Abstract

One of the outstanding problems of terahertz spectroscopy is the measurement of the underlying vibrational spectrum of a molecular solid, where individual vibrational transitions are often merged into broad absorption features by line-broadening processes. We address this problem using the technique of waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), whereby a thin polycrystalline molecular film is contained within a single-mode metal parallel plate waveguide. Thin films of the molecular solids cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX explosive) and 4-iodo-4-nitrobiphenyl serve to demonstrate the ability of waveguide THz-TDS to resolve previously unseen complex underlying THz vibrational spectra at cryogenic temperatures, with linewidths as narrow as 7GHz. With such narrow linewidths we are able to demonstrate the measurement of vibrational line-center frequencies to a precision of 1GHz.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 851-863 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated terahertz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154-156 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided wave propagation of subpicosecond THz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 846-848 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “THz interconnect with low loss and low group velocity dispersion,” IEEE Microwave and Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11, 444-446 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987-1989 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Wang and D. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz waveguiding,” Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161904 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Sprik, I. N. Duling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with sub-picosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Walther, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Metal-wire terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Waveguide THz time-domain spectroscopy of nm water layers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1617-1619 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, S.-F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Narrow-line waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of aspirin and aspirin precursors,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 319-326 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16, 4094-4105 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosives solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. S. Choi and E. Prince, “The crystal structure of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B B28, 2857-2862 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, and S. Califano, “Temperature dependence of the bandwidths and frequencies of some anthracene phonons. High resolution Raman measurements,” Chem. Phys. 91, 119-131 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Franz, B. F. Fischer, and M. Walther, “The Christiansen effect in terahertz time-domain spectra of coarse-grained powders,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. R. Leahy-Loppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X. -C. Zhang, “Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz,” Opt. Express 15, 12060-12067 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 243-248 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. G. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum of the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 84-89 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. Masciocchi, A. Sironi, and M. Bergamo, “Comments on the elusive crystal structure of 4-iodo-4′nitro-biphenyl,” Chem. Commun. 13, 1347-1348 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Sree Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “High Q Bragg resonances within a metal parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091118 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared foreign and self-broadened rotational linewidths of high-temperature water vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 317-322 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. Hiremath, S. W. Varney, and J. A. Swift, “Oriented growth of 4-iodo-4′-nitrobiphenyl on polar self assembled monolayer templates: A case for chemical epitaxy,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4948-4954 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Hulliger and P. J. Langley, “On intrinsic and extrinsic defect-forming mechanisms determining the disordered structure of 4-iodo-4′-nitrobiphenyl crystals,” Chem. Commun. 23, 2557-2558 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. Wilkinson, S. M. Caulder, and A. Portieri, “Manufacturing process effects on the terahertz spectra of RDX,” Proc. SPIE 6949, 694904 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  36. E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, A. M. Fedor, and T. M. Korter, “On the strong and narrow absorption signature in lactose at 0.53 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061908 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  37. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 60th Ed.(CRC Press, 1979).
  38. D. F. Plusquellic, K. Siegrist, E. Heilweil, and O. Esenturk, “Applications of THz spectroscopy in biosystems,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2412-2431 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. H. Zhang, K. Siegrist, K. O. Douglass, S. K. Greurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, “THz investigations of condensed phase biomolecular systems,” Methods Cell Biol. 90, 417-430 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  40. D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-1959 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. P. U. Jepsen and S. J. Clark, “Precise ab-inito prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 275-280 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  42. J. Hooper, E. Mitchell, C. Konek, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz optical properties of the high explosive HMX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467, 309-312 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  43. D. G. Allis, P. M. Hakey, and T. M. Korter, “Solid state terahertz spectra of MDMA (Ecstasy)--A unique test for molecular modeling assignments,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 353-356 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  44. A. L. Bingham and D. Grischkowsky, “High Q, one-dimensional terahertz photonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Sree Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “High Q Bragg resonances within a metal parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hooper, E. Mitchell, C. Konek, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz optical properties of the high explosive HMX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467, 309-312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (10)

D. G. Allis, P. M. Hakey, and T. M. Korter, “Solid state terahertz spectra of MDMA (Ecstasy)--A unique test for molecular modeling assignments,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 353-356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wilkinson, S. M. Caulder, and A. Portieri, “Manufacturing process effects on the terahertz spectra of RDX,” Proc. SPIE 6949, 694904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, K. Siegrist, K. O. Douglass, S. K. Greurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, “THz investigations of condensed phase biomolecular systems,” Methods Cell Biol. 90, 417-430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Franz, B. F. Fischer, and M. Walther, “The Christiansen effect in terahertz time-domain spectra of coarse-grained powders,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum of the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 84-89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Narrow-line waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of aspirin and aspirin precursors,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 319-326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16, 4094-4105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosives solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (9)

