Abstract

We investigate three-dimensional rolled-up metamaterials containing optically active quantum wells and metal gratings supporting surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonances. Finite-difference time-domain simulations show that, by matching the SPP resonance with the active wavelength regime of the quantum well, a strong transmission enhancement is observed when illuminating the sample with p-polarized radiation. This transmission enhancement is further increased by taking advantage of the Fabry–Perot resonances of the structure.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7, 435–441 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photon. 3, 388–394 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79(2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1348–1350(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3478–3480 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 551–553 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. Y. Prinz, V. A. Seleznev, A. K. Gutakovsky, A. V. Chehovskiy, V. V. Preobrazhenskii, M. A. Putyato, and T. A. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6, 828–831 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. O. Schumacher, S. Mendach, H. Welsch, A. Schramm, C. Heyn, and W. Hansen, “Lithographically defined metal-semiconductor-hybrid nanoscrolls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143109 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Zander, Ch. Deneke, A. Malachias, Ch. Mickel, T. H. Metzger, and O. G. Schmidt, “Planar hybrid superlattices by compression of rolled-up nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 053102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735–738 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17, 8548–8551 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Meinzer, M. Ruther, S. Linden, C. M. Soukoulis, G. Khitrova, J. Hendrickson, J. D. Olitzky, H. M. Gibbs, and M. Wegener, “Arrays of Ag split-ring resonators coupled to InGaAs single-quantum-well gain,” Opt. Express 18, 24140–24151 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).
  23. Lumerical Solutions Inc., “Lumerical FDTD solutions homepage,” http://www.lumerical.com/fdtd.php.
  24. E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants and Solids(Academic, 1985).
  25. K.-H. Goetz, D. Bimberg, H. Jürgensen, J. Selders, A. V. Solomonov, G. F. Glinskii, and M. Razeghi, “Optical and crystallographic properties and impurity incorporation of GaxIn1−xAs(0.44×0.49) grown by liquid phase epitaxy, vapor phase epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 4543–4552 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, “Some optical properties of the AlxGa1−xAs alloys system,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2604–2613 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. A. Govyadinov, V. A. Podolskiy, and M. A. Noginov, “Active metamaterials: sign of refractive index and gain-assisted dispersion management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Semiclassical theory of the hyperlens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, A52–A59(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Riikonen, I. Romero, and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Plasmon tunability in metallodielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. I. Romero and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Anisotropy and particle-size effects in nanostructured plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 22012–22022 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Meinzer, M. Ruther, S. Linden, C. M. Soukoulis, G. Khitrova, J. Hendrickson, J. D. Olitzky, H. M. Gibbs, and M. Wegener, “Arrays of Ag split-ring resonators coupled to InGaAs single-quantum-well gain,” Opt. Express 18, 24140–24151 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17, 8548–8551 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3478–3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Romero and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Anisotropy and particle-size effects in nanostructured plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 22012–22022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photon. 3, 388–394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zander, Ch. Deneke, A. Malachias, Ch. Mickel, T. H. Metzger, and O. G. Schmidt, “Planar hybrid superlattices by compression of rolled-up nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7, 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Govyadinov, V. A. Podolskiy, and M. A. Noginov, “Active metamaterials: sign of refractive index and gain-assisted dispersion management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 551–553 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Semiclassical theory of the hyperlens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, A52–A59(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Riikonen, I. Romero, and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Plasmon tunability in metallodielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1348–1350(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schumacher, S. Mendach, H. Welsch, A. Schramm, C. Heyn, and W. Hansen, “Lithographically defined metal-semiconductor-hybrid nanoscrolls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

V. Y. Prinz, V. A. Seleznev, A. K. Gutakovsky, A. V. Chehovskiy, V. V. Preobrazhenskii, M. A. Putyato, and T. A. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6, 828–831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1983

K.-H. Goetz, D. Bimberg, H. Jürgensen, J. Selders, A. V. Solomonov, G. F. Glinskii, and M. Razeghi, “Optical and crystallographic properties and impurity incorporation of GaxIn1−xAs(0.44×0.49) grown by liquid phase epitaxy, vapor phase epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 4543–4552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, “Some optical properties of the AlxGa1−xAs alloys system,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2604–2613 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

S. Riikonen, I. Romero, and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Plasmon tunability in metallodielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alekseyev, L. V.

