Abstract

The quantum dynamics of a two-level system illuminated by a few-cycle pulse with an adjustable carrier-envelope (C-E) phase is investigated theoretically. We consider the weak-field regime where tunneling processes and multiphoton ionization are negligible. It is shown that the upper state population exhibits a strong dependence on the C-E phase and on the time of arrival of the few-cycle pulse if the system is initially prepared in a coherent superposition state. We demonstrate that this effect can be employed to probe the coherence properties of the superposition state and allows one to determine the phase of the laser that prepares this state.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. Ficek and S. Swain, Quantum Interference and Coherence (Springer, 2005).
  2. E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293-296 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Ghafoor, S.-Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Ficek, J. Seke, A. Soldatov, and G. Adam, “Phase control of subharmonic resonances,” Opt. Commun. 182, 143-150 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302-2305 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Krause, M. O. Scully, and H. Walther, “Quantum theory of the micromaser: symmetry breaking via off-diagonal atomic injection,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 2032-2037 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Zaheer and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase sensitivity in atom-field interaction via coherent superposition,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 2000-2004 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempe, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Cheng and J. Zhou, “Validity of the two-level approximation in the interaction of few-cycle light pulses with atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 041404(R) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Wu and X. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent atomic coherence and quantum beats,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013832 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Cheng and A. Brown, “Carrier-envelope phase effects for a dipolar molecule interacting with two-color pump-probe laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 063411 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Jirauschek, L. Duan, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, M. Wegener, and U. Morgner, “Carrier-envelope phase-sensitive inversion in two-level systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2065-2075 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. P. Kovács, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Görbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, “Dispersion control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
  20. G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. Berson, “Multiphoton ionization of high Rydberg states,” Phys. Lett. 84A, 364-366 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Wrachtrup and F. Jelezko, “Processing quantum information in diamond,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S807-S824 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. A. Kovalenko, N. Eilers-König, T. A. Senyushkina, and N. P. Ernsting, “Charge transfer and solvation of betaine-30 in polar solvents--femtosecond broadband transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4834-4843 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Lochschmidt, N. Eilers-König, N. Heineking, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond photodissociation dynamics of bis(julolidine) disulfide in polar and apolar solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 1776-1784 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. W. Ziolkowski, J. M. Arnold, and D. M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082-3094 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. Hughes, “Breakdown of the area theorem: carrier-wave Rabi flopping of femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3363-3366 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Hughes, “Subfemtosecond soft-x-ray generation from a two-level atom: extreme carrier-wave Rabi flopping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055401 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. C. Van Vlack and S. Hughes, “Carrier-envelope-offset phase control of ultrafast optical rectification in resonantly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 167404 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. T. Tritschler, O. D. Mücke, and M. Wegener, “Extreme nonlinear optics of two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033404 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, J. Benhelm, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Precision measurement of the branching fractions of the 4p P23/2 decay of Ca II,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 13-19 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, J. Benhelm, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Precision measurement of the branching fractions of the 4p P23/2 decay of Ca II,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 13-19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Van Vlack and S. Hughes, “Carrier-envelope-offset phase control of ultrafast optical rectification in resonantly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 167404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu and X. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent atomic coherence and quantum beats,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013832 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Wrachtrup and F. Jelezko, “Processing quantum information in diamond,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S807-S824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. Jirauschek, L. Duan, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, M. Wegener, and U. Morgner, “Carrier-envelope phase-sensitive inversion in two-level systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2065-2075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Kovács, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Görbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, “Dispersion control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Cheng and A. Brown, “Carrier-envelope phase effects for a dipolar molecule interacting with two-color pump-probe laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 063411 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

