Abstract

The principles and most-recent results of high-power THz generation through optical rectification using a tilted optical pulse front are described. Single-cycle THz pulses of multimicrojoule energies are generated at kHz repetition rates, and average THz power levels exceeding 1mW can be generated at kHz–MHz repetition rates. Applications in nonlinear THz spectroscopy and THz coherent control are discussed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 419-423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Rini, R. Tobey, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449, 72-74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035nm,” Opt. Express 15, 11706-11713 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Ried, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 13212-13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chang, C. J. Divin, J. Yang, M. A. Musheinish, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, “GaP waveguide emitters for high power broadband THz generation pumped by Yb-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 15, 16308-16314 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, “Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters,” Opt. Express 13, 5353-5362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 13, 5762-5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 23-26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Ward, E. R. Statz, K. A. Nelson, R. M. Roth, and R. M. Osgood, “Terahertz wave generation and propagation in thin-film lithium niobate produced by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 022908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, “An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification charge transfer, and current surge,” Opt. Commun. 256, 400-413 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 104, 1759-1780 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, G. Almási, Á. Péter, K. Polgár, K. Lengyel, and R. Szipocs, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption of Mg doped stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 902-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Stoyanov, T. Feurer, D. W. Ward, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Direct visualization of a polariton resonator in the THz regime,” Opt. Express 12, 2387-2396 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Generation, tuning, and shaping of narrow-band, picosecond THz pulses by two-beam excitation,” Opt. Express 12, 4650-4658 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Ward, J. D. Beers, T. Feurer, E. R. Statz, N. Stoyanov, and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent control of phonon-polaritons in a terahertz resonator fabricated with femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2671-2673 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K. Reimann, R. P. Smith, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Direct field-resolved detection of terahertz transients with amplitudes of megavolts per centimeter,” Opt. Lett. 28, 471-473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ahn, A. V. Efimov, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical rectification of shaped ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 11, 2486-2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 5258-5279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299, 374-377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 3000-3002 (2003).

I. Z. Kozma, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Geometrical optical modeling of femtosecond setups having angular dispersion,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 257-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 41, L49-L51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson and X-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Crimmins, N. S. Stoyanov, and K. A. Nelson, “Heterodyned impulsive stimulated Raman scattering of phonon-polaritons in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2882-2896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161-1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

K. Kawase, J.-i. Shikata, H. Minamide, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Arrayed silicon prism coupler for a terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1423-1426 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ahn, D. N. Hutchinson, C. Rangan, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Quantum phase retrieval of a Rydberg wave packet using a half-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1179-1182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature 410, 60-63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics: automated spatiotemporal control over propagating lattice waves,” Chem. Phys. 267, 151-159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent optical control over collective vibrations traveling at lightlike speeds,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 1443-1446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, M. DeCamp, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Temperature dependence of narrow-band terahertz generation from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1244-1246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, K. Jensby, S. R. Keiding, H. Takahashi, and H. Ito, “Far-infrared properties of DAST,” Opt. Lett. 25, 911-913 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, “Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, and M. C. Nuss, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784-1786 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, “Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical pulse shaping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709-719 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324-1333 (1996).
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J. Hebling, “Derivation of the pulse-front-tilt caused by angular dispersion,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759-1763 (1996).
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Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604-1606 (1996).
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A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
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1995

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the 0.65−18μm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375-378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1990

1988

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-196 (1988).
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1986

O. E. Martinez, “Pulse distortions in tilted pulse schemes for ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Commun. 59, 229-232 (1986).
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1984

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1555-1558 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kleinman and D. H. Auston, “Theory of electrooptic shock radiation in nonlinear optical media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 964-970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. H. Auston, “Subpicosecond electro-optic shock waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 713-715 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977

1974

D. Redfield and W. J. Burke, “Optical absorption edge of LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4566-4571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

G. D. Boyd and M. A. Pollack, “Microwave nonlinearities in anisotropic dielectrics and their relation to optical and electro-optical nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 5345-5359 (1973).
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1972

V. I. Sokolov and V. K. Subashiev, “Linear electroptical effect in gallium selenide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 14, 178-183 (1972).

