Abstract

Ultrafast infrared induced fiber Bragg gratings in a hydrogen-loaded SMF-28 fiber are shown to exhibit complex and, what we believe to be, novel spectral evolutions. It is believed that the induced grating peak profile in the fiber is nonsinusoidal as a result of the nonlinear absorption required to modify the material. Rouard’s method is used to show that the observed spectral evolution is a consequence of the saturation of the nonsinusoidal index change profile.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Formation of type I-IR and type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Express 13, 5377-5386 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, and C. W. Smelser, “High order spectral response characteristics of fiber Bragg gratings made with ultrafast IR radiation and phase mask,” in Proceedings of Bragg Grating, Photosensitivity and Poling Topical Meeting (2005), p. 43.
  3. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressureH2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 5, 214-217 (1993).
  4. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Hydrogen loading for fiber grating writing with a femtosecond laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2127-2129 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, “Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1730-1732 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1866 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Poulson, M. O. Berendt, A. Bjarklev, L. Grüner-Nielson, and C. E. Soccolich, “Bragg grating induced cladding mode coupling caused by ultra-violet light absorption,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1007-1009 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999), pp. 411-415.
  9. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Characterization of Fourier components in type I-IR ultrafast fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1453-1455 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Rouard's method modeling of type I-IR fiber Bragg gratings made using an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2011-2017 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

1998 (1)

T. Poulson, M. O. Berendt, A. Bjarklev, L. Grüner-Nielson, and C. E. Soccolich, “Bragg grating induced cladding mode coupling caused by ultra-violet light absorption,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1007-1009 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressureH2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 5, 214-217 (1993).

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressureH2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 5, 214-217 (1993).

Berendt, M. O.

T. Poulson, M. O. Berendt, A. Bjarklev, L. Grüner-Nielson, and C. E. Soccolich, “Bragg grating induced cladding mode coupling caused by ultra-violet light absorption,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1007-1009 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

T. Poulson, M. O. Berendt, A. Bjarklev, L. Grüner-Nielson, and C. E. Soccolich, “Bragg grating induced cladding mode coupling caused by ultra-violet light absorption,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1007-1009 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Characterization of Fourier components in type I-IR ultrafast fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Rouard's method modeling of type I-IR fiber Bragg gratings made using an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2011-2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Formation of type I-IR and type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Express 13, 5377-5386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Hydrogen loading for fiber grating writing with a femtosecond laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2127-2129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, “Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1730-1732 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, and C. W. Smelser, “High order spectral response characteristics of fiber Bragg gratings made with ultrafast IR radiation and phase mask,” in Proceedings of Bragg Grating, Photosensitivity and Poling Topical Meeting (2005), p. 43.

Grüner-Nielson, L.

T. Poulson, M. O. Berendt, A. Bjarklev, L. Grüner-Nielson, and C. E. Soccolich, “Bragg grating induced cladding mode coupling caused by ultra-violet light absorption,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1007-1009 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999), pp. 411-415.

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressureH2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 5, 214-217 (1993).

Lu, P.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Characterization of Fourier components in type I-IR ultrafast fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Rouard's method modeling of type I-IR fiber Bragg gratings made using an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2011-2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Formation of type I-IR and type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Express 13, 5377-5386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Hydrogen loading for fiber grating writing with a femtosecond laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2127-2129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, “Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1730-1732 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, and C. W. Smelser, “High order spectral response characteristics of fiber Bragg gratings made with ultrafast IR radiation and phase mask,” in Proceedings of Bragg Grating, Photosensitivity and Poling Topical Meeting (2005), p. 43.

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressureH2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 5, 214-217 (1993).

Poulson, T.

T. Poulson, M. O. Berendt, A. Bjarklev, L. Grüner-Nielson, and C. E. Soccolich, “Bragg grating induced cladding mode coupling caused by ultra-violet light absorption,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1007-1009 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressureH2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 5, 214-217 (1993).

Smelser, C. W.

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Characterization of Fourier components in type I-IR ultrafast fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Rouard's method modeling of type I-IR fiber Bragg gratings made using an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2011-2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Formation of type I-IR and type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Express 13, 5377-5386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Hydrogen loading for fiber grating writing with a femtosecond laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2127-2129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, “Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1730-1732 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, and C. W. Smelser, “High order spectral response characteristics of fiber Bragg gratings made with ultrafast IR radiation and phase mask,” in Proceedings of Bragg Grating, Photosensitivity and Poling Topical Meeting (2005), p. 43.

Soccolich, C. E.

T. Poulson, M. O. Berendt, A. Bjarklev, L. Grüner-Nielson, and C. E. Soccolich, “Bragg grating induced cladding mode coupling caused by ultra-violet light absorption,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1007-1009 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. B.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressureH2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 5, 214-217 (1993).

T. Poulson, M. O. Berendt, A. Bjarklev, L. Grüner-Nielson, and C. E. Soccolich, “Bragg grating induced cladding mode coupling caused by ultra-violet light absorption,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1007-1009 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, and C. W. Smelser, “High order spectral response characteristics of fiber Bragg gratings made with ultrafast IR radiation and phase mask,” in Proceedings of Bragg Grating, Photosensitivity and Poling Topical Meeting (2005), p. 43.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999), pp. 411-415.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evolution of the transmission loss at the Bragg resonance for gratings written with phase masks with pitches ranging from 1.07 to 4.28 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Various stages of third-order hydrogen-loaded spectral behavior. (a) Initial stage ( < 2 × 10 4 pulses) where the evolution of the transmission is similar to that expected with UV sources. (b) After × 10 4 pulses the Bragg resonance has been reduced to a Fabry–Perot structure and a ghost cladding mode is growing, as confirmed by the absence of a short wavelength peak in the reflection spectrum (gray curve) in (c). (c) Finally, after 2 × 10 5 pulses, the Bragg resonance eventually becomes very large and saturates the detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical microscope image of the grating in the core of the fiber written with a 3.21 μ m pitch mask. While the transmission loss for the grating is very small the grating is still clearly visible.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Unsaturated and saturated sinusoidal grating peak for a UV grating and (b) evolution of the Fourier components that comprise the grating as it saturates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Unsaturated and saturated nonsinusoidal grating peak for an ultrafast infrared induced grating and (b) evolution of the Fourier components that comprise the ultrafast induced grating as it saturates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Modeled growth of a third-order grating. The evolution of the transmission loss is very similar to that depicted in Fig. 1 for the observed third-order grating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral evolution of the modeled grating in the presence of index saturation. The evolution of the model’s spectral profile is very similar to the observed spectrum shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Magnitude of the third-order Fourier component Δ n lin is calculated for a partially saturated nonsinusoidal grating. Clearly the third-order resonance appears to be double-peaked. Such a double-peaked profile would result in a spectral response resembling that of a Fabry–Perot structure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Evolution of the transmission loss for a uniform grating. The transmission loss now approaches zero in a manner similar to the Fourier component.

Equations (3)

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Δ n ( x ) = Δ n 0 + M = 1 Δ n M cos ( 2 M π x Λ ) ,
Δ n = Δ n sat Δ n lin I Δ n sat + Δ n lin I .
Δ n = Δ n sat Δ n lin I 5 Δ n sat + Δ n lin I 5 .

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