T. Tritschler, O. D. Mücke, and M. Wegener, “Extreme nonlinear optics of two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cheng and J. Zhou, “Validity of the two-level approximation in the interaction of few-cycle light pulses with atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 041404(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kovalenko, N. Eilers-König, T. A. Senyushkina, and N. P. Ernsting, “Charge transfer and solvation of betaine-30 in polar solvents--femtosecond broadband transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4834-4843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (6)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempe, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ghafoor, S.-Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ficek, J. Seke, A. Soldatov, and G. Adam, “Phase control of subharmonic resonances,” Opt. Commun. 182, 143-150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, “Subfemtosecond soft-x-ray generation from a two-level atom: extreme carrier-wave Rabi flopping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Lochschmidt, N. Eilers-König, N. Heineking, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond photodissociation dynamics of bis(julolidine) disulfide in polar and apolar solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 1776-1784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302-2305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293-296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, “Breakdown of the area theorem: carrier-wave Rabi flopping of femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3363-3366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. M. Arnold, and D. M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082-3094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

K. Zaheer and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase sensitivity in atom-field interaction via coherent superposition,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 2000-2004 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. Krause, M. O. Scully, and H. Walther, “Quantum theory of the micromaser: symmetry breaking via off-diagonal atomic injection,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 2032-2037 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

I. Berson, “Multiphoton ionization of high Rydberg states,” Phys. Lett. 84A, 364-366 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adam, G.

Z. Ficek, J. Seke, A. Soldatov, and G. Adam, “Phase control of subharmonic resonances,” Opt. Commun. 182, 143-150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. E.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempe, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, J. M.

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. M. Arnold, and D. M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082-3094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baluschev, S.

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302-2305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benhelm, J.

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, J. Benhelm, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Precision measurement of the branching fractions of the 4p P23/2 decay of Ca II,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 13-19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berson, I.

I. Berson, “Multiphoton ionization of high Rydberg states,” Phys. Lett. 84A, 364-366 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R. D.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blatt, R.

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, J. Benhelm, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Precision measurement of the branching fractions of the 4p P23/2 decay of Ca II,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 13-19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Z.

A. P. Kovács, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Görbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, “Dispersion control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A.

T. Cheng and A. Brown, “Carrier-envelope phase effects for a dipolar molecule interacting with two-color pump-probe laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 063411 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng and J. Zhou, “Validity of the two-level approximation in the interaction of few-cycle light pulses with atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 041404(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T.

T. Cheng and A. Brown, “Carrier-envelope phase effects for a dipolar molecule interacting with two-color pump-probe laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 063411 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Draganski, M.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L.

Eilers-König, N.

S. A. Kovalenko, N. Eilers-König, T. A. Senyushkina, and N. P. Ernsting, “Charge transfer and solvation of betaine-30 in polar solvents--femtosecond broadband transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4834-4843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Lochschmidt, N. Eilers-König, N. Heineking, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond photodissociation dynamics of bis(julolidine) disulfide in polar and apolar solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 1776-1784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ernsting, N. P.

S. A. Kovalenko, N. Eilers-König, T. A. Senyushkina, and N. P. Ernsting, “Charge transfer and solvation of betaine-30 in polar solvents--femtosecond broadband transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4834-4843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Lochschmidt, N. Eilers-König, N. Heineking, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond photodissociation dynamics of bis(julolidine) disulfide in polar and apolar solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 1776-1784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ficek, Z.

Z. Ficek, J. Seke, A. Soldatov, and G. Adam, “Phase control of subharmonic resonances,” Opt. Commun. 182, 143-150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ficek and S. Swain, Quantum Interference and Coherence (Springer, 2005).

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerritsma, R.

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, J. Benhelm, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Precision measurement of the branching fractions of the 4p P23/2 decay of Ca II,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 13-19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghafoor, F.

F. Ghafoor, S.-Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gogny, D. M.

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. M. Arnold, and D. M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082-3094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Görbe, M.

A. P. Kovács, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Görbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, “Dispersion control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greentree, A. D.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempe, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haug, H.

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heineking, N.

A. Lochschmidt, N. Eilers-König, N. Heineking, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond photodissociation dynamics of bis(julolidine) disulfide in polar and apolar solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 1776-1784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempe, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, S.

