Abstract

A high optical quality erbium-doped LuYAG single crystal has been grown by the Czochralski technique. The segregation coefficient of Er3+ was measured to be 1.05. The absorption and emission spectra were measured at room temperature. The spectroscopic parameters were calculated using the Judd–Ofelt (J-O) theory, and the J-O parameters Ωt (t=2, 4, 6) were found to be 0.89×1020, 1.64×1020, 1.23×1020cm2, respectively. The emission cross section of the Er3+ I13/24I15/24 transition were calculated by the Fuchtbauer–Ladenburg formula, and the room-temperature fluorescence lifetime of the Er3+ I13/24I15/24 transition was measured to be 9.9ms. Finally, promising laser performance with Er:Yb fiber laser pumping is described.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  25. M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. A. A. Kaminskii, V. S. Mironov, A. Kornienko, S. N. Bagaev, G. Boulon, A. Brenier, and B. Di Bartolo, “New laser properties and spectroscopy of orthorhombic crystals YAlO3:Er3+,” Phys. Status Solidi A 151, 231–255 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, L. D. Merkler, E. R. Kupp, G. L. Messing, and M. Dubinskii, “Efficient resonantly pumped tape cast compsite ceramic Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35, 922–924 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. W. H. Chang, N. Simakov, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. J. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Resonantly diode-pumped dontinuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Express 18, 13673–13678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Cheng, X. Xu, D. Li, D. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Yb:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 mixed crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33, 112–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Ding, G. J. Zhao, and X. D. Xu, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic properties of erbium doped Lu2SiO5,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2103–2106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, and Jayanta K. Sahu, “Fiber-laser pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, J. Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, D. Z. Li, S. S. Cheng, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient Er, Yb-doped fiber laser with 188 W free-running and >100 W tunable output power,” Opt. Express 13, 4916–4921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Kuwano, K. Suda, N. Ishizawa, and T. Yamada, “Crystal growth and properties of (Lu,Y)3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 41–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys. 214, 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, V. S. Mironov, A. Kornienko, S. N. Bagaev, G. Boulon, A. Brenier, and B. Di Bartolo, “New laser properties and spectroscopy of orthorhombic crystals YAlO3:Er3+,” Phys. Status Solidi A 151, 231–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118, 557–561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. Li, C. Wyon, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopic properties and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ and Yb3+ in Y2SiO5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1209–1221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1982 (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, A. G. Petrosyan, G. A. Denisenko, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Spectroscopic properties and 3 μm stimulated emission of Er3+ ions in the (Y1−xErx)3Al5O12 and (Lu1−xErx)3Al5O12 garnet crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 291–312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925–930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, K. S. Bagdasarov, and A. G. Petrosyan, “Absorption, luminescence, and stimulated emission investigation in Lu3Al5O12-Er3+ crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 39, 541–548 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, “Energy levels and crystal-field calculations of Er3+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. 136, A726–A728 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925–930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bagaev, S. N.

A. A. Kaminskii, V. S. Mironov, A. Kornienko, S. N. Bagaev, G. Boulon, A. Brenier, and B. Di Bartolo, “New laser properties and spectroscopy of orthorhombic crystals YAlO3:Er3+,” Phys. Status Solidi A 151, 231–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bagdasarov, K. S.

A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, K. S. Bagdasarov, and A. G. Petrosyan, “Absorption, luminescence, and stimulated emission investigation in Lu3Al5O12-Er3+ crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 39, 541–548 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys. 214, 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

A. A. Kaminskii, V. S. Mironov, A. Kornienko, S. N. Bagaev, G. Boulon, A. Brenier, and B. Di Bartolo, “New laser properties and spectroscopy of orthorhombic crystals YAlO3:Er3+,” Phys. Status Solidi A 151, 231–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, C.

Brenier, A.

A. A. Kaminskii, V. S. Mironov, A. Kornienko, S. N. Bagaev, G. Boulon, A. Brenier, and B. Di Bartolo, “New laser properties and spectroscopy of orthorhombic crystals YAlO3:Er3+,” Phys. Status Solidi A 151, 231–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Budni, P. A.

Butaeva, T. I.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. G. Petrosyan, G. A. Denisenko, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Spectroscopic properties and 3 μm stimulated emission of Er3+ ions in the (Y1−xErx)3Al5O12 and (Lu1−xErx)3Al5O12 garnet crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 291–312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, K. S. Bagdasarov, and A. G. Petrosyan, “Absorption, luminescence, and stimulated emission investigation in Lu3Al5O12-Er3+ crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 39, 541–548 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Caird, J. A.

Capobianco, J. A.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys. 214, 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cavalli, E.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys. 214, 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, N. W. H.

