Abstract

We propose several methods for the accurate determination of the cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers and apply them to the analysis of polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe and Fe2+:ZnSe. In the case of Cr2+:ZnSe, both z-scan and power-dependent transmission measurements were made by using a continuous-wave fiber laser at 1800nm and a pulsed optical parametric oscillator at 1570nm. The average ground-state absorption cross sections at the wavelengths of 1800 and 1570nm were determined to be 6.17×1019cm2 and 2.24×1019cm2, respectively. Furthermore, the ratio of the cross sections at these wavelengths (2.75) was close to the value of 2.55 obtained from absorption spectrum measurements. Excited-state absorption was found to be negligible at both wavelengths. In the case of Fe2+:ZnSe, a tunable, pulsed Cr2+:ZnSe laser was used to obtain saturation data (z-scan and power-dependent saturation) at the wavelengths of 2645 and 2730nm. Average ground-state absorption cross sections at 2645 and 2730nm were determined to be 1.73×1019cm2 and 2.47×1019cm2, respectively, again in very good agreement with those obtained from absorption spectrum measurements.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. Burshtein, Y. Shimony, R. Feldman, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, and E. Galun, “Excited-state absorption at 1.57μm in U2+:CaF2 and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorbers,” Opt. Mater. 15, 285-291 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T.-Y. Tsai and M. Birnbaum, “Q-Switched 2-μm lasers by use of a Cr2:ZnSe saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6633-6637 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Cr2+:ZnSe and Co2+:ZnSe saturable-absorber Q switches for 1.54-μm Er:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 960-962 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorge, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method of the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 367-374 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG--a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555-558 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. J. Adams, C. Bibeau, R. H. Page, D. M. Krol, L. H. Furu, and S. A. Payne, “4.0-4.5μm lasing of Fe:ZnSe below 180K, a new mid-infrared laser material,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1720-1722 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. R. D. Stultz, V. Leyva, and K. Spariosu, “Short pulse, high-repetition rate, passively q-switched Er:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser at 1.6 microns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241118 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, “Passive q-switching of Tm-silica fibre laser near 2μm by a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501-508 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Cr2+:ZnSe and Co2+:ZnSe saturable-absorber Q switches for 1.54-μm Er:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 960-962 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, V. Badikov, D. M. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive q-switching of 2.8-μmEr:Cr:YSGG laser cavity,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510L (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. U. Demirbas and A. Sennaroglu, “Intracavity-pumped Cr2+:ZnSe laser with ultrabroad tuning range between 1880 and 3100nm,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2293-2295 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Sennaroglu, “Continuous-wave thermal loading in saturable absorbers: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9528-9535 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. V. Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr4+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086-1091 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, and M. Somer, “Synthesis and characterization of diffusion-doped Cr2+:ZnSe and Fe2+:ZnSe,” Opt. Mater. 28, 231-240 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, V. Badikov, D. M. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive q-switching of 2.8-μmEr:Cr:YSGG laser cavity,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510L (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, and M. Somer, “Synthesis and characterization of diffusion-doped Cr2+:ZnSe and Fe2+:ZnSe,” Opt. Mater. 28, 231-240 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, S. Ozharar, and F. Yaman, “Accurate determination of saturation parameters for Cr4+-doped solid-state saturable absorbers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 241-249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas and A. Sennaroglu, “Intracavity-pumped Cr2+:ZnSe laser with ultrabroad tuning range between 1880 and 3100nm,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2293-2295 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, L. I. Postnova, and L. I. Levchenko, “Saturable absorbers for passive q-switching of erbium lasers emitting in the region of 3μm,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 72, 818-823 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Stultz, V. Leyva, and K. Spariosu, “Short pulse, high-repetition rate, passively q-switched Er:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser at 1.6 microns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, “Passive q-switching of Tm-silica fibre laser near 2μm by a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501-508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorge, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method of the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Z. Burshtein, Y. Shimony, R. Feldman, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, and E. Galun, “Excited-state absorption at 1.57μm in U2+:CaF2 and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorbers,” Opt. Mater. 15, 285-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Tsai and M. Birnbaum, “Q-Switched 2-μm lasers by use of a Cr2:ZnSe saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6633-6637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. G. Okhrimchuk and A. V. Shestakov, “Absorption saturation mechanism for Cr4+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 988-995 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