C. Van Vlack and S. Hughes, “Carrier-envelope-offset phase control of ultrafast optical rectification in resonantly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 167404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hughes, “Subfemtosecond soft-x-ray generation from a two-level atom: extreme carrier-wave Rabi flopping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, “Breakdown of the area theorem: carrier-wave Rabi flopping of femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3363-3366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huss, A.

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302-2305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).

Jaksch, D.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jamieson, D. N.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jelezko, F.

J. Wrachtrup and F. Jelezko, “Processing quantum information in diamond,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S807-S824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jirauschek, C.

Jones, D. J.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

C. Jirauschek, L. Duan, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, M. Wegener, and U. Morgner, “Carrier-envelope phase-sensitive inversion in two-level systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2065-2075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khitrova, G.

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchmair, G.

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, J. Benhelm, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Precision measurement of the branching fractions of the 4p P23/2 decay of Ca II,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 13-19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klenbniczki, J.

A. P. Kovács, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Görbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, “Dispersion control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P. L.

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293-296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Korsunsky, E. A.

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302-2305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kovács, A. P.

A. P. Kovács, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Görbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, “Dispersion control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kovalenko, S. A.

S. A. Kovalenko, N. Eilers-König, T. A. Senyushkina, and N. P. Ernsting, “Charge transfer and solvation of betaine-30 in polar solvents--femtosecond broadband transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4834-4843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krause, J.

J. Krause, M. O. Scully, and H. Walther, “Quantum theory of the micromaser: symmetry breaking via off-diagonal atomic injection,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 2032-2037 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempe, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kurdi, G.

A. P. Kovács, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Görbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, “Dispersion control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leinfellner, N.

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302-2305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L'Huillier, A.

P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lochschmidt, A.

A. Lochschmidt, N. Eilers-König, N. Heineking, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond photodissociation dynamics of bis(julolidine) disulfide in polar and apolar solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 1776-1784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Londero, P.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).

Morgner, U.

C. Jirauschek, L. Duan, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, M. Wegener, and U. Morgner, “Carrier-envelope phase-sensitive inversion in two-level systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2065-2075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mücke, D.

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mücke, O. D.

C. Jirauschek, L. Duan, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, M. Wegener, and U. Morgner, “Carrier-envelope phase-sensitive inversion in two-level systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2065-2075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tritschler, O. D. Mücke, and M. Wegener, “Extreme nonlinear optics of two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nunn, J.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, P.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osvay, K.

A. P. Kovács, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Görbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, “Dispersion control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paspalakis, E.

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293-296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempe, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prawer, S.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radzewicz, C.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichart, P.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roos, C. F.

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, J. Benhelm, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Precision measurement of the branching fractions of the 4p P23/2 decay of Ca II,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 13-19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roos, P. A.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

J. Krause, M. O. Scully, and H. Walther, “Quantum theory of the micromaser: symmetry breaking via off-diagonal atomic injection,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 2032-2037 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seke, J.

Z. Ficek, J. Seke, A. Soldatov, and G. Adam, “Phase control of subharmonic resonances,” Opt. Commun. 182, 143-150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Senyushkina, T. A.

S. A. Kovalenko, N. Eilers-König, T. A. Senyushkina, and N. P. Ernsting, “Charge transfer and solvation of betaine-30 in polar solvents--femtosecond broadband transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4834-4843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soldatov, A.

Z. Ficek, J. Seke, A. Soldatov, and G. Adam, “Phase control of subharmonic resonances,” Opt. Commun. 182, 143-150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempe, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surmacz, K.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swain, S.

Z. Ficek and S. Swain, Quantum Interference and Coherence (Springer, 2005).

Taylor, R. A.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tempe, G.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempe, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tritschler, T.

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tritschler, O. D. Mücke, and M. Wegener, “Extreme nonlinear optics of two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempe, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Vlack, C.