1971

1969

W. D. Johnston, Jr. and I. P. Kaminov, “Contributions to optical nonlinearity in GaAs as determined from Raman scattering efficiencies,” Phys. Rev. 188, 1209-1211 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

D. F. Nelson and E. H. Turner, “Electro-optic and piezoelectric coefficients and refractive index of gallium phosphide,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3337-3343 (1968).
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1964

D. T. F. Marple, “Refractive Index of ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539-542 (1964).
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J. Ahn, A. V. Efimov, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical rectification of shaped ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 11, 2486-2496 (2003).
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J. Ahn, D. N. Hutchinson, C. Rangan, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Quantum phase retrieval of a Rydberg wave packet using a half-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1179-1182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almási, G.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 419-423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 13, 5762-5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, G. Almási, Á. Péter, K. Polgár, K. Lengyel, and R. Szipocs, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption of Mg doped stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 902-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Z. Kozma, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Geometrical optical modeling of femtosecond setups having angular dispersion,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 257-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161-1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

Arena, D. A.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auston, D. H.

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506-508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-196 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1555-1558 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kleinman and D. H. Auston, “Theory of electrooptic shock radiation in nonlinear optical media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 964-970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, “Subpicosecond electro-optic shock waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 713-715 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Balkanski, M.

Bandulet, H.-C.

Bartal, B.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 419-423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beers, J. D.

D. W. Ward, J. D. Beers, T. Feurer, E. R. Statz, N. Stoyanov, and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent control of phonon-polaritons in a terahertz resonator fabricated with femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2671-2673 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Ward, E. R. Statz, J. D. Beers, T. Feurer, J. D. Joannopoulos, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Webb, and K. A. Nelson, “Polaritonics in complex structures: confinement, bandgap materials, and coherent control,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XIV, T.Kobayashi, T.Okada, T.Kobayashi, K.A.Nelson, and S.De Silvestri, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2005), pp. 298-300.
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Beigang, R.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, F.

Bliss, D.

Bosshard, C.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and M. A. Pollack, “Microwave nonlinearities in anisotropic dielectrics and their relation to optical and electro-optical nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 5345-5359 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

J. Ahn, D. N. Hutchinson, C. Rangan, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Quantum phase retrieval of a Rydberg wave packet using a half-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1179-1182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. You, R. R. Jones, P. H. Bucksbaum, and D. R. Dykaar, “Generation of high-power sub-single-cycle 500-fs electromagnetic pulses,” Opt. Lett. 18, 290-292 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, W. J.

D. Redfield and W. J. Burke, “Optical absorption edge of LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4566-4571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. J.

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, “An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification charge transfer, and current surge,” Opt. Commun. 256, 400-413 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carr, G. L.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalleri, A.

M. Rini, R. Tobey, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449, 72-74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, G.

Cheung, K. P.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1555-1558 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature 410, 60-63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, P. D.

Crimmins, T. F.

T. F. Crimmins, N. S. Stoyanov, and K. A. Nelson, “Heterodyned impulsive stimulated Raman scattering of phonon-polaritons in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2882-2896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Salvo, R.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324-1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeCamp, M.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, M. DeCamp, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Temperature dependence of narrow-band terahertz generation from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1244-1246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Demirdoven, N.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 5258-5279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Divin, C. J.

Dreyhaupt, A.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dykaar, D. R.

Efimov, A. V.

Elsaesser, T.

Fattinger, C.

Fejer, M. M.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

Feurer, T.

N. S. Stoyanov, T. Feurer, D. W. Ward, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Direct visualization of a polariton resonator in the THz regime,” Opt. Express 12, 2387-2396 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Ward, J. D. Beers, T. Feurer, E. R. Statz, N. Stoyanov, and K. A. Nelson, “Coherent control of phonon-polaritons in a terahertz resonator fabricated with femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2671-2673 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299, 374-377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Ward, E. R. Statz, J. D. Beers, T. Feurer, J. D. Joannopoulos, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Webb, and K. A. Nelson, “Polaritonics in complex structures: confinement, bandgap materials, and coherent control,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XIV, T.Kobayashi, T.Okada, T.Kobayashi, K.A.Nelson, and S.De Silvestri, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2005), pp. 298-300.
[CrossRef]

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 41, L49-L51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Galvanauskas, A.

G. Chang, C. J. Divin, J. Yang, M. A. Musheinish, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, “GaP waveguide emitters for high power broadband THz generation pumped by Yb-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 15, 16308-16314 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, M. DeCamp, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Temperature dependence of narrow-band terahertz generation from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1244-1246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Günter, P.

Hagan, D. J.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324-1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, T.

Harris, J. J.