N. V. Kuleshov, A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Excited-state absorption in the range of pumping and laser efficiency of Cr4+:fosterite,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1028-1030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG--a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555-558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sennaroglu, “Continuous-wave thermal loading in saturable absorbers: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9528-9535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1970

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, and A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4313-4333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J. J.

Akimov, V. A.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andriasyan, M.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, V. Badikov, D. M. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive q-switching of 2.8-μmEr:Cr:YSGG laser cavity,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Badikov, D. V.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Badikov, V.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, V. Badikov, D. M. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive q-switching of 2.8-μmEr:Cr:YSGG laser cavity,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. V. Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr4+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086-1091 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bibeau, C.

Birnbaum, M.

Blau, P.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boutoussov, D. M.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, V. Badikov, D. M. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive q-switching of 2.8-μmEr:Cr:YSGG laser cavity,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burger, A.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burshtein, Z.

Z. Burshtein, Y. Shimony, R. Feldman, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, and E. Galun, “Excited-state absorption at 1.57μm in U2+:CaF2 and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorbers,” Opt. Mater. 15, 285-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.-T.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Conroy, R. S.

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG--a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555-558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeLoach, L. D.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demirbas, U.

Denisov, I. A.

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG--a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555-558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, V. Badikov, D. M. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive q-switching of 2.8-μmEr:Cr:YSGG laser cavity,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. V.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, R.

Z. Burshtein, Y. Shimony, R. Feldman, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, and E. Galun, “Excited-state absorption at 1.57μm in U2+:CaF2 and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorbers,” Opt. Mater. 15, 285-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferrand, B.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorge, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method of the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, M. P.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fromager, M.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorge, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method of the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Furu, L. H.

Gallian, A.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, V. Badikov, D. M. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive q-switching of 2.8-μmEr:Cr:YSGG laser cavity,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510L (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galun, E.

Z. Burshtein, Y. Shimony, R. Feldman, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, and E. Galun, “Excited-state absorption at 1.57μm in U2+:CaF2 and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorbers,” Opt. Mater. 15, 285-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorge, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method of the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glushko, A.

Z. Burshtein, Y. Shimony, R. Feldman, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, and E. Galun, “Excited-state absorption at 1.57μm in U2+:CaF2 and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorbers,” Opt. Mater. 15, 285-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, A. E.

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, and A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4313-4333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kalisky, Y.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, “Passive q-switching of Tm-silica fibre laser near 2μm by a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501-508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kisel, V. E.

V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, L. I. Postnova, and L. I. Levchenko, “Saturable absorbers for passive q-switching of erbium lasers emitting in the region of 3μm,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 72, 818-823 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kokta, M. R.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Korostelin, Y. V.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovsky, V. I.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

Krupke, W. F.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krupkin, V.

Z. Burshtein, Y. Shimony, R. Feldman, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, and E. Galun, “Excited-state absorption at 1.57μm in U2+:CaF2 and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorbers,” Opt. Mater. 15, 285-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, L. I. Postnova, and L. I. Levchenko, “Saturable absorbers for passive q-switching of erbium lasers emitting in the region of 3μm,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 72, 818-823 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorge, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method of the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Cr2+:ZnSe and Co2+:ZnSe saturable-absorber Q switches for 1.54-μm Er:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 960-962 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Cr2+:ZnSe and Co2+:ZnSe saturable-absorber Q switches for 1.54-μm Er:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 960-962 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Excited-state absorption in the range of pumping and laser efficiency of Cr4+:fosterite,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1028-1030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

Landman, A. I.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levchenko, L. I.

