Abstract

Electro-optic modulation is achieved in devices consisting of single-crystalline thin films of N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline grown from the melt in the slots of phase modulators based on horizontally slotted silicon waveguides. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental realization of an electro-optically active horizontally slotted silicon waveguide and also the first demonstration of organic crystalline materials being implemented into the slotted silicon photonics technology. The experimentally determined half-wave voltage times length product and the losses are estimated to be Vπ×L=14.7±2 V·cm and 10±2.4 dB/cm, respectively. The fabrication concept employed here circumvents technological issues present in the context of conventional vertically slotted waveguide structures, since the slots with cross-sectional dimensions of about 1000 nm×160 nm have been patterned with standard optical photolithography into thermally grown oxide sandwiched between two fusion bonded device silicon layers. In contrast to previously reported vertically slotted silicon waveguides with polymeric slot materials, organic crystalline based devices do not require high-electric-field poling prior to operation and feature an excellent long-term stability of dipole orientation in addition to superior photochemical stability.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (3)

2010 (4)

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 15618–15623 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: State of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110, 25–55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Figi, M. Jazbinšek, C. Hunziker, M. Koechlin, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic tuning and modulation of single-crystalline organic microring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1103–1110(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Figi, M. Jazbinšek, C. Hunziker, M. Koechlin, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic single-crystalline organic waveguides and nanowires grown from the melt,” Opt. Express 16, 11310–11327(2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rezzonico, S.-J. Kwon, H. Figi, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinšek, and P. Günter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528–1530(2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 8401–8410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q.-Y. Tong, G. Fountain, and P. Enquist, “Room temperature SiO2/SiO2 covalent bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 042110(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

H. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, T. Yamada, K. Kuroyanagi, and T. Kobayashi, “Characteristics of the terahertz radiation from single crystals of N-substituted 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, L529–L537 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunicationwavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486–3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-substituted 4-nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

H. Porte, J.-P. Goedgebuer, R. Ferriere, and N. Fort, “Integrated TE-TM mode converter on Y-cut Z-propagating LiNbO3 with an electrooptic phase matching for coherence multiplexing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1760–1762(1989).
[CrossRef]

Alloatti, L.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li, R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Silicon high-speed electro-optic modulator,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 195–197.

Almeida, V. R.

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

Aoshima, S.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528–1530(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li, R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Silicon high-speed electro-optic modulator,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 195–197.

Bale, D. H.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: State of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110, 25–55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barklund, A.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li, R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Silicon high-speed electro-optic modulator,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 195–197.

Barrios, C. A.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benight, S.

Biaggio, I.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li, R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Silicon high-speed electro-optic modulator,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 195–197.

Bojko, R.

Bonk, R.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li, R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Silicon high-speed electro-optic modulator,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 195–197.

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bortnik, B.

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bösch, M.

U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunicationwavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486–3489 (1998).
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Bosshard, C.

U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunicationwavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486–3489 (1998).
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Brosi, J.-M.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
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J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177–4191 (2008).
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Chakravarty, S.

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 882–884 (2011).
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C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
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Chen, A.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335–3337 (1997).
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Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 882–884 (2011).
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C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
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L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
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M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528–1530(2007).
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Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
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Dalton, L. R.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: State of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110, 25–55 (2010).
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Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
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D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
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DeRose, C. T.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
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Diederich, F.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
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Ding, R.

Dinu, R.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li, R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Silicon high-speed electro-optic modulator,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 195–197.

Dumon, P.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
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J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li, R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Silicon high-speed electro-optic modulator,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 195–197.

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
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Enquist, P.

Q.-Y. Tong, G. Fountain, and P. Enquist, “Room temperature SiO2/SiO2 covalent bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 042110(2006).
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Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
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Fedeli, J.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li, R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Silicon high-speed electro-optic modulator,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 195–197.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Ferriere, R.

H. Porte, J.-P. Goedgebuer, R. Ferriere, and N. Fort, “Integrated TE-TM mode converter on Y-cut Z-propagating LiNbO3 with an electrooptic phase matching for coherence multiplexing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1760–1762(1989).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335–3337 (1997).
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Figi, H.

Fort, N.

H. Porte, J.-P. Goedgebuer, R. Ferriere, and N. Fort, “Integrated TE-TM mode converter on Y-cut Z-propagating LiNbO3 with an electrooptic phase matching for coherence multiplexing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1760–1762(1989).
[CrossRef]

Fountain, G.

Q.-Y. Tong, G. Fountain, and P. Enquist, “Room temperature SiO2/SiO2 covalent bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 042110(2006).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, M.

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frank, B.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li, R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Silicon high-speed electro-optic modulator,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 195–197.

Fujimura, H.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-substituted 4-nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528–1530(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gall, A.

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J.-P.

H. Porte, J.-P. Goedgebuer, R. Ferriere, and N. Fort, “Integrated TE-TM mode converter on Y-cut Z-propagating LiNbO3 with an electrooptic phase matching for coherence multiplexing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1760–1762(1989).
[CrossRef]

Gould, M.

Günter, P.

H. Figi, M. Jazbinšek, C. Hunziker, M. Koechlin, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic tuning and modulation of single-crystalline organic microring resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1103–1110(2009).
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H. Figi, M. Jazbinšek, C. Hunziker, M. Koechlin, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic single-crystalline organic waveguides and nanowires grown from the melt,” Opt. Express 16, 11310–11327(2008).
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D. Rezzonico, S.-J. Kwon, H. Figi, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinšek, and P. Günter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunicationwavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486–3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, H.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1528–1530(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, T. Yamada, K. Kuroyanagi, and T. Kobayashi, “Characteristics of the terahertz radiation from single crystals of N-substituted 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, L529–L537 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-substituted 4-nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hillerkuss, D.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li, R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Silicon high-speed electro-optic modulator,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 195–197.

Hochberg, M.

Hon, N. K.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, B. Jalali, and J. B. Khurgin, “Stress-induced χ(2) in silicon—comparison between theoretical and experimental values,” in 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2009), pp. 232–234.

Huang, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 8401–8410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Hung, Y.-C.

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, C.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441, 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, B. Jalali, and J. B. Khurgin, “Stress-induced χ(2) in silicon—comparison between theoretical and experimental values,” in 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2009), pp. 232–234.

Jazbinšek, M.

Jen, A.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 15618–15623 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express 19, 3952–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 882–884 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

B. Qi, P. Yu, Y. Li, Y. Hao, Q. Zhou, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Ultracompact electrooptic silicon modulator with horizontal photonic crystal slotted slab,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 724–726 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, B. Jalali, and J. B. Khurgin, “Stress-induced χ(2) in silicon—comparison between theoretical and experimental values,” in 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2009), pp. 232–234.

Kim, T.-D.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

H. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, T. Yamada, K. Kuroyanagi, and T. Kobayashi, “Characteristics of the terahertz radiation from single crystals of N-substituted 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, L529–L537 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koechlin, M.

Koos, C.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19, 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177–4191 (2008).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li, R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Silicon high-speed electro-optic modulator,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 195–197.

CrystalMaker Software Limited, Begbroke Science Park, Sandy Lane, Yarnton, Oxfordshire, OX5 1PF, UK, http://www.crystalmaker.com/.

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