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bimberg, D.

K.-H. Goetz, D. Bimberg, H. Jürgensen, J. Selders, A. V. Solomonov, G. F. Glinskii, and M. Razeghi, “Optical and crystallographic properties and impurity incorporation of GaxIn1−xAs(0.44×0.49) grown by liquid phase epitaxy, vapor phase epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 4543–4552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bröll, M.

S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

Chehovskiy, A. V.

V. Y. Prinz, V. A. Seleznev, A. K. Gutakovsky, A. V. Chehovskiy, V. V. Preobrazhenskii, M. A. Putyato, and T. A. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6, 828–831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3478–3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

Costa, R.

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deneke, Ch.

T. Zander, Ch. Deneke, A. Malachias, Ch. Mickel, T. H. Metzger, and O. G. Schmidt, “Planar hybrid superlattices by compression of rolled-up nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3478–3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

Engheta, N.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

Ergin, T.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

Gavrilova, T. A.

V. Y. Prinz, V. A. Seleznev, A. K. Gutakovsky, A. V. Chehovskiy, V. V. Preobrazhenskii, M. A. Putyato, and T. A. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6, 828–831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbs, H. M.

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glinskii, G. F.

K.-H. Goetz, D. Bimberg, H. Jürgensen, J. Selders, A. V. Solomonov, G. F. Glinskii, and M. Razeghi, “Optical and crystallographic properties and impurity incorporation of GaxIn1−xAs(0.44×0.49) grown by liquid phase epitaxy, vapor phase epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 4543–4552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, K.-H.

K.-H. Goetz, D. Bimberg, H. Jürgensen, J. Selders, A. V. Solomonov, G. F. Glinskii, and M. Razeghi, “Optical and crystallographic properties and impurity incorporation of GaxIn1−xAs(0.44×0.49) grown by liquid phase epitaxy, vapor phase epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 4543–4552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Govyadinov, A. A.

A. A. Govyadinov, V. A. Podolskiy, and M. A. Noginov, “Active metamaterials: sign of refractive index and gain-assisted dispersion management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gundogdu, T. F.

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutakovsky, A. K.

V. Y. Prinz, V. A. Seleznev, A. K. Gutakovsky, A. V. Chehovskiy, V. V. Preobrazhenskii, M. A. Putyato, and T. A. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6, 828–831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, W.

O. Schumacher, S. Mendach, H. Welsch, A. Schramm, C. Heyn, and W. Hansen, “Lithographically defined metal-semiconductor-hybrid nanoscrolls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, D.

S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Hendrickson, J.

Heyn, C.

S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schumacher, S. Mendach, H. Welsch, A. Schramm, C. Heyn, and W. Hansen, “Lithographically defined metal-semiconductor-hybrid nanoscrolls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Inouye, Y.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photon. 3, 388–394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, Z.

Jürgensen, H.

K.-H. Goetz, D. Bimberg, H. Jürgensen, J. Selders, A. V. Solomonov, G. F. Glinskii, and M. Razeghi, “Optical and crystallographic properties and impurity incorporation of GaxIn1−xAs(0.44×0.49) grown by liquid phase epitaxy, vapor phase epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 4543–4552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsarakis, N.

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photon. 3, 388–394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kerbst, J.

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Khitrova, G.

Kildishev, A. V.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3478–3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

Klingbeil, M.

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Koitmae, A.

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Konstantinidis, G.

Koschny, T.

Kostopoulos, A.

Krohn, A.

S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, P.

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7, 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malachias, A.

T. Zander, Ch. Deneke, A. Malachias, Ch. Mickel, T. H. Metzger, and O. G. Schmidt, “Planar hybrid superlattices by compression of rolled-up nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meinzer, N.

Mendach, S.

S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schumacher, S. Mendach, H. Welsch, A. Schramm, C. Heyn, and W. Hansen, “Lithographically defined metal-semiconductor-hybrid nanoscrolls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Metzger, T. H.

T. Zander, Ch. Deneke, A. Malachias, Ch. Mickel, T. H. Metzger, and O. G. Schmidt, “Planar hybrid superlattices by compression of rolled-up nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mickel, Ch.