C. Van Vlack and S. Hughes, “Carrier-envelope-offset phase control of ultrafast optical rectification in resonantly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 167404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vu, Q. T.

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krause, M. O. Scully, and H. Walther, “Quantum theory of the micromaser: symmetry breaking via off-diagonal atomic injection,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 2032-2037 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. Y.

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

C. Jirauschek, L. Duan, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, M. Wegener, and U. Morgner, “Carrier-envelope phase-sensitive inversion in two-level systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2065-2075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tritschler, O. D. Mücke, and M. Wegener, “Extreme nonlinear optics of two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windholz, L.

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302-2305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wrachtrup, J.

J. Wrachtrup and F. Jelezko, “Processing quantum information in diamond,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S807-S824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu and X. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent atomic coherence and quantum beats,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013832 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Y. Wu and X. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent atomic coherence and quantum beats,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013832 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zaheer, K.

K. Zaheer and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase sensitivity in atom-field interaction via coherent superposition,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 2000-2004 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zähringer, F.

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, J. Benhelm, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Precision measurement of the branching fractions of the 4p P23/2 decay of Ca II,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 13-19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Cheng and J. Zhou, “Validity of the two-level approximation in the interaction of few-cycle light pulses with atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 041404(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. -Y.

F. Ghafoor, S.-Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. M. Arnold, and D. M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082-3094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubairy, M. S.

F. Ghafoor, S.-Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Zaheer and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase sensitivity in atom-field interaction via coherent superposition,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 2000-2004 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. P. Kovács, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Görbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, “Dispersion control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Relat. Mater. (1)

F. C. Waldermann, P. Olivero, J. Nunn, K. Surmacz, Z. Y. Wang, D. Jaksch, R. A. Taylor, I. A. Walmsley, M. Draganski, P. Reichart, A. D. Greentree, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1887-1895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

R. Gerritsma, G. Kirchmair, F. Zähringer, J. Benhelm, R. Blatt, and C. F. Roos, “Precision measurement of the branching fractions of the 4p P23/2 decay of Ca II,” Eur. Phys. J. D 50, 13-19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (2)

S. A. Kovalenko, N. Eilers-König, T. A. Senyushkina, and N. P. Ernsting, “Charge transfer and solvation of betaine-30 in polar solvents--femtosecond broadband transient absorption study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4834-4843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Lochschmidt, N. Eilers-König, N. Heineking, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond photodissociation dynamics of bis(julolidine) disulfide in polar and apolar solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 1776-1784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

J. Wrachtrup and F. Jelezko, “Processing quantum information in diamond,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S807-S824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Ficek, J. Seke, A. Soldatov, and G. Adam, “Phase control of subharmonic resonances,” Opt. Commun. 182, 143-150 (2000).
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Phys. Lett. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (10)

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. M. Arnold, and D. M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082-3094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hughes, “Subfemtosecond soft-x-ray generation from a two-level atom: extreme carrier-wave Rabi flopping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Tritschler, O. D. Mücke, and M. Wegener, “Extreme nonlinear optics of two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302-2305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Krause, M. O. Scully, and H. Walther, “Quantum theory of the micromaser: symmetry breaking via off-diagonal atomic injection,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 2032-2037 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zaheer and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase sensitivity in atom-field interaction via coherent superposition,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 2000-2004 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ghafoor, S.-Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Cheng and J. Zhou, “Validity of the two-level approximation in the interaction of few-cycle light pulses with atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 041404(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and X. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent atomic coherence and quantum beats,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013832 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Cheng and A. Brown, “Carrier-envelope phase effects for a dipolar molecule interacting with two-color pump-probe laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 063411 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (10)