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, S.-F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Leahy-Loppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X. -C. Zhang, “Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz,” Opt. Express 15, 12060-12067 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, A. M. Fedor, and T. M. Korter, “On the strong and narrow absorption signature in lactose at 0.53 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Plusquellic, K. Siegrist, E. Heilweil, and O. Esenturk, “Applications of THz spectroscopy in biosystems,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2412-2431 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Bingham and D. Grischkowsky, “High Q, one-dimensional terahertz photonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen and S. J. Clark, “Precise ab-inito prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 275-280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Metal-wire terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Waveguide THz time-domain spectroscopy of nm water layers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1617-1619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang and D. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz waveguiding,” Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hiremath, S. W. Varney, and J. A. Swift, “Oriented growth of 4-iodo-4′-nitrobiphenyl on polar self assembled monolayer templates: A case for chemical epitaxy,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4948-4954 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated terahertz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided wave propagation of subpicosecond THz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 846-848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “THz interconnect with low loss and low group velocity dispersion,” IEEE Microwave and Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11, 444-446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 851-863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

J. Hulliger and P. J. Langley, “On intrinsic and extrinsic defect-forming mechanisms determining the disordered structure of 4-iodo-4′-nitrobiphenyl crystals,” Chem. Commun. 23, 2557-2558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Masciocchi, A. Sironi, and M. Bergamo, “Comments on the elusive crystal structure of 4-iodo-4′nitro-biphenyl,” Chem. Commun. 13, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with sub-picosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, and S. Califano, “Temperature dependence of the bandwidths and frequencies of some anthracene phonons. High resolution Raman measurements,” Chem. Phys. 91, 119-131 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

C. S. Choi and E. Prince, “The crystal structure of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B B28, 2857-2862 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Allis, D. G.

D. G. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum of the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 84-89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allis, P. M. Hakey, and T. M. Korter, “Solid state terahertz spectra of MDMA (Ecstasy)--A unique test for molecular modeling assignments,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 353-356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, C.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaans, G. J.

Bergamo, M.

N. Masciocchi, A. Sironi, and M. Bergamo, “Comments on the elusive crystal structure of 4-iodo-4′nitro-biphenyl,” Chem. Commun. 13, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, A. L.

A. L. Bingham and D. Grischkowsky, “High Q, one-dimensional terahertz photonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bjarnason, J. E.

E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, A. M. Fedor, and T. M. Korter, “On the strong and narrow absorption signature in lactose at 0.53 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bosserhoff, A.

M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated terahertz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. R.

E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, A. M. Fedor, and T. M. Korter, “On the strong and narrow absorption signature in lactose at 0.53 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brucherseifer, M.

M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated terahertz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, A. D.

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Büttner, R.

M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated terahertz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, M. B.

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Califano, S.

R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, and S. Califano, “Temperature dependence of the bandwidths and frequencies of some anthracene phonons. High resolution Raman measurements,” Chem. Phys. 91, 119-131 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Caulder, S. M.

J. Wilkinson, S. M. Caulder, and A. Portieri, “Manufacturing process effects on the terahertz spectra of RDX,” Proc. SPIE 6949, 694904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, S.-F.

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, S.-F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheville, R.

Chi, C.-C.

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with sub-picosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. S.

C. S. Choi and E. Prince, “The crystal structure of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B B28, 2857-2862 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Clark, S. J.

P. U. Jepsen and S. J. Clark, “Precise ab-inito prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 275-280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dazhang, L.

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Douglass, K. O.

H. Zhang, K. Siegrist, K. O. Douglass, S. K. Greurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, “THz investigations of condensed phase biomolecular systems,” Methods Cell Biol. 90, 417-430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with sub-picosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, H. G. M.

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Esenturk, O.

D. F. Plusquellic, K. Siegrist, E. Heilweil, and O. Esenturk, “Applications of THz spectroscopy in biosystems,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2412-2431 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W. H.

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fedor, A. M.

E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, A. M. Fedor, and T. M. Korter, “On the strong and narrow absorption signature in lactose at 0.53 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. F.

M. Franz, B. F. Fischer, and M. Walther, “The Christiansen effect in terahertz time-domain spectra of coarse-grained powders,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, M. J.

