Abstract

Generating nonclassical light offers a benchmark tool for fundamental research and potential applications in quantum optics. Conventionally, it has become a standard technique to produce nonclassical light through the nonlinear optical processes occurring in nonlinear crystals. We describe this process using cold atomic-gas media to generate such nonclassical light, especially focusing on narrowband biphoton generation. Compared with the standard procedure the new biphoton source has such properties as long coherence time, long coherence length, high spectral brightness, and high conversion efficiency. Although there exist two methodologies describing the physical process, we concentrate on the theoretical aspect of the entangled two-photon state produced from the four-wave mixing in a multilevel atomic ensemble using perturbation theory. We show that both linear and nonlinear optical responses to the generated fields play an important role in determining the biphoton waveform and, consequently, on the two-photon temporal correlation. There are two characteristic regimes determined by whether the linear or nonlinear coherence time is dominant. In addition, our model provides a clear physical picture that brings insight into understanding biphoton optics with this new source. We apply our model to recent work on generating narrowband (and even subnatural linewidth) paired photons using the technique of electromagnetically induced transparency and slow-light effect in cold atoms and find good agreement with experimental results.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (5)

S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183603 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Wen, S. Du, Y. Zhang, M. Xiao, and M. H. Rubin, “Nonclassical light generation via a four-level inverted-Y system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Du, C. Belthangady, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of optical precursors at the biphoton level,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2149-2151 (2008).

J.-M. Wen, S. Du, M. H. Rubin, and E. Oh, “Two-photon beatings using biphotons generated from a two-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033801 (2008).

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544-547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

S. Du, E. Oh, J.-M. Wen, and M. H. Rubin, “Four-wave mixing in three-level systems: interference and entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Wen, S. Du, and M. H. Rubin, “Biphoton generation in a two-level atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Wen, S. Du, and M. H. Rubin, “Spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013825 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Du, J.-M. Wen, M. H. Rubin, and G. Y. Yin, “Four-wave mixing and biphoton generation in a two-level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kolchin, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based paired photon generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. R. Ooi, Q. Sun, M. S. Zubairy, and M. O. Scully, “Correlation of photon pairs from the double Raman amplifier: generalized analytical quantum Langevin theory,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013820 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, B. M. Nielsen, H. Takahashi, A. I. Vistnes, and E. S. Polzik, “High purity bright single photon source,” Opt. Express 15, 7940-7949 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

C. E. Kuklewicz, F. N. C. Wong, and J. H. Shapiro, “Time-