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
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A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempe, C. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Van Vlack and S. Hughes, “Carrier-envelope-offset phase control of ultrafast optical rectification in resonantly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 167404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hughes, “Breakdown of the area theorem: carrier-wave Rabi flopping of femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3363-3366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Z. Ficek and S. Swain, Quantum Interference and Coherence (Springer, 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-level system with ground | 0 and excited | 1 states interacting with two laser pulses that arrive at times T L and T FC , respectively. In step I, a π / 2 pulse with Rabi frequency Ω L creates a coherent superposition state. This state is probed in step II by a few-cycle pulse with Rabi frequency Ω FC and C-E phase ϕ CE . Note that the duration of the pulses and the time lag between them are not drawn to scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Population of the excited state | 1 versus the laser phase ϕ L and the phase ϕ FC [see Eq. (10)] after the interaction with the two pulses shown in Fig. 1. We set ϕ D = 0 , since the dipole phase does not influence the population dynamics. The parameters are Ω 0 = 0.04 ω 0 and τ = 14 / ω 0 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Population of the excited state | 1 versus the phase ϕ FC and different laser phases ϕ L . The other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the upper state population without [see Eq. (12)] and with [see Eq. (15)] rotation-wave approximation. The population of the excited state | 1 versus the laser phase ϕ L for ϕ FC = 0 and a pulse area of a = d t Ω FC ( t ) = π Ω 0 τ = 1 . Other parameters are the same as Fig. 3. For the chosen pulse area, the rotating-wave approximation is thus a good approximation even when the few-cycle pulse includes half a wave cycle. For the Gaussian pulse defined in Eq. (7), the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the pulse intensity envelope is T e n v = ( 4   ln   2 ) τ . The cycle number then is N e n v = T e n v / ( 2 π / ω 0 ) = ( 4   ln   2 ) τ ω 0 / ( 2 π ) . For τ = 1.5 / ω 0 , we have N e n v = 0.4 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement of the population in the excited state. The laser Ω P is applied to transfer the excited state population into the third auxiliary state | 2 . The population in the excited state | 1 can be determined by monitoring the fluorescence light emitted from state | 2 .

Equations (17)

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H 0 = ω 0 | 1 1 | ,
E L = E L ( t ) cos ( ω 0 t + ϕ L ) ϵ .
H L = Ω L ( t ) 2 [ exp [ i ( ϕ D + ϕ L ) ] | 1 0 | + H .c . ] .
0 | d ̂ | 1 ϵ = | 0 | d ̂ | 1 ϵ | exp ( i ϕ D ) ,
| Ψ ( t ) = cos ( Θ / 2 ) | 0 + i   exp [ i ϕ L ] sin ( Θ / 2 ) | 1 ,
| Ψ sup = 1 2 ( | 0 + i   exp [ i ϕ L ] | 1 ) .
E FC ( t ) = E FC ( t ) cos [ ω 0 ( t T FC ) + ϕ CE ] ϵ .
H FC = [ Ω FC ( t ) cos ( ω 0 t + ϕ FC ) exp [ i ω 0 t ] | 1 0 | + H .c . ] .
Ω FC ( t ) = Ω 0   exp [ ( t T FC ) 2 / τ 2 ]
ϕ FC = ω 0 T FC + ϕ CE .
| Ψ ( t ) = c 0 ( t ) | 0 + c 1 ( t ) | 1 ,
t c 0 ( t ) = i Ω FC ( t ) cos ( ω 0 t + ϕ FC ) exp [ i ω 0 t ] c 1 ( t ) ,
t c 1 ( t ) = i Ω FC ( t ) cos ( ω 0 t + ϕ FC ) exp [ i ω 0 t ] c 0 ( t ) .
M = P max P min P max + P min .
t c 0 ( t ) = i Ω FC ( t ) exp [ i ϕ FC ] c 1 ( t ) / 2 ,
t c 1 ( t ) = i Ω FC ( t ) exp [ i ϕ FC ] c 0 ( t ) / 2.
| c 1 , f | 2 = ( 1 / 2 ) [ 1 + sin ( a ) cos ( ϕ L ϕ FC ) ] ,

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