Abstract

We introduce a complementary-medium-based matched filter synthesized through transformation optics (TO) for the recognition of nanopatterns at visible frequencies. The recognition is independent of the spatial position of the nanopatterns and is unrelated to the existence of other noise structures. Analytical results are verified by numerical simulations. Our results can linearly scale down to much smaller nanopatterns and may inspire new interesting applications of TO in biology, medicine, and chemistry for nondestructive and label-free discrimination imaging of biological cells, protein macromolecules, and organic tissues with linear optical systems instead of nonlinear optics.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (4)

A. J. Danner, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “Controlling birefringence in dielectrics,” Nat. Photon. 5, 357–359 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation-stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 5, 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Wu, Q. Cheng, and G. P. Wang, “Fourier optics theory for invisibility cloaks,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1467–1474 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

K. Wu and G. P. Wang, “General insight into the complementary medium-based camouflage devices from Fourier optics,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2242–2244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wu and G. P. Wang, “Hiding objects and creating illusions above a carpet filter using a Fourier optics approach,” Opt. Express 18, 19894–19901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143, 1047–1058(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys. 11, 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Zheng, X. Heng, and C. H. Yang, “A phase conjugate mirror inspired approach for building cloaking structures with left-handed materials,” New J. Phys. 11, 033010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ozeki, F. Dake, S. Kajiyama, K. i. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Analysis and experimental assessment of the sensitivity of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 3651–3658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering space for light via transformation optics,” Opt. Lett. 33, 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. Zhang, L. Ran, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

Z. Jacob, L. A. Alekseyev, and E. E. Narimanov, “Optical hyperlens: far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14, 8247–8256 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Alu and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016623(2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1996 (1)

A. J. Ward and J. B. Pendry, “Refraction and geometry in Maxwell’s equations,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 773–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Alam, M. S.

Alekseyev, L. A.

Alu, A.

A. Alu and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016623(2005).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, H.

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143, 1047–1058(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbastathis, G.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1970).

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

Caprari, R. S.

Chan, C. T.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. Zhang, L. Ran, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Q.

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dake, F.

Danner, A. J.

A. J. Danner, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “Controlling birefringence in dielectrics,” Nat. Photon. 5, 357–359 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dantus, M.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation-stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 5, 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, R. C.

R. C. Dunn, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99, 2891–2928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Alu and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016623(2005).
[CrossRef]

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation-stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 5, 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, K. i.

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2005).

Han, D. Z.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heng, X.

G. A. Zheng, X. Heng, and C. H. Yang, “A phase conjugate mirror inspired approach for building cloaking structures with left-handed materials,” New J. Phys. 11, 033010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation-stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 5, 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143, 1047–1058(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, K.

Jacob, Z.

Kajiyama, S.

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karim, M. A.

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering space for light via transformation optics,” Opt. Lett. 33, 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

Klooster, A.

A. Vander Lugt, F. B. Rotz, and A. Klooster, Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing (MIT Press, 1965), pp. 125–141.

Kong, J. A.

Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. Zhang, L. Ran, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kovalev, A.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys. 11, 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

A. J. Danner, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “Controlling birefringence in dielectrics,” Nat. Photon. 5, 357–359 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. Zhang, L. Ran, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Min, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation-stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 5, 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nandakumar, P.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys. 11, 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

Neff, C. W.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, J.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozeki, Y.

Pendry, J. B.

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Ward and J. B. Pendry, “Refraction and geometry in Maxwell’s equations,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 773–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Popa, B.-I.

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ran, L.

Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. Zhang, L. Ran, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rho, J.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rotz, F. B.

A. Vander Lugt, F. B. Rotz, and A. Klooster, Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing (MIT Press, 1965), pp. 125–141.

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saar, B. G.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering space for light via transformation optics,” Opt. Lett. 33, 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Society, British Computer

British Computer Society, Character Recognition (British Computer Society, 1971).

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyc, T.

A. J. Danner, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “Controlling birefringence in dielectrics,” Nat. Photon. 5, 357–359 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vander Lugt, A.

A. Vander Lugt, F. B. Rotz, and A. Klooster, Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing (MIT Press, 1965), pp. 125–141.

Volkmer, A.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys. 11, 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. P.

Ward, A. J.

A. J. Ward and J. B. Pendry, “Refraction and geometry in Maxwell’s equations,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 773–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1970).

Wu, K.

Xiao, J. J.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation-stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 5, 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, B.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation-stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 5, 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

G. A. Zheng, X. Heng, and C. H. Yang, “A phase conjugate mirror inspired approach for building cloaking structures with left-handed materials,” New J. Phys. 11, 033010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. Zhang, L. Ran, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.-Q.

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, G. A.

G. A. Zheng, X. Heng, and C. H. Yang, “A phase conjugate mirror inspired approach for building cloaking structures with left-handed materials,” New J. Phys. 11, 033010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, X.

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143, 1047–1058(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Cell (1)

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143, 1047–1058(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

R. C. Dunn, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99, 2891–2928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. J. Ward and J. B. Pendry, “Refraction and geometry in Maxwell’s equations,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 773–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1, 143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 387–396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (3)

A. J. Danner, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “Controlling birefringence in dielectrics,” Nat. Photon. 5, 357–359 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation-stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 5, 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys. 11, 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Zheng, X. Heng, and C. H. Yang, “A phase conjugate mirror inspired approach for building cloaking structures with left-handed materials,” New J. Phys. 11, 033010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. Zhang, L. Ran, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

A. Alu and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016623(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, Y. Luo, X. Liu, and G. Barbastathis, “Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033901(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2005).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1970).

A. Vander Lugt, F. B. Rotz, and A. Klooster, Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing (MIT Press, 1965), pp. 125–141.

British Computer Society, Character Recognition (British Computer Society, 1971).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schemes of character recognition of object A (yellow smiley logo at left) placed in air (green region at left) by using matched filter M consisting of a red smiley logo embedded in the gray region at the right. (a) A at y = 0 , (b) A at y = d , (c) A at y = d and another object B (orange cross logo) at y = 0 , and (d) two A at y = 0 and y = d .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated optical field distributions of the incident light passing through the input plane and matched filter M for recognizing object A centered at (a) ( 100 nm , 0) and (c) ( 100 nm , 500 nm ). The black solid lines mark the geometry of object and filter in the simulations. (b) and (d) Cross sections of light field intensity of (a) and (c) at the detection plane x = 200 nm , respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated optical field distributions of the incident light passing through the input plane and matched filter M for recognizing object A as (a) A is centered at ( 100 nm , 500 nm ) while another object B is at ( 100 nm , 0) (c) Two identical objects A centered at ( 100 nm , 0) and ( 100 nm , 500 nm ). The black solid lines mark the geometry of the object and filter in the simulations. (b) and (d) Cross sections of light field intensity of (a) and (c) at detection plane x = 200 nm , respectively.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H ( f x , f y ) = S * ( f x , f y ) ,
A ( f y , L ) = A ( f y , L ) H A H M = C 1 A ( f y , L ) ,
U ( y , L ) = F 1 [ A ( f y , L ) ] = F 1 [ C 1 A ( f y , L ) ] = C 2 U ( y , L ) .
A ( f y , L ) = A ( f y , L ) H A H M = C 1 A ( f y , L ) exp ( j 2 π f y d ) .
U ( y , L ) = C 2 U ( y + d , L ) .

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