M. R. Leahy-Loppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franz, M.

M. Franz, B. F. Fischer, and M. Walther, “The Christiansen effect in terahertz time-domain spectra of coarse-grained powders,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. R.

M. Walther, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Metal-wire terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

Gregory, I. S.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greurick, S. K.

H. Zhang, K. Siegrist, K. O. Douglass, S. K. Greurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, “THz investigations of condensed phase biomolecular systems,” Methods Cell Biol. 90, 417-430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

S. Sree Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “High Q Bragg resonances within a metal parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosives solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Narrow-line waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of aspirin and aspirin precursors,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 319-326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16, 4094-4105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, S.-F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Bingham and D. Grischkowsky, “High Q, one-dimensional terahertz photonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Waveguide THz time-domain spectroscopy of nm water layers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1617-1619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided wave propagation of subpicosecond THz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 846-848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “THz interconnect with low loss and low group velocity dispersion,” IEEE Microwave and Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11, 444-446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 851-863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared foreign and self-broadened rotational linewidths of high-temperature water vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 317-322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with sub-picosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hakey, P. M.

D. G. Allis, P. M. Hakey, and T. M. Korter, “Solid state terahertz spectra of MDMA (Ecstasy)--A unique test for molecular modeling assignments,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 353-356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hargreaves, M.

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haring-Bolivar, P.

M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated terahertz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harsha, S. Sree

S. Sree Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “High Q Bragg resonances within a metal parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16, 4094-4105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Narrow-line waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of aspirin and aspirin precursors,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 319-326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, S.-F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

M. R. Leahy-Loppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hegmann, F. A.

M. Walther, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Metal-wire terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heilweil, E.

D. F. Plusquellic, K. Siegrist, E. Heilweil, and O. Esenturk, “Applications of THz spectroscopy in biosystems,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2412-2431 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hiremath, R.

R. Hiremath, S. W. Varney, and J. A. Swift, “Oriented growth of 4-iodo-4′-nitrobiphenyl on polar self assembled monolayer templates: A case for chemical epitaxy,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4948-4954 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, J.

J. Hooper, E. Mitchell, C. Konek, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz optical properties of the high explosive HMX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467, 309-312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hulliger, J.

J. Hulliger and P. J. Langley, “On intrinsic and extrinsic defect-forming mechanisms determining the disordered structure of 4-iodo-4′-nitrobiphenyl crystals,” Chem. Commun. 23, 2557-2558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, S. P.

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 851-863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, T.-I.

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen and S. J. Clark, “Precise ab-inito prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 275-280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, M. C.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kendrick, J.

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Konek, C.

J. Hooper, E. Mitchell, C. Konek, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz optical properties of the high explosive HMX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467, 309-312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korter, T. M.

D. G. Allis, P. M. Hakey, and T. M. Korter, “Solid state terahertz spectra of MDMA (Ecstasy)--A unique test for molecular modeling assignments,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 353-356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum of the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 84-89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, A. M. Fedor, and T. M. Korter, “On the strong and narrow absorption signature in lactose at 0.53 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated terahertz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lachab, M.

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laman, N.

S. Sree Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “High Q Bragg resonances within a metal parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Narrow-line waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of aspirin and aspirin precursors,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 319-326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16, 4094-4105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosives solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, S.-F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langley, P. J.

J. Hulliger and P. J. Langley, “On intrinsic and extrinsic defect-forming mechanisms determining the disordered structure of 4-iodo-4′-nitrobiphenyl crystals,” Chem. Commun. 23, 2557-2558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leahy-Loppa, M. R.

M. R. Leahy-Loppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lindfield, E. H.

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, T.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masciocchi, N.

N. Masciocchi, A. Sironi, and M. Bergamo, “Comments on the elusive crystal structure of 4-iodo-4′nitro-biphenyl,” Chem. Commun. 13, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 851-863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Melinger, J. S.

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16, 4094-4105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosives solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, S.-F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mendis, R.

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “THz interconnect with low loss and low group velocity dispersion,” IEEE Microwave and Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11, 444-446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided wave propagation of subpicosecond THz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 846-848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, E.

J. Hooper, E. Mitchell, C. Konek, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz optical properties of the high explosive HMX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467, 309-312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D.

K. Wang and D. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz waveguiding,” Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munshi, T.

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated terahertz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Osiander, R.

M. R. Leahy-Loppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ouillon, R.

R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, and S. Califano, “Temperature dependence of the bandwidths and frequencies of some anthracene phonons. High resolution Raman measurements,” Chem. Phys. 91, 119-131 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Plusquellic, D. F.