Haugen, H. K.

Hebling, J.

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035nm,” Opt. Express 15, 11706-11713 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 419-423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 23-26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 13, 5762-5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Generation, tuning, and shaping of narrow-band, picosecond THz pulses by two-beam excitation,” Opt. Express 12, 4650-4658 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, G. Almási, Á. Péter, K. Polgár, K. Lengyel, and R. Szipocs, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption of Mg doped stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 902-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 3000-3002 (2003).

I. Z. Kozma, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Geometrical optical modeling of femtosecond setups having angular dispersion,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 257-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161-1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Hebling, “Derivation of the pulse-front-tilt caused by angular dispersion,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759-1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high average power 1kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Hegmann, F. A.

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, “Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, S.

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 41, L49-L51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. C.

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035nm,” Opt. Express 15, 11706-11713 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high average power 1kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Hornung, T.

T. Hornung, K. L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, in Ultrafast Phenomena XV, P.Corkum, D.Jonas, R.J. D.Miller, A.M.Weiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 772-774.
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506-508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, S.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, and M. C. Nuss, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, D. N.

J. Ahn, D. N. Hutchinson, C. Rangan, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Quantum phase retrieval of a Rydberg wave packet using a half-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1179-1182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, K.

Imeshev, G.

Itatani, J.

M. Rini, R. Tobey, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449, 72-74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, H.

Jacob, F.

Jensby, K.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

D. W. Ward, E. R. Statz, J. D. Beers, T. Feurer, J. D. Joannopoulos, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Webb, and K. A. Nelson, “Polaritonics in complex structures: confinement, bandgap materials, and coherent control,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XIV, T.Kobayashi, T.Okada, T.Kobayashi, K.A.Nelson, and S.De Silvestri, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2005), pp. 298-300.
[CrossRef]

Johnston, W. D.

W. D. Johnston, Jr. and I. P. Kaminov, “Contributions to optical nonlinearity in GaAs as determined from Raman scattering efficiencies,” Phys. Rev. 188, 1209-1211 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. R.

Kaminov, I. P.

W. D. Johnston, Jr. and I. P. Kaminov, “Contributions to optical nonlinearity in GaAs as determined from Raman scattering efficiencies,” Phys. Rev. 188, 1209-1211 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C.-C.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawase, K.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J.-i. Shikata, H. Minamide, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Arrayed silicon prism coupler for a terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1423-1426 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Keiding, S. R.

M. Walther, K. Jensby, S. R. Keiding, H. Takahashi, and H. Ito, “Far-infrared properties of DAST,” Opt. Lett. 25, 911-913 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, “Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khalil, M.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 5258-5279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khan, R. U. A.

Kieffer, J.-C.