T. Zander, Ch. Deneke, A. Malachias, Ch. Mickel, T. H. Metzger, and O. G. Schmidt, “Planar hybrid superlattices by compression of rolled-up nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, “Some optical properties of the AlxGa1−xAs alloys system,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2604–2613 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E.

Ni, X.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noginov, M. A.

A. A. Govyadinov, V. A. Podolskiy, and M. A. Noginov, “Active metamaterials: sign of refractive index and gain-assisted dispersion management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olitzky, J. D.

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E.

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants and Solids(Academic, 1985).

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penciu, R. S.

Pendry, J. B.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pettit, G. D.

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, “Some optical properties of the AlxGa1−xAs alloys system,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2604–2613 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Plum, E.

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. A. Govyadinov, V. A. Podolskiy, and M. A. Noginov, “Active metamaterials: sign of refractive index and gain-assisted dispersion management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Preobrazhenskii, V. V.

V. Y. Prinz, V. A. Seleznev, A. K. Gutakovsky, A. V. Chehovskiy, V. V. Preobrazhenskii, M. A. Putyato, and T. A. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6, 828–831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prinz, V. Y.

V. Y. Prinz, V. A. Seleznev, A. K. Gutakovsky, A. V. Chehovskiy, V. V. Preobrazhenskii, M. A. Putyato, and T. A. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6, 828–831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Putyato, M. A.

V. Y. Prinz, V. A. Seleznev, A. K. Gutakovsky, A. V. Chehovskiy, V. V. Preobrazhenskii, M. A. Putyato, and T. A. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6, 828–831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

K.-H. Goetz, D. Bimberg, H. Jürgensen, J. Selders, A. V. Solomonov, G. F. Glinskii, and M. Razeghi, “Optical and crystallographic properties and impurity incorporation of GaxIn1−xAs(0.44×0.49) grown by liquid phase epitaxy, vapor phase epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 4543–4552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Riikonen, S.

S. Riikonen, I. Romero, and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Plasmon tunability in metallodielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romero, I.

I. Romero and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Anisotropy and particle-size effects in nanostructured plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 22012–22022 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Riikonen, I. Romero, and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Plasmon tunability in metallodielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rottler, A.

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Ruther, M.

Salandrino, A.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O. G.

T. Zander, Ch. Deneke, A. Malachias, Ch. Mickel, T. H. Metzger, and O. G. Schmidt, “Planar hybrid superlattices by compression of rolled-up nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schramm, A.

O. Schumacher, S. Mendach, H. Welsch, A. Schramm, C. Heyn, and W. Hansen, “Lithographically defined metal-semiconductor-hybrid nanoscrolls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schumacher, O.

O. Schumacher, S. Mendach, H. Welsch, A. Schramm, C. Heyn, and W. Hansen, “Lithographically defined metal-semiconductor-hybrid nanoscrolls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwaiger, S.

S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selders, J.

K.-H. Goetz, D. Bimberg, H. Jürgensen, J. Selders, A. V. Solomonov, G. F. Glinskii, and M. Razeghi, “Optical and crystallographic properties and impurity incorporation of GaxIn1−xAs(0.44×0.49) grown by liquid phase epitaxy, vapor phase epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 4543–4552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Seleznev, V. A.

V. Y. Prinz, V. A. Seleznev, A. K. Gutakovsky, A. V. Chehovskiy, V. V. Preobrazhenskii, M. A. Putyato, and T. A. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6, 828–831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3478–3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, K. K.

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, “Some optical properties of the AlxGa1−xAs alloys system,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2604–2613 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomonov, A. V.

K.-H. Goetz, D. Bimberg, H. Jürgensen, J. Selders, A. V. Solomonov, G. F. Glinskii, and M. Razeghi, “Optical and crystallographic properties and impurity incorporation of GaxIn1−xAs(0.44×0.49) grown by liquid phase epitaxy, vapor phase epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 4543–4552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Stark, Y.

S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stemmann, A.

S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stickler, D.

S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verma, P.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photon. 3, 388–394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Welsch, H.

O. Schumacher, S. Mendach, H. Welsch, A. Schramm, C. Heyn, and W. Hansen, “Lithographically defined metal-semiconductor-hybrid nanoscrolls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3478–3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.-K.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zander, T.