H. Zhang, K. Siegrist, K. O. Douglass, S. K. Greurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, “THz investigations of condensed phase biomolecular systems,” Methods Cell Biol. 90, 417-430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Plusquellic, K. Siegrist, E. Heilweil, and O. Esenturk, “Applications of THz spectroscopy in biosystems,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2412-2431 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Portieri, A.

J. Wilkinson, S. M. Caulder, and A. Portieri, “Manufacturing process effects on the terahertz spectra of RDX,” Proc. SPIE 6949, 694904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prince, E.

C. S. Choi and E. Prince, “The crystal structure of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B B28, 2857-2862 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Prokhova, D. A.

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranson, P.

R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, and S. Califano, “Temperature dependence of the bandwidths and frequencies of some anthracene phonons. High resolution Raman measurements,” Chem. Phys. 91, 119-131 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Siegrist, K.

H. Zhang, K. Siegrist, K. O. Douglass, S. K. Greurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, “THz investigations of condensed phase biomolecular systems,” Methods Cell Biol. 90, 417-430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Plusquellic, K. Siegrist, E. Heilweil, and O. Esenturk, “Applications of THz spectroscopy in biosystems,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2412-2431 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sironi, A.

N. Masciocchi, A. Sironi, and M. Bergamo, “Comments on the elusive crystal structure of 4-iodo-4′nitro-biphenyl,” Chem. Commun. 13, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sprik, R.

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with sub-picosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stringer, M. R.

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swift, J. A.

R. Hiremath, S. W. Varney, and J. A. Swift, “Oriented growth of 4-iodo-4′-nitrobiphenyl on polar self assembled monolayer templates: A case for chemical epitaxy,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4948-4954 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

D. G. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum of the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 84-89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tych, K.

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Upadhya, P. C.

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Varney, S. W.

R. Hiremath, S. W. Varney, and J. A. Swift, “Oriented growth of 4-iodo-4′-nitrobiphenyl on polar self assembled monolayer templates: A case for chemical epitaxy,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4948-4954 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

M. Franz, B. F. Fischer, and M. Walther, “The Christiansen effect in terahertz time-domain spectra of coarse-grained powders,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Metal-wire terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz waveguiding,” Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J.

J. Hooper, E. Mitchell, C. Konek, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz optical properties of the high explosive HMX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467, 309-312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wilkinson, S. M. Caulder, and A. Portieri, “Manufacturing process effects on the terahertz spectra of RDX,” Proc. SPIE 6949, 694904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wood, C. D.

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeitler, J. A.

D. G. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum of the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 84-89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, K. Siegrist, K. O. Douglass, S. K. Greurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, “THz investigations of condensed phase biomolecular systems,” Methods Cell Biol. 90, 417-430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Waveguide THz time-domain spectroscopy of nm water layers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1617-1619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. -C.

Zhao, H.

Zheng, X.

M. R. Leahy-Loppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B (1)

C. S. Choi and E. Prince, “The crystal structure of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B B28, 2857-2862 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

M. Franz, B. F. Fischer, and M. Walther, “The Christiansen effect in terahertz time-domain spectra of coarse-grained powders,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Sree Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “High Q Bragg resonances within a metal parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, A. M. Fedor, and T. M. Korter, “On the strong and narrow absorption signature in lactose at 0.53 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, “Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated terahertz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634-2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling III, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, “Far infrared spectroscopy with sub-picosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548-550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Metal-wire terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Byrne, J. Cunningham, K. Tych, A. D. Burnett, M. R. Stringer, C. D. Wood, L. Dazhang, M. Lachab, E. H. Lindfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using micro-strip-line waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 182904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosives solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Bingham and D. Grischkowsky, “High Q, one-dimensional terahertz photonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules,” Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (2)

J. Hulliger and P. J. Langley, “On intrinsic and extrinsic defect-forming mechanisms determining the disordered structure of 4-iodo-4′-nitrobiphenyl crystals,” Chem. Commun. 23, 2557-2558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Masciocchi, A. Sironi, and M. Bergamo, “Comments on the elusive crystal structure of 4-iodo-4′nitro-biphenyl,” Chem. Commun. 13, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

R. Hiremath, S. W. Varney, and J. A. Swift, “Oriented growth of 4-iodo-4′-nitrobiphenyl on polar self assembled monolayer templates: A case for chemical epitaxy,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4948-4954 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, and S. Califano, “Temperature dependence of the bandwidths and frequencies of some anthracene phonons. High resolution Raman measurements,” Chem. Phys. 91, 119-131 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

