Abstract

We evaluated the optical properties required for the design of a solar-pumped laser for Nd3+-doped ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) glass. The quantum efficiency (QE) of near-infrared emission from the F3/24 state of Nd3+ using sunlight as an excitation source was 70%. The product of the stimulated emission cross section and the radiative lifetime (σseτr) of the F3/24I11/24 was 1.5×1023cm2·s. The integrated absorption strength in the 450900nm region was the largest among Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses. The high QE, large σseτr product, and large integrated absorption strength indicate that Nd3+-doped ZBLAN is one of the most promising materials for solar-pumped lasers.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Arashi and Y. Kaneda, “Solar-pumped laser and its second harmonic generation,” Sol. Energ. 50, 447–451 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. I. Kiss, H. R. Lewis, and R. C. Duncan, “Sun pumped continuous optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 93–94 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature 187, 493–494 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. R. Simpson, “Continuous Sun-pumped room temperature glass laser operation,” Appl. Opt. 3, 783–784 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. G. Young, “A Sun-pumped cw one-watt laser,” Appl. Opt. 5, 993–997 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18 W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).
  11. M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, “Verres fluores au tetrafluorure de zirconium proprietes optiques d’un verre dope au Nd3+,” Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Opt. Electron. 2010, 501956(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Kanamori and S. Sakaguchi, “Preparation of elevated NA fluoride optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L468–L470(1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Gan, “Optical properties of fluoride glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 9–20 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996).
  18. K. Rajnak, “Configuration-interaction on the “free-ion” energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847–855 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Suzuki, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, S. Mizuno, K. Hasegawa, H. Ito, and Y. Ohishi, “Quantum efficiency measurements on Nd-doped glasses for solar pumped lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 2344–2349 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Förster, “Experimentelle und Theoretische Untersuchung des Zwischenmolekularen Ubergangs von Elektronenanregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. B 4a, 321–327 (1949).
  21. J. A. Caird, A. J. Ramponi, and P. R. Staver, “Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1391–1403 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. I. Burshtein, “Concentration self-quenching,” Sov. Phys. JETP 57, 1165–1171 (1983).
  23. M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, “Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminescence,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978–1989 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, “Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. E. Stokowski, R. A. Saroyan, and M. J. Weber, “Nd-doped laser glass spectroscopic and physical properties,” Technical Report M-095 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1981).
  29. K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Hanada, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  30. W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical and electronic properties of rare earth ions in glasses,” in Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed., M.J. F.Digonnet, ed. (Stanford Univ. Press, 2001), pp. 17–112.
  31. D. P. Devor, L. G. Deshazer, and R. C. Pastor, “Nd:YAG quantum efficiency and related radiative properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1863–1873 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited-state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Vol. 9, A.Gschneider and L.Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, 1987), Chap. 58, pp. 1–90.
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2010

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Opt. Electron. 2010, 501956(2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, S. Mizuno, K. Hasegawa, H. Ito, and Y. Ohishi, “Quantum efficiency measurements on Nd-doped glasses for solar pumped lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 2344–2349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical and electronic properties of rare earth ions in glasses,” in Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed., M.J. F.Digonnet, ed. (Stanford Univ. Press, 2001), pp. 17–112.

A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996).

1995

F. Gan, “Optical properties of fluoride glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 9–20 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. Arashi and Y. Kaneda, “Solar-pumped laser and its second harmonic generation,” Sol. Energ. 50, 447–451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, “Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234(1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. A. Caird, A. J. Ramponi, and P. R. Staver, “Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1391–1403 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

D. P. Devor, L. G. Deshazer, and R. C. Pastor, “Nd:YAG quantum efficiency and related radiative properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1863–1873 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited-state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Vol. 9, A.Gschneider and L.Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, 1987), Chap. 58, pp. 1–90.
[CrossRef]

1986

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Hanada, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanamori and S. Sakaguchi, “Preparation of elevated NA fluoride optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L468–L470(1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18 W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. I. Burshtein, “Concentration self-quenching,” Sov. Phys. JETP 57, 1165–1171 (1983).

1981

S. E. Stokowski, R. A. Saroyan, and M. J. Weber, “Nd-doped laser glass spectroscopic and physical properties,” Technical Report M-095 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1981).

1977

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, “Verres fluores au tetrafluorure de zirconium proprietes optiques d’un verre dope au Nd3+,” Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1966

C. G. Young, “A Sun-pumped cw one-watt laser,” Appl. Opt. 5, 993–997 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965

K. Rajnak, “Configuration-interaction on the “free-ion” energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847–855 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, “Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminescence,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978–1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

G. R. Simpson, “Continuous Sun-pumped room temperature glass laser operation,” Appl. Opt. 3, 783–784 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963

Z. I. Kiss, H. R. Lewis, and R. C. Duncan, “Sun pumped continuous optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 93–94 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1960

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature 187, 493–494 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1953

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1949

T. Förster, “Experimentelle und Theoretische Untersuchung des Zwischenmolekularen Ubergangs von Elektronenanregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. B 4a, 321–327 (1949).