V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, L. I. Postnova, and L. I. Levchenko, “Saturable absorbers for passive q-switching of erbium lasers emitting in the region of 3μm,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 72, 818-823 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levchenko, V. I.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorge, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method of the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

R. D. Stultz, V. Leyva, and K. Spariosu, “Short pulse, high-repetition rate, passively q-switched Er:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser at 1.6 microns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. V. Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr4+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086-1091 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malyarevich, A. M.

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG--a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555-558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marine, P.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, V. Badikov, D. M. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive q-switching of 2.8-μmEr:Cr:YSGG laser cavity,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, V. Badikov, D. M. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive q-switching of 2.8-μmEr:Cr:YSGG laser cavity,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, V. P.

Mirov, S.

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, V. Badikov, D. M. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive q-switching of 2.8-μmEr:Cr:YSGG laser cavity,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mirov, S. B.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorge, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method of the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

A. G. Okhrimchuk and A. V. Shestakov, “Absorption saturation mechanism for Cr4+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 988-995 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozharar, S.

Page, R. H.

J. J. Adams, C. Bibeau, R. H. Page, D. M. Krol, L. H. Furu, and S. A. Payne, “4.0-4.5μm lasing of Fe:ZnSe below 180K, a new mid-infrared laser material,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1720-1722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Patel, F. D.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

J. J. Adams, C. Bibeau, R. H. Page, D. M. Krol, L. H. Furu, and S. A. Payne, “4.0-4.5μm lasing of Fe:ZnSe below 180K, a new mid-infrared laser material,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1720-1722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Podlipensky, A. V.

Podmar'kov, Y. P.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Postnova, L. I.

V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, L. I. Postnova, and L. I. Levchenko, “Saturable absorbers for passive q-switching of erbium lasers emitting in the region of 3μm,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 72, 818-823 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qamar, F. Z.

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, “Passive q-switching of Tm-silica fibre laser near 2μm by a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501-508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S.

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, and A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4313-4333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Schaffers, K. I.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sennaroglu, A.

Shcherbitskii, V. G.

V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, L. I. Postnova, and L. I. Levchenko, “Saturable absorbers for passive q-switching of erbium lasers emitting in the region of 3μm,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 72, 818-823 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbitsky, V. G.

Shestakov, A. V.

A. G. Okhrimchuk and A. V. Shestakov, “Absorption saturation mechanism for Cr4+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 988-995 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shimony, Y.

Z. Burshtein, Y. Shimony, R. Feldman, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, and E. Galun, “Excited-state absorption at 1.57μm in U2+:CaF2 and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorbers,” Opt. Mater. 15, 285-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, B. D.

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG--a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555-558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slack, G. A.

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, and A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4313-4333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Somer, M.

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, and M. Somer, “Synthesis and characterization of diffusion-doped Cr2+:ZnSe and Fe2+:ZnSe,” Opt. Mater. 28, 231-240 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sorokina, I. T.

I. T. Sorokina, “Crystalline mid-infrared lasers,” Vol. 89 of Topics in Applied Physics, I.T.Sorokina and K.L.Vodopyanov, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 255-349.
[CrossRef]

Spariosu, K.

R. D. Stultz, V. Leyva, and K. Spariosu, “Short pulse, high-repetition rate, passively q-switched Er:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser at 1.6 microns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stryland, E. V.

G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. V. Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr4+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086-1091 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stultz, R. D.

R. D. Stultz, V. Leyva, and K. Spariosu, “Short pulse, high-repetition rate, passively q-switched Er:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser at 1.6 microns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tassano, J. B.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T.-Y.

Vallin, J. T.

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, and A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4313-4333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, A. A.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weichman, L.

G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. V. Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr4+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086-1091 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, G. D.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G.

G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. V. Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr4+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086-1091 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yakimovich, V. N.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorge, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method of the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yaman, F.

Yang, S.

G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. V. Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr4+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086-1091 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yumashev, K. V.