D. F. Plusquellic, K. Siegrist, E. Heilweil, and O. Esenturk, “Applications of THz spectroscopy in biosystems,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2412-2431 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (5)

P. U. Jepsen and S. J. Clark, “Precise ab-inito prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 275-280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hooper, E. Mitchell, C. Konek, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz optical properties of the high explosive HMX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467, 309-312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allis, P. M. Hakey, and T. M. Korter, “Solid state terahertz spectra of MDMA (Ecstasy)--A unique test for molecular modeling assignments,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 353-356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum of the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463, 84-89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Leahy-Loppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave and Wirel. Compon. Lett. (1)

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “THz interconnect with low loss and low group velocity dispersion,” IEEE Microwave and Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11, 444-446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. A (2)

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, S.-F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods Cell Biol. (1)

H. Zhang, K. Siegrist, K. O. Douglass, S. K. Greurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, “THz investigations of condensed phase biomolecular systems,” Methods Cell Biol. 90, 417-430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Wang and D. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz waveguiding,” Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided wave propagation of subpicosecond THz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 846-848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Waveguide THz time-domain spectroscopy of nm water layers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1617-1619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Wilkinson, S. M. Caulder, and A. Portieri, “Manufacturing process effects on the terahertz spectra of RDX,” Proc. SPIE 6949, 694904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Burnett, W. H. Fan, P. C. Upadhya, J. E. Cunningham, H. G. M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 60th Ed.(CRC Press, 1979).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structures of RDX and 4INBP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Apparatus for waveguide THz-TDS. The waveguide assembly is replaced with pellet samples for free-space THz-TDS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical micrograph showing a dendritic morphology for the RDX/Au.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral amplitudes as a function of temperature for RDX thin films. (a) RDX/Al. (b) RDX/Au. The spectral amplitudes from 20 K to 293 K are offset for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The temperature-dependent frequency shift for two vibrational modes of RDX/Al. The y-values are plotted as the fractional shift from the line frequency measured at 12 K . The dashed lines are linear fits to the data points. The mode frequencies in the legend are the values measured at 12 K .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of THz spectral amplitudes for RDX/Au at 13 K and for the empty reference Au PPWG at 13 K , after the RDX film has been removed. Inset: The resulting absorbance spectrum of RDX/Au at 13 K .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Comparison of absorbance spectra of RDX/Al (bottom curve) and RDX/Au (top curve). In both cases the broad absorption background has been removed. For clarity, the RDX/Al spectrum has been multiplied by 1.5 and the RDX/Au spectrum has been offset. (b) RDX pellet spectrum at 7 K , reproduced digitally from [28].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The solid curve is the broad absorption feature centered near 1.04 THz for RDX/Au at 13 K . The dashed curve is a nonlinear least-squares fit to the data based on a sum of three Gaussian functions. The dotted curves are the three Gaussian functions determined by the fitting procedure, with FWHM linewidths of 17 GHz , 67 GHz , and 46 GHz .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical micrograph showing a needlelike morphology for the 4INBP/Al waveguide plate.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of spectral amplitudes for 4INBP in pellet form (top curve) and the 4INBP/Al film (bottom curve), both measured at 11 K .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Absorbance spectra of the lowest frequency mode of the 4INBP/Al film generated from seven independent zero-padded waveforms. The uncertainty of ± 0.5 GHz about the zero-padded average of 0.8061 THz is the spectral region that contains all of the line-center frequencies of the individual zero-padded absorption spectra.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of absorbance spectra for 4INBP/Al and 4INBP/Cu films measured at 11 K and 12 K , respectively. The absorbance spectrum for 4INBP/Cu has been set off for clarity.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Temperature dependence of the absorbance spectra for 4INBP/Al. The absorbance spectra between 20 K and 293 K are offset for clarity.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Experimental line shapes (solid circles) and nonlinear least-square fits (curves) to the data for three modes of the 4INBP/Al film measured at 11 K . The solid red curves are Lorentzian fits and the dashed-dotted blue curves are Gaussian fits. (a) 0.8061 THz mode, (b) 1.8450 THz mode, (c) 2.7716 THz mode.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Line-Center Frequencies for the RDX Film Samples and Previous Measurements of Pellet Samples a

Tables Icon

Table 2 4INBP Line-Center Frequencies and Uncertainties for Films and Pellet Sample a

Metrics