King, B. T.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature 410, 60-63 (2001).
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We note that Eq. includes a factor of 4 that was missing in Eq. (5) of . We thank a reviewer for drawing our attention to this problem.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of velocity matching using tilted-pulse-front excitation. (a) THz phonon–polariton wave (bold line) generated in the LN crystal by the tilted intensity front of the pump pulse (dashed bold line) propagates perpendicular to the THz phase front. In order for the two fronts to remain in phase during propagation, the projection of the pump pulse velocity vector v N I R g r along the direction of the polariton (THz radiation) propagation vector should be equal to the magnitude of THz phase velocity v T H z . (b) Wave-vector diagram for difference-frequency generation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) For the Cherenkov geometry, the THz radiation is emitted as a cone. Velocity matching [Eq. (9)] is satisfied, but the pump spot size has to be small. (b) Tilted-pulse-front excitation creates a plane THz wave, and the spot size and THz energy can be scaled up.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for THz generation by tilted-pulse-front excitation. L, lens; l/mm, lines/mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated electric field distribution of THz pulses (just before leaving the crystal) generated in a 2 mm long sLN crystal by a 250 fs pump pulse (a) focused to a 5 μ m wide line perpendicular to the figure, (b) with tilted-pulse-front and a spot sizes (measured parallel to the y axis) of 20 μ m and (c) of 1 mm . For the sake of visibility the pump pulse is indicated 0.06 mm back from its real position.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy of THz pulses (in arbitrary units) generated in a 1 mm long crystal versus position of the pump pulse inside the crystal for line focusing (triangles) and tilted-pulse-front (squares) excitation assuming 5 μ m and 1 mm pump widths, respectively. The energy values were obtained by calculating the square of the field distribution and integrating on the y z plane. For negative z values the maximum of the tilted pulse front is outside of the crystal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated THz energy versus pump width for constant intensity (solid curve). The dashed line corresponds to a constant efficiency. The inset is the ratio of the two curves, indicating the change of the normalized efficiency with the pump width.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated shapes of THz pulses generated in 2 mm long sLN by 140 fs long pump pulses for a 1 THz matched frequency at different temperatures. At low temperatures, polariton damping is low enough that small differences in polariton phase velocity lead to constructive superposition at the selected ( 1 THz ) frequency but destructive interference at nearby frequencies, narrowing the THz spectral bandwidth. At high temperatures the THz propagation length is shorter, and nearby frequency components do not propagate far enough to go out of phase. The increased damping leads to a weaker and spectrally broader THz field.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated crystal length dependence of the electric field (peak-to-peak) amplitude of THz pulses generated in sLN by 140 fs duration pump pulses for 1 THz matched frequency at different temperatures.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated crystal length dependence of the energy of THz pulses generated in sLN by 140 fs long pump pulses for 1 THz matched frequency at different temperatures.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Pulse shape of THz pulses generated at room temperature with a 200 kHz laser system. Inset, amplitude spectrum obtained by fast Fourier transform of the temporal shape.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Dependence of the THz energy generated by a tilted pulse front on the pump energy for three different excitation areas: 1.2 mm 2 (filled squares), 9 mm 2 (triangle), and 30 mm 2 (circle). For comparison, open squares indicate THz energy generated by focusing to a 25 μ m wide line creating a 0.04 mm 2 excitation area.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Pulse shape of THz pulses generated at room temperature with a 1 kHz laser system and 6 mJ pump pulse energy. Insets, amplitude spectrum of the pulse, and beginning part of the temporal shape with 100 times vertical expansion.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

THz pulse energy versus pump energy, using a Yb pump laser and sLN (circles), GaP (squares) and ZnTe (triangles) nonlinear materials.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Properties of a Few Materials Suitable for Optical Rectification a

Equations (23)

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η T H z = 2 ω 2 d e f f 2 L 2 I ε 0 n N I R 2 n T H z c 3 exp [ α T H z L 2 ] sinh 2 [ α T H z ( L 4 ) ] [ α T H z L 4 ] 2 .
η T H z = 2 ω 2 d e f f 2 L 2 I ε 0 n N I R 2 n T H z c 3 .
η T H z = 8 ω 2 d e f f 2 I ε 0 n N I R 2 n T H z c 3 α T H z 2 .
FOM N A d e f f 2 L 2 n N I R 2 n T H z ,
FOM A 4 d e f f 2 n N I R 2 n T H z α T H z 2 .
d e f f = n N I R 4 r 4 ,
v N I R g r = v T H z .
n N I R g r = n T H z .
v N I R g r cos γ = v T H z .
Δ k = k N I R + T H z k N I R k T H z = 0 ,
tan γ = n N I R n N I R g r ω d Θ d ω ,
Θ C = cos 1 ( ν T H z p h ν N I R g r ) ,
w λ T H z .
tan γ = ( 1 n N I R g r ) tan γ * ,
E ( y , z , t ) cot θ C τ 2 ( 1 + q 2 ) ξ e ξ 2 ,
ξ = y tan θ C + z v N I R g r t v N I R g r τ 1 + q 2 , and q = w tan θ C v τ ,
I p ( ω ) exp [ ( τ p ω 2 ln 2 ) ] 2 .
E T H z ( Ω ) Ω d ( Ω ) E p ( ω ) E p ( ω + Ω ) ,
E T H z ( t ) = Ω 0 L E T H z ( Ω ) exp [ 2 π α ( Ω ) ( L z ) ] cos [ Ω ( t z v g r L z v T H z ( Ω ) ) ] d z d Ω ,
d ( Ω ) = 1 2 δ e e e χ e 2 ( Ω ) χ e ( Ω ) + 1 2 δ i e e χ i ( Ω ) χ e 2 ( Ω ) ,
χ i ( Ω ) = χ i 0 ω i 2 ω i 2 Ω 2 + i γ Ω ,
α ( Ω ) = ( Ω c ) Im ε ( Ω ) , n ( Ω ) = Re ε ( Ω ) .
ε ( Ω ) = ε + k A k ω k 2 ω k 2 Ω 2 2 i γ k Ω ,

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