T. Zander, Ch. Deneke, A. Malachias, Ch. Mickel, T. H. Metzger, and O. G. Schmidt, “Planar hybrid superlattices by compression of rolled-up nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7, 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Schumacher, S. Mendach, H. Welsch, A. Schramm, C. Heyn, and W. Hansen, “Lithographically defined metal-semiconductor-hybrid nanoscrolls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Zander, Ch. Deneke, A. Malachias, Ch. Mickel, T. H. Metzger, and O. G. Schmidt, “Planar hybrid superlattices by compression of rolled-up nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Govyadinov, V. A. Podolskiy, and M. A. Noginov, “Active metamaterials: sign of refractive index and gain-assisted dispersion management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K.-H. Goetz, D. Bimberg, H. Jürgensen, J. Selders, A. V. Solomonov, G. F. Glinskii, and M. Razeghi, “Optical and crystallographic properties and impurity incorporation of GaxIn1−xAs(0.44×0.49) grown by liquid phase epitaxy, vapor phase epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 4543–4552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, “Some optical properties of the AlxGa1−xAs alloys system,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2604–2613 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nat. Mater.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7, 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photon. 3, 388–394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photon. 1, 224–227(2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

S. Riikonen, I. Romero, and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Plasmon tunability in metallodielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schwaiger, M. Bröll, A. Krohn, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Stickler, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Rolled-up three-dimensional metamaterials with a tunable plasma frequency in the visible regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 163903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica E

V. Y. Prinz, V. A. Seleznev, A. K. Gutakovsky, A. V. Chehovskiy, V. V. Preobrazhenskii, M. A. Putyato, and T. A. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6, 828–831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Schwaiger, M. Klingbeil, J. Kerbst, A. Rottler, R. Costa, A. Koitmae, M. Bröll, C. Heyn, Y. Stark, D. Heitmann, and S. Mendach, “Gain in three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing semiconductor quantum structures,” arXiv:1104.2208v1 (2011).

Lumerical Solutions Inc., “Lumerical FDTD solutions homepage,” http://www.lumerical.com/fdtd.php.

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants and Solids(Academic, 1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of a microroll that can be fabricated by rolling up strained layers. The tube wall represents a three- dimensional metamaterial consisting of a metal–semiconductor superlattice containing quantum wells and metal gratings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the two-dimensional simulation volume (orange box) with p-polarized fields. a is the lattice constant, b denotes the width of the etched region, and d is the grating depth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission spectrum of a three-layer structure of 10 nm Ag, 26 nm AlInGaAs, 9 nm InGaAs, and 25 nm AlGaAs with different metal grating periods and 10 nm lattice depth in comparison to flat layers (black curve). (b) Transmission spectrum of an a = 600 nm grating (green curve) together with the transmission spectrum of flat layers (black curve). The quantum well wavelength is marked with a red dashed line. (c) Two-dimensional electric-field distribution in the regime of the λ = 933 nm SPP mode. At the left, we plot the one-dimensional intensity profile originating from the white dashed line (the intensity axes have the same linear scaling in both cases).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)–(d) Transmission versus wavelength spectra for different values of gain and a grating period of a = 600 nm for illumination with a p-polarized wave. The InGaAs gain layer has a thickness of 9 nm . (d) also shows the maginary part of the refractive index of the gain layer. (e) Transmission spectrum without gain [compare with Fig. 3b] for illumination with a p-polarized wave.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)–(d) Transmission versus wavelength spectra for different values of gain and a grating period of a = 600 nm for illumination with a s-polarized wave. The quantum well has a thickness of 9 nm . (e) Transmission spectrum without gain for illumination with a s-polarized wave. A pronounced SPP resonance at λ = 933 nm wavelength is not observed [compare with Fig. 4e].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission versus wavelength spectra for different angles of incidence α and a grating period of a = 600 nm . The structure is illuminated with a p-polarized wave. The Lorentz oscillator strength is always set to ξ = 0.04 . The transmission decreases considerably for angles larger than α = 5 ° .

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϵ SC ( ω ) = ϵ GaAs ( ω Δ E In 53 P In 0.53 + Δ E Al 30 P Al 0.3 ) ,
ϵ gain = ϵ InGaAs ω 0 2 ξ ω 0 2 i ω γ ω 2 ,

Metrics