Andrade, A. A.

A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arai, K.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Hanada, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Arashi, H.

H. Arashi and Y. Kaneda, “Solar-pumped laser and its second harmonic generation,” Sol. Energ. 50, 447–451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18 W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Baasandash, C.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baesso, M. L.

A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baffier, N.

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

Bagheri, B.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardez, I.

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

Benmair, R. M. J.

R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brocklesby, W. S.

H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brun, P.

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, “Verres fluores au tetrafluorure de zirconium proprietes optiques d’un verre dope au Nd3+,” Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Burshtein, A. I.

A. I. Burshtein, “Concentration self-quenching,” Sov. Phys. JETP 57, 1165–1171 (1983).

Caird, J. A.

J. A. Caird, A. J. Ramponi, and P. R. Staver, “Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1391–1403 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, “Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234(1992).
[CrossRef]

Catunda, T.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Caurant, D.

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

Daito, K.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deshazer, L. G.

D. P. Devor, L. G. Deshazer, and R. C. Pastor, “Nd:YAG quantum efficiency and related radiative properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1863–1873 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Devor, D. P.

D. P. Devor, L. G. Deshazer, and R. C. Pastor, “Nd:YAG quantum efficiency and related radiative properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1863–1873 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, R. C.

Z. I. Kiss, H. R. Lewis, and R. C. Duncan, “Sun pumped continuous optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 93–94 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Dussossoy, J. L.

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

Fillett, C.

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

Förster, T.

T. Förster, “Experimentelle und Theoretische Untersuchung des Zwischenmolekularen Ubergangs von Elektronenanregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. B 4a, 321–327 (1949).

Funatsu, T.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, F.

F. Gan, “Optical properties of fluoride glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 9–20 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gervais, C.

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

Hanada, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Hanada, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, K.

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T. Suzuki, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, S. Mizuno, K. Hasegawa, H. Ito, and Y. Ohishi, “Quantum efficiency measurements on Nd-doped glasses for solar pumped lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 2344–2349 (2010).
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C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
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T. Suzuki, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, S. Mizuno, K. Hasegawa, H. Ito, and Y. Ohishi, “Quantum efficiency measurements on Nd-doped glasses for solar pumped lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 2344–2349 (2010).
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T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
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T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
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R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
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[CrossRef]

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H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement system of the QE using an integrating sphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption and stimulated emission cross- section spectra of Nd 3 + doped in ZBLAN glass. The term symbols show the final states of the transitions. The initial states are the I 2 / 9 4 for absorption and the F 3 / 2 4 for emission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission lifetime of the F 3 / 2 4 state of Nd 3 + doped in ZBLAN glass. The dotted curve is a guide for the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectral intensities from an integrating sphere with Nd 3 + -doped ZBLAN glass sample of x = 0.5 (solid curve) and without the sample (dotted curve) under sunlight irradiation. (b) Difference spectrum. The dashed–dotted line shows the baseline.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantum efficiencies of near-infrared emission from the F 3 / 2 4 state of Nd 3 + doped in ZBLAN glass as functions of NdF 3 concentration x. The dotted curves are guides for the eye.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Excitation wavelength dependence of quantum efficiencies of near-infrared emission from the F 3 / 2 4 state of Nd 3 + doped in ZBLAN glass of x = 0.5 . The curve shows the absorption spectra of the glass.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Stimulated Emission Cross Section ( σ se ), Radiative Lifetime ( τ r ), and σ se τ r of Nd 3 + and the F 3 / 2 4 I 11 / 2 4 Radiative Transition and the Relative Integration Absorption of Nd 3 + in the 400–950 nm Region

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectroscopic Parameters for Nd 3 + Doped in Glasses

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( t ) = I ( 0 ) exp ( A r t W 0 t γ t W ¯ t ) ,
γ = 4 3 π 3 / 2 n N d R D A A r 1 / 3 ,
τ 0 1 = ( 2 π 3 ) 3 n N d 2 R D D 2 A r ,
W ¯ = γ π / 4 τ 0 = π ( 2 π 3 ) 5 / 2 R D A 3 R D D 3 n N d 2 A r .
η r = ( A r / W ) { 1 π z exp ( z 2 ) [ 1 erf z ] } ,
R D D 6 = 3 c 8 π n 2 A r σ em D σ abs D ( λ ) d λ ,
σ abs ( λ ) = α N d doped ( λ ) α undoped ( λ ) n N d ,
W m p = C { [ exp ( ω k T ) 1 ] 1 + 1 } p exp ( α Δ E ) ,
η int = N em N abs = η abs η rel η r η esc ,
η abs = N N d N N d + N host = N N d N abs ,
η rel = N F 3 / 2 4 N N d ,

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