Photonic crystal fibers often consist of rotationally symmetric inclusions in an otherwise uniform background medium. The band diagrams and modes of such structures can be efficiently calculated using geometry-specific methods that exploit this rotational symmetry. Until now, these have only been applied to fibers in which the inclusions are circular and have a uniform refractive index. Here, we generalize this to arbitrary rotationally symmetric inclusions using a transfer matrix approach, and we implement this approach in an approximate scalar method, which is valid for low-index contrasts and in the rigorous Rayleigh multipole method. We apply the methods to structures incorporating inclusions with graded refractive indices and to structures incorporating metal rings.
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