Abstract

We report on the characterization of photodarkening (PD) kinetics of Yb-doped fiber samples in a wide temperature range from 77 to 773K and with respect to different Yb2O3 concentrations from 0.09 up to 0.68  mol%. The thermal dependency of important PD parameters is presented for a uniform Yb inversion of about 0.46. We have found out that PD kinetics is affected remarkably by temperature during pumping and that PD saturation is an equilibrium of optical and thermal processes, achieved after passing a loss maximum. The saturated loss for time tending to infinity obviously depends on the fiber temperature.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Engholm and L. Norin, “Preventing photodarkening in ytterbium-doped high power fiber lasers; correlation to the UV-transparency of the core glass,” Opt. Express 16, 1260–1268(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, and A. Scheffel, “The influence of Yb2+ ions on optical properties and power stability of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7598, 75980B (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and M. Hotoleanu, “Inversion behavior in core- and cladding-pumped Yb-doped fiber photodarkening measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4522–4528 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  5. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15, 14838–14843 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 12588–12593 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, J. P. Koplow, and S. Honkanen, “Thermal bleaching of photodarkening-induced loss in ytterbium-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2637–2639 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. J. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and S. Honkanen, “Heat-induced darkening and spectral broadening in photodarkened ytterbium-doped fiber under thermal cycling,” Opt. Express 17, 9940–9946 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, R. J. Standish, and J. K. Sahu, “Measurement of photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibres at elevated temperature,” Electron. Lett. 46, 243–244 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, and A. Scheffel, “The influence of Yb2+ ions on optical properties and power stability of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7598, 75980B (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Temperature dependence of photodarkening kinetics,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, R. J. Standish, and J. K. Sahu, “Measurement of photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibres at elevated temperature,” Electron. Lett. 46, 243–244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

Boyland, A. J.

S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, R. J. Standish, and J. K. Sahu, “Measurement of photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibres at elevated temperature,” Electron. Lett. 46, 243–244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Engholm, M.

Honkanen, S.

Hotoleanu, M.

Jetschke, S.

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Temperature dependence of photodarkening kinetics,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, and A. Scheffel, “The influence of Yb2+ ions on optical properties and power stability of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7598, 75980B (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 12588–12593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15, 14838–14843 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and V. Reichel, “Acceleration of photodarkening measurements in Yb-doped fibers by enhanced temperatures,” in Conference Digest of CLEO EUROPE—EQEC 2009 (Optical society of America, 2009), CE.P.29.

Kirchhof, J.

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Temperature dependence of photodarkening kinetics,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, and A. Scheffel, “The influence of Yb2+ ions on optical properties and power stability of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7598, 75980B (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 12588–12593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15, 14838–14843 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koplow, J. P.

Koponen, J.

Laurila, M.

Leich, M.

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Temperature dependence of photodarkening kinetics,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, and A. Scheffel, “The influence of Yb2+ ions on optical properties and power stability of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7598, 75980B (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 12588–12593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and V. Reichel, “Acceleration of photodarkening measurements in Yb-doped fibers by enhanced temperatures,” in Conference Digest of CLEO EUROPE—EQEC 2009 (Optical society of America, 2009), CE.P.29.

Montiel i Ponsoda, J. J.

Norin, L.

Reichel, V.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, and A. Scheffel, “The influence of Yb2+ ions on optical properties and power stability of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7598, 75980B (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 12588–12593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and V. Reichel, “Acceleration of photodarkening measurements in Yb-doped fibers by enhanced temperatures,” in Conference Digest of CLEO EUROPE—EQEC 2009 (Optical society of America, 2009), CE.P.29.

Röpke, U.

Sahu, J. K.

S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, R. J. Standish, and J. K. Sahu, “Measurement of photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibres at elevated temperature,” Electron. Lett. 46, 243–244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scheffel, A.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, and A. Scheffel, “The influence of Yb2+ ions on optical properties and power stability of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7598, 75980B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Söderlund, M. J.

Standish, R. J.

S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, R. J. Standish, and J. K. Sahu, “Measurement of photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibres at elevated temperature,” Electron. Lett. 46, 243–244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Unger, S.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, and A. Scheffel, “The influence of Yb2+ ions on optical properties and power stability of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7598, 75980B (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Temperature dependence of photodarkening kinetics,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 12588–12593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15, 14838–14843 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and V. Reichel, “Acceleration of photodarkening measurements in Yb-doped fibers by enhanced temperatures,” in Conference Digest of CLEO EUROPE—EQEC 2009 (Optical society of America, 2009), CE.P.29.

Yoo, S.

S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, R. J. Standish, and J. K. Sahu, “Measurement of photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibres at elevated temperature,” Electron. Lett. 46, 243–244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, R. J. Standish, and J. K. Sahu, “Measurement of photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibres at elevated temperature,” Electron. Lett. 46, 243–244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, M. Leich, and A. Scheffel, “The influence of Yb2+ ions on optical properties and power stability of ytterbium doped laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7598, 75980B (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Temperature dependence of photodarkening kinetics,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Leich, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, and V. Reichel, “Acceleration of photodarkening measurements in Yb-doped fibers by enhanced temperatures,” in Conference Digest of CLEO EUROPE—EQEC 2009 (Optical society of America, 2009), CE.P.29.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal evolution of PD loss at different temperatures during pumping.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature dependence of maximum PD loss and PD rate parameter 1 / τ .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of PD loss and subsequent bleaching (without pumping) for different fiber temperatures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Development of PD loss for stepwise changing temperature (during pumping); fiber temperature causes distinct saturation values of PD loss.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature dependency of PD loss evolution for a low Yb concentration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Influence of Yb concentration on PD param eters for selected temperatures: loss maximum and stretching parameter β (inset).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Influence of Yb concentration on rate param eter τ 1 for selected temperatures.

Equations (3)

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α ( t ) = α max [ 1 exp ( ( t / τ ) β ) ] ,
A k k + B k T C k R A ,
1 / τ k + k T .

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