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG--a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555-558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorge, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method of the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG--a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555-558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. D. Stultz, V. Leyva, and K. Spariosu, “Short pulse, high-repetition rate, passively q-switched Er:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser at 1.6 microns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, Jr., S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K.-T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+ doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 609-619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar'kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3-77-5.05μm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 907-917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. V. Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr4+ in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086-1091 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc.

V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, L. I. Postnova, and L. I. Levchenko, “Saturable absorbers for passive q-switching of erbium lasers emitting in the region of 3μm,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 72, 818-823 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, “Passive q-switching of Tm-silica fibre laser near 2μm by a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501-508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, and M. Somer, “Synthesis and characterization of diffusion-doped Cr2+:ZnSe and Fe2+:ZnSe,” Opt. Mater. 28, 231-240 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Burshtein, Y. Shimony, R. Feldman, V. Krupkin, A. Glushko, and E. Galun, “Excited-state absorption at 1.57μm in U2+:CaF2 and Co2+:ZnSe saturable absorbers,” Opt. Mater. 15, 285-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, and A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4313-4333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Okhrimchuk and A. V. Shestakov, “Absorption saturation mechanism for Cr4+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 988-995 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. Gallian, A. Martinez, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, V. Badikov, D. M. Boutoussov, and M. Andriasyan, “Fe:ZnSe passive q-switching of 2.8-μmEr:Cr:YSGG laser cavity,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. T. Sorokina, “Crystalline mid-infrared lasers,” Vol. 89 of Topics in Applied Physics, I.T.Sorokina and K.L.Vodopyanov, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 255-349.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram for a modified four-level medium with the possibility of excited-state absorption.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured and calculated transmission of Cr 2 + : ZnSe sample 1 as a function of (a) incident power and (b) crystal position ( incident pump power = 1700 mW ) at 1800 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and calculated transmissions of the Cr 2 + : ZnSe sample 1 as a function of (a) incident energy and (b) crystal position ( incident pump energy = 490 μ J ) at 1570 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Room temperature absorption spectra of Cr 2 + : ZnSe sample 5 (see Table 1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured and calculated transmissions of the Fe 2 + : ZnSe sample as a function of (a) incident energy and (b) crystal position ( incident pump energy = 76.5 μ J ) at 2645 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Room temperature absorption spectrum of the Fe 2 + : ZnSe sample.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dimensions and Optical Properties of the Polycrystalline Cr 2 + : ZnSe Samples Used in This Study

Tables Icon

Table 2 Best-Fit Saturation Parameters of the Cr 2 + : ZnSe Samples at 1800 nm for the Power-Dependent Transmission and Z-Scan Methods

Tables Icon

Table 3 Best-Fit Saturation Parameters of the Cr 2 + : ZnSe Samples at 1570 nm for the Energy-Dependent Transmission and Z-Scan Methods

Tables Icon

Table 4 Determined Ground-State Absorption Cross Section for Cr 2 + : ZnSe at Different Wavelengths and Estimated Values at 1800 and 1570 nm Based on Absorption Spectrum Measurements

Tables Icon

Table 5 Best-Fit Saturation Parameters of the Fe 2 + : ZnSe Sample

Tables Icon

Table 6 Previously Determined Ground-State Absorption Cross Sections for Fe 2 + : ZnSe at Different Wavelengths and Corresponding Estimated Values at 2645 and 2730 nm Based on the Absorption Spectrum of Fe 2 + : ZnSe

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N 2 t = I σ a N g h ν N 2 τ f I σ esa N 2 h ν + N 4 τ 4 .
N 4 t = I σ esa N 2 h ν N 4 τ 4 .
d P d z = α p 0 P 0 d r 2 π r ϕ ( 1 + f p P ϕ I sa 1 + P ϕ I sa ) ,
ϕ = 2 π ω ( z ) 2 e 2 r 2 ω ( z ) 2 ,
E z = ( 1 f p ) h ν α p 0 σ a 0 d r 2 π r ( 1 exp ( σ a E ϕ h ν ) ) f p α p 0 E .
ω ( z ) = ω 0 1 + ( z z f z R ) 2 ,

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