Abstract

Metamaterials constitute a new area of science that is expanding our fundamental understanding of the behavior of the propagation of electromagnetic waves and their interactions, and providing new solutions for a wide range of applications from optical communications and defense to biological imaging. In this brief review, we focus on recent progress in theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of linear and nonlinear optical properties of negative index materials and in the emerging field of transformation optics.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (17)

Y. Sivan, S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Frequency-domain simulations of a negative-index material with embedded gain,” Opt. Express 17, in press (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Litchinitser and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss as a route to transparency,” Nature Photon. 3, 75-76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Fang, T. Koschny, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Self-consistent calculation of metamaterials with gain,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 241104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a SPASER-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110-1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Popov, S. A. Myslivets, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant nonlinear optics of backward waves in negative-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 96, 315-323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F.-S. Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 122411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. Drachev, I. C. Khoo, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable magnetic response of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Narimanov and A. V. Kildishev, “Optical black hole: broadband omnidirectional light absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Han, J. Xiao, Z.-Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nature Mater. 8, 568-571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nature Photon. 3, 461-463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Popov, S. A. Myslivets, and V. M. Shalaev, “Microscopic mirrorless negative-index optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1165-1167 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dalarsson and P. Tassin, “Analytical solution for wave propagation through a graded index interface between a right-handed and a left-handed material,” Opt. Express 17, 6747-6752 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, Y. Sivan, N. M. Litchinitser, and V. M. Shalaev, “Frequency-domain modeling of scalar TM wave propagation in optical nanostructures with a third-order nonlinear response,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3364-3366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3478-3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (20)

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kildishev and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering space for light via transformation optics,” Opt. Lett. 33, 43-45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. A. Roberts, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Transformation-optical design of adaptive beam bends and beam expanders,” Opt. Express 16, 11555-11567 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Hoffman, V. A. Podolskiy, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Sub-diffraction negative and positive index modes in mid-infrared waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 16404-16409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser, A. I. Maimistov, I. R. Gabitov, R. Z. Sagdeev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metamaterials: electromagnetic enhancement at zero-index transition,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2350-2352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, D.-H. Lee, and H. Lim, “Resonant absorption and mode conversion in a transition layer between positive-index and negative-index media,” Opt. Express 16, 18505-18513 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, and V. M. Shalaev, “Transformation optics: approaching broadband electromagnetic cloaking,” New J. Phys. 10, 115029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical negative-index materials timeline.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Diagram and SEM image of the 21-layer fishnet structure consisting of alternating layers of silver (Ag) and magnesium fluoride ( Mg F 2 ) , adapted from [12]. (b) Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images of the four-layer split-ring resonator structure [13].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Isofrequency curves and relative directions of the wave vector k and the Poynting vector S for (a) isotropic material, (b) material with ϵ x , ϵ z > 0 , (c) material with ϵ x < 0 , ϵ z > 0 [43].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical parametric amplification in NIMs. (a) Schematic representation of backward OPA in a NIM slab. S 1 , S 2 and S 3 are the magnitudes of the Poynting vectors of the signal, idler and pump beam, respectively, and k 1 , k 2 and k 3 are their wavevectors. (b) Signal (solid curve) and idler (dashed curve) field distributions inside the NIM. All waves propagate in the z-direction and the signal enters NIM at z = L , where L is the slab thickness. (c) Signal amplification in the NIM slab. g is a nonlinear coupling coefficient [21].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The real parts of the dielectric permittivity and magnetic susceptibility as functions of a longitudinal coordinate (upper plot), and the absolute value of the normalized magnetic field component as a function of normalized longitudinal (lower plot).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples of gradient-index structures designed using the transformation optics approach.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated schematic of a cloaking system for multiple wavelengths or a finite bandwidth, with ω 1 > ω 2 > ω 3 , shown in (a), (b), and (c), respectively [84].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Optical carpet cloaking [87]. (b) Tapered waveguide acting as an optical cloak [91].

Equations (2)

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S z = k z 2 ω ϵ x H 2 .
ϵ i j = | det ( Λ i i ) | 1 Λ i i Λ j j ϵ , μ i j = | det ( Λ i i ) | 1 Λ i i Λ j j μ , i , j = 1 , 2 , 3 ,

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