Abstract

To develop a thin and flexible hollow waveguide for terahertz (THz) waves that can be applied to endoscopic applications, a new (to our knowledge) fabrication method is proposed in which thin polymer tubing is first drawn and then a silver layer is formed on the outside of the tubing. By using this method, a thick dielectric layer, which was difficult to form by liquid-phase deposition, is easily obtained with high accuracy in the thickness. A transmission loss at 1.5 THz measured by a Fourier transform IR spectrometer was 3.0 dB for a 50 cm long, 1 mm inner-diameter waveguide. It is shown that the transmission losses are not affected by the bending of the waveguide when the bending radius is larger than around 10 cm.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cao and J. Jahns, “Azimuthally polarized surface plasmons as effective terahertz waveguides,” Opt. Express 13, 511–518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. A. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, and E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12, 5263–5268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz waveguiding,” Nature 432, 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. Miyagi, “Waveguide-loss evaluation in circular hollow waveguides and its ray-optical treatment,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 303–307 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

M. Miyagi and S. Kawakami, “Design theory of dielectric-coated circular metallic waveguides for infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116–126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

Alexander, R. W.

Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Boismenu, F.

Boreman, G.

W. R. Folks, S. K. Pandey, and G. Boreman, “Refractive index at THz frequencies of various plastics,” in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MD10.

Bowden, B.

Cao, Q.

Chen, H.

L. Chen, H. Chen, T. Kao, J. Lu, and C. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 306–308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, H. Chen, T. Kao, J. Lu, and C. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 306–308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, P. D.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, C.

Dupuis, A.

Folks, W. R.

W. R. Folks, S. K. Pandey, and G. Boreman, “Refractive index at THz frequencies of various plastics,” in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MD10.

Gao, Y.

George, R.

Goto, M.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, N.

Haam, S.

Harrington, J. A.

Hassani, A.

Hayden, L. M.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hidaka, T.

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huh, Y.

Ichikawa, S.

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Flexible terahertz fiber optics with low bend-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1230–1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

Jahns, J.

Jen, A. K.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

Kao, T.

L. Chen, H. Chen, T. Kao, J. Lu, and C. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 306–308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

M. Miyagi and S. Kawakami, “Design theory of dielectric-coated circular metallic waveguides for infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116–126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Lacroix, S.

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Lu, J.

L. Chen, H. Chen, T. Kao, J. Lu, and C. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 306–308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maeng, I.

Marchewka, A.

Matsuura, Y.

Minamide, H.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Flexible terahertz fiber optics with low bend-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1230–1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

Mittleman, D. M.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz waveguiding,” Nature 432, 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, M.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Flexible terahertz fiber optics with low bend-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1230–1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi, “Waveguide-loss evaluation in circular hollow waveguides and its ray-optical treatment,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 303–307 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi and S. Kawakami, “Design theory of dielectric-coated circular metallic waveguides for infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116–126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, E.

Nagel, M.

Nishizawa, J.

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. J.

Ono, S.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Pandey, S. K.

W. R. Folks, S. K. Pandey, and G. Boreman, “Refractive index at THz frequencies of various plastics,” in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MD10.

Pedersen, P.

Pepper, M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polishak, B.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pone, E.

Pye, R. J.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quema, A.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarukura, N.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Son, J.

Suh, J.

Sun, C.

L. Chen, H. Chen, T. Kao, J. Lu, and C. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 306–308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, E.

Tamura, K.

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Valdes, N. N.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vallejo, F. A.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz waveguiding,” Nature 432, 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Williams, J. C.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. Miyagi and S. Kawakami, “Design theory of dielectric-coated circular metallic waveguides for infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116–126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi, “Waveguide-loss evaluation in circular hollow waveguides and its ray-optical treatment,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 303–307 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz waveguiding,” Nature 432, 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, H. Chen, T. Kao, J. Lu, and C. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 306–308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. R. Folks, S. K. Pandey, and G. Boreman, “Refractive index at THz frequencies of various plastics,” in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MD10.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure and index profile of hollow metal waveguides with an inner dielectric layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretical losses of the HE 11 mode in hollow waveguides as a function of the thickness of the inner dielectric layer. The wavelength is 200 μm, and the inner diameter of the waveguide is 1.0 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Theoretical losses of the HE 11 mode in hollow waveguides with an inner dielectric layer as a function of inner diameter D . The wavelength is 200 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Proposed fabrication method of THz hollow waveguides.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Loss spectra of a hollow waveguide with a PE inner layer and a silver hollow waveguide with an inner diameter of 1.0 mm and a length of 50 cm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured losses of a bent waveguide measured by FT-IR at a 200 μm wavelength. The waveguide has an inner diameter of 1.0 mm and a length of 50 cm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Bending losses of a waveguide with a dielectric inner layer measured by a parametric oscillator. Incident polarization is perpendicular and parallel to the bending plane. The waveguide has an inner diameter of 1.0 mm and a length of 1 m, and the measured wavelength is 200 μm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Ray optic model explaining threshold bending radius R for transition to whispering gallery modes.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d = λ 4 n d 2 1 · 1 π · 2 tan 1 [ n d n d 2 1 4 ] ,
α = 4 u 2 k 0 2 D 3 · n n 2 + k 2 ( 1 + n d 2 n d 2 1 ) 2 ,
sin φ = R R + D ,
tan φ = 2 u k 0 D .

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