5μm, r2=r3=r4=r5=r6=r7=0.6μm, r8=3μm, r9=3.04μm, and d=2μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Contour plot of the z-component Sz(x,y) of the Poynting vector for the first (a) and the second (b) of twofold degenerate plasmon mode in a microstructured optical fiber at the resonant wavelength (λ=0.623μm and λ=0.624μm for the first and the second degenerate mode, respectively). The analyte is a distilled water layer, r1=0.5μm, r2=r3=r4=r5=r6=r7=0.6μm, r8=3μm, r9=3.04μm, and d=2μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Radial (positive y direction) cross section of the z component Sz(x,y) of the Poynting vector for the first degenerate core guided mode (a) and for the first degenerate plasmon mode (b) in a microstructured optical fiber near the phase matching point. The analyte is a distilled water layer, r1=0.5μm, r2=r3=r4=r5=r6=r7=0.6μm, r8=3μm, r9=3.04μm and d=2μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Radial (positive y-direction) cross section of the z-component Sz(x,y) of the Poynting vector for the first degenerate core guided mode (a) and the first degenerate plasmon mode (b) in a microstructured optical fiber at a considerable distance (λ=0.64μm) from the phase matching point. The analyte is a distilled water, r1=0.5μm, r2=r3=r4=r5=r6=r7=0.6μm, r8=3μm, r9=3.04μm, and d=2μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Imaginary part of the effective index of the first degenerate core guided mode (the maximum of the power fraction in the water is at λ=0.623μm) in the proposed microstructured optical fiber, versus the wavelength when the analyte is a distilled water. (b) Calculated loss spectra for the same mode. The insets show the real (a) and imaginary (b) parts of the effective index for twofold degenerate core mode for a small part of the spectrum close to the resonance. The solid and dashed curves in insets are for the first and the second degenerate mode, respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Real (a) and imaginary (b) parts of the effective index for the first degenerate core mode in a microstructured optical fiber with a refractive index of the distilled water na and for a fixed change (0.001 RIU) in the value of na, (i.e., na+0.001) for a small part of the spectrum where there is a resonance at λ=0.623μm for na and a resonance at λ=0.627μm for na+0.001.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Imaginary part of the effective index of the first degenerate core guided mode in a microstructured optical fiber with a refractive index of the distilled water na and for a fixed change (0.001 RIU) in the value of na, (i.e., na+0.001) for a small part of the spectrum where there is a resonance at λ=1.201μm for na and a resonance at λ=1.203μm for na+0.001.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Power fraction carried in the distilled water, (b) gold, (c) SiO2, and (d) air layers of the first degenerate core guided mode in a microstructured optical fiber versus the wavelength.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Power fraction carried in the distilled water, (b) gold, (c) SiO2, and (d) air layers of the first plasmon mode in a microstructured optical fiber versus the wavelength.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of the group refractive index ng for the first degenerate core mode in a microstructured optical fiber versus the wavelength.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nsi(λ)=1+a1λ2λ2b12+a2λ2λ2b22+a3λ2λ2b32,
na(λ)=1+a1λ2λ2b1+a2λ2λ2b2+a3λ2λ2b3+a4λ2λ2b4,
ng(λ)=1λ2λcλp2(λc+iλ),
Sz=12Re[ExHy*EyHx*],
ng=neff+ωdneffdω=neffλdneffdλ,
vg=cng,

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