N. W. H. Chang, N. Simakov, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. J. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Resonantly diode-pumped dontinuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Express 18, 13673–13678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

X. F. Yang, D. Y. Shen, T. Zhao, H. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Li, H. M. Kou, and Y. B. Pan, “In-band pumped Er:YAG ceramic laser with 11 W of output power at 1645 nm,” Laser Phys. 211013–1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.

S. Cheng, X. Xu, D. Li, D. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Yb:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 mixed crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33, 112–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S. S.

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, J. Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, D. Z. Li, S. S. Cheng, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, J. Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, D. Z. Li, S. S. Cheng, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chicklis, E. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, T. M. Pollak, P. A. Budni, Y. E. Young, and E. P. Chicklis, “5 W repetitively Q-switched Er:LuAG laser resonantly pumped by an erbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1787–1789 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarkson, W. A.

Denisenko, G. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. G. Petrosyan, G. A. Denisenko, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Spectroscopic properties and 3 μm stimulated emission of Er3+ ions in the (Y1−xErx)3Al5O12 and (Lu1−xErx)3Al5O12 garnet crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 291–312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Denker, B.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 41–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Di Bartolo, B.

A. A. Kaminskii, V. S. Mironov, A. Kornienko, S. N. Bagaev, G. Boulon, A. Brenier, and B. Di Bartolo, “New laser properties and spectroscopy of orthorhombic crystals YAlO3:Er3+,” Phys. Status Solidi A 151, 231–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. C.

Y. C. Ding, G. J. Zhao, and X. D. Xu, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic properties of erbium doped Lu2SiO5,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2103–2106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M.

Ermeneux, F. S.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys. 214, 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. G. Petrosyan, G. A. Denisenko, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Spectroscopic properties and 3 μm stimulated emission of Er3+ ions in the (Y1−xErx)3Al5O12 and (Lu1−xErx)3Al5O12 garnet crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 291–312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, K. S. Bagdasarov, and A. G. Petrosyan, “Absorption, luminescence, and stimulated emission investigation in Lu3Al5O12-Er3+ crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 39, 541–548 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Francis, M. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fromzel, V.

Galagan, B.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 41–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geusic, J. E.

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, “Energy levels and crystal-field calculations of Er3+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. 136, A726–A728 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118, 557–561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hosken, D. J.

N. W. H. Chang, N. Simakov, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. J. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Resonantly diode-pumped dontinuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Express 18, 13673–13678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

C. Brandt, V. Matrosov, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “In-band fiber-laser-pumped Er:YVO4 laser emitting around 1.6 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1188–1190 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118, 557–561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

Ishizawa, N.

Y. Kuwano, K. Suda, N. Ishizawa, and T. Yamada, “Crystal growth and properties of (Lu,Y)3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118, 557–561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jenssen, H. P.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925–930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kabro, P.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys. 214, 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, V. S. Mironov, A. Kornienko, S. N. Bagaev, G. Boulon, A. Brenier, and B. Di Bartolo, “New laser properties and spectroscopy of orthorhombic crystals YAlO3:Er3+,” Phys. Status Solidi A 151, 231–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, A. G. Petrosyan, G. A. Denisenko, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Spectroscopic properties and 3 μm stimulated emission of Er3+ ions in the (Y1−xErx)3Al5O12 and (Lu1−xErx)3Al5O12 garnet crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 291–312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, K. S. Bagdasarov, and A. G. Petrosyan, “Absorption, luminescence, and stimulated emission investigation in Lu3Al5O12-Er3+ crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 39, 541–548 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, G.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 41–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, and Jayanta K. Sahu, “Fiber-laser pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power in-band pumped Er:YAG laser at 1617 nm,” Opt. Express 16, 5807–5812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koningstein, J. A.

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, “Energy levels and crystal-field calculations of Er3+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. 136, A726–A728 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Konves, J. R.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kornienko, A.

A. A. Kaminskii, V. S. Mironov, A. Kornienko, S. N. Bagaev, G. Boulon, A. Brenier, and B. Di Bartolo, “New laser properties and spectroscopy of orthorhombic crystals YAlO3:Er3+,” Phys. Status Solidi A 151, 231–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kou, H. M.

X. F. Yang, D. Y. Shen, T. Zhao, H. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Li, H. M. Kou, and Y. B. Pan, “In-band pumped Er:YAG ceramic laser with 11 W of output power at 1645 nm,” Laser Phys. 211013–1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Krupke, M. D. Shinn, J. E. Marion, J. A. Caird, and S. E. Stokowski, “Spectroscopic, optical, and thermomechanical properties of neodymium- and chromium-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 102–114 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kupp, E. R.

Kuwano, Y.

Y. Kuwano, K. Suda, N. Ishizawa, and T. Yamada, “Crystal growth and properties of (Lu,Y)3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 41–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, C. Wyon, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopic properties and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ and Yb3+ in Y2SiO5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1209–1221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

S. Cheng, X. Xu, D. Li, D. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Yb:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 mixed crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33, 112–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. Z.

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, J. Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, D. Z. Li, S. S. Cheng, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

X. F. Yang, D. Y. Shen, T. Zhao, H. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Li, H. M. Kou, and Y. B. Pan, “In-band pumped Er:YAG ceramic laser with 11 W of output power at 1645 nm,” Laser Phys. 211013–1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lukasiewicz, T.

Marion, J. E.

Matrosov, V.

Meng, J. Q.

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, J. Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, D. Z. Li, S. S. Cheng, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, L. D.

Merkler, L. D.

Messing, G. L.

Mironov, V. S.

A. A. Kaminskii, V. S. Mironov, A. Kornienko, S. N. Bagaev, G. Boulon, A. Brenier, and B. Di Bartolo, “New laser properties and spectroscopy of orthorhombic crystals YAlO3:Er3+,” Phys. Status Solidi A 151, 231–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys. 214, 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moncorgé, R.

C. Li, C. Wyon, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopic properties and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ and Yb3+ in Y2SiO5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1209–1221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Munch, J.

N. W. H. Chang, N. Simakov, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. J. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Resonantly diode-pumped dontinuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Express 18, 13673–13678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, V.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 41–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ottaway, D.

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ottaway, D. J.

Pan, Y. B.

X. F. Yang, D. Y. Shen, T. Zhao, H. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Li, H. M. Kou, and Y. B. Pan, “In-band pumped Er:YAG ceramic laser with 11 W of output power at 1645 nm,” Laser Phys. 211013–1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

Petrosyan, A. G.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. G. Petrosyan, G. A. Denisenko, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Spectroscopic properties and 3 μm stimulated emission of Er3+ ions in the (Y1−xErx)3Al5O12 and (Lu1−xErx)3Al5O12 garnet crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 291–312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, K. S. Bagdasarov, and A. G. Petrosyan, “Absorption, luminescence, and stimulated emission investigation in Lu3Al5O12-Er3+ crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 39, 541–548 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, T. M.

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

Sahu, J. K.

Sahu, Jayanta K.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, and Jayanta K. Sahu, “Fiber-laser pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisov, S. E.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. G. Petrosyan, G. A. Denisenko, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Spectroscopic properties and 3 μm stimulated emission of Er3+ ions in the (Y1−xErx)3Al5O12 and (Lu1−xErx)3Al5O12 garnet crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 291–312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118, 557–561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Setzler, S. D.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, T. M. Pollak, P. A. Budni, Y. E. Young, and E. P. Chicklis, “5 W repetitively Q-switched Er:LuAG laser resonantly pumped by an erbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1787–1789 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D. Y.

Shinn, M. D.

Simakov, N.

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Snell, K. J.

Stokowski, S. E.

Suda, K.

Y. Kuwano, K. Suda, N. Ishizawa, and T. Yamada, “Crystal growth and properties of (Lu,Y)3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sverchkov, S.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 41–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tellefsen, J.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 41–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ter-Gabriedlyan, N.

Ter-Gabrielyan, N.

Veitch, P. J.

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. W. H. Chang, N. Simakov, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. J. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Resonantly diode-pumped dontinuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm,” Opt. Express 18, 13673–13678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, J. Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, D. Z. Li, S. S. Cheng, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

S. Cheng, X. Xu, D. Li, D. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Yb:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 mixed crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33, 112–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, J. Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, D. Z. Li, S. S. Cheng, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wyon, C.

C. Li, C. Wyon, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopic properties and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ and Yb3+ in Y2SiO5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1209–1221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

S. Cheng, X. Xu, D. Li, D. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Yb:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 mixed crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33, 112–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, J. Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, D. Z. Li, S. S. Cheng, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

S. Cheng, X. Xu, D. Li, D. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Yb:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 mixed crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33, 112–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. D.

Y. C. Ding, G. J. Zhao, and X. D. Xu, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic properties of erbium doped Lu2SiO5,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2103–2106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, J. Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, D. Z. Li, S. S. Cheng, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

Y. Kuwano, K. Suda, N. Ishizawa, and T. Yamada, “Crystal growth and properties of (Lu,Y)3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. F.

X. F. Yang, D. Y. Shen, T. Zhao, H. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Li, H. M. Kou, and Y. B. Pan, “In-band pumped Er:YAG ceramic laser with 11 W of output power at 1645 nm,” Laser Phys. 211013–1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Young, Y. E.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, T. M. Pollak, P. A. Budni, Y. E. Young, and E. P. Chicklis, “5 W repetitively Q-switched Er:LuAG laser resonantly pumped by an erbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1787–1789 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, G. J.

Y. C. Ding, G. J. Zhao, and X. D. Xu, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic properties of erbium doped Lu2SiO5,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2103–2106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

X. F. Yang, D. Y. Shen, T. Zhao, H. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Li, H. M. Kou, and Y. B. Pan, “In-band pumped Er:YAG ceramic laser with 11 W of output power at 1645 nm,” Laser Phys. 211013–1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

S. Cheng, X. Xu, D. Li, D. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Yb:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 mixed crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33, 112–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z. W.

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, J. Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, D. Z. Li, S. S. Cheng, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

S. Cheng, X. Xu, D. Li, D. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Yb:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 mixed crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33, 112–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

X. F. Yang, D. Y. Shen, T. Zhao, H. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Li, H. M. Kou, and Y. B. Pan, “In-band pumped Er:YAG ceramic laser with 11 W of output power at 1645 nm,” Laser Phys. 211013–1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 41–46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. A. Capobianco, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Optical spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics and crystal-field analysis of Er3+ in YVO4,” Chem. Phys. 214, 329–340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

C. Li, C. Wyon, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopic properties and fluorescence dynamics of Er3+ and Yb3+ in Y2SiO5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1209–1221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925–930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, and Jayanta K. Sahu, “Fiber-laser pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

Y. Kuwano, K. Suda, N. Ishizawa, and T. Yamada, “Crystal growth and properties of (Lu,Y)3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 260, 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Ding, G. J. Zhao, and X. D. Xu, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic properties of erbium doped Lu2SiO5,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2103–2106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

X. F. Yang, D. Y. Shen, T. Zhao, H. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Li, H. M. Kou, and Y. B. Pan, “In-band pumped Er:YAG ceramic laser with 11 W of output power at 1645 nm,” Laser Phys. 211013–1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, J. Q. Meng, Y. Cheng, D. Z. Li, S. S. Cheng, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118, 557–561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Cheng, X. Xu, D. Li, D. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. Zhao, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Yb:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 mixed crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33, 112–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, “Energy levels and crystal-field calculations of Er3+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. 136, A726–A728 (1964).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (3)

A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, K. S. Bagdasarov, and A. G. Petrosyan, “Absorption, luminescence, and stimulated emission investigation in Lu3Al5O12-Er3+ crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 39, 541–548 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, A. G. Petrosyan, G. A. Denisenko, T. I. Butaeva, V. A. Fedorov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Spectroscopic properties and 3 μm stimulated emission of Er3+ ions in the (Y1−xErx)3Al5O12 and (Lu1−xErx)3Al5O12 garnet crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 71, 291–312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, V. S. Mironov, A. Kornienko, S. N. Bagaev, G. Boulon, A. Brenier, and B. Di Bartolo, “New laser properties and spectroscopy of orthorhombic crystals YAlO3:Er3+,” Phys. Status Solidi A 151, 231–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Picture of as-grown Er:LuYAG crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray diffraction spectra of Er:LuYAG crystal powder.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room-temperature absorption spectrum of Er:LuYAG crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption cross section of Er:LuYAG crystal in the range of 1400 1700 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission cross section of Er:LuYAG crystal after 980 nm excitation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Room-temperature fluorescence decay curve of the Er:LuYAG crystal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sketch of the Er:Yb-fiber-pumped laser operation system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Output power versus input power curve with different output couplers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output spectrum of the Er:LuYAG crystal laser.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and Calculated Line Strengths of Er 3 + in LuYAG at Room Temperature a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Intensity Parameters of Er 3 + Doped in Some Crystal Hosts

Tables Icon

Table 3 Computational Optical Radiation Parameters of Er 3 + in LuYAG Crystal

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 1 = 1.77362 λ 2 λ 2 0.00790836 + 0.527323 λ 2 λ 2 0.0231844 + 3.87734 λ 2 λ 2 332.469 .
A ed ( J J ) = 64 π 4 e 2 3 h ( 2 J + 1 ) λ ¯ 3 n ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 9 S cal ,
A md ( J J ) = 64 π 4 e 2 n 3 3 h ( 2 J + 1 ) λ ¯ 3 S md ,
σ a ( λ ) = 2.303 N 0 · L O D ( λ ) ,
σ e ( λ ) = λ 5 I ( λ ) 8 π c n 2 τ rad λ I ( λ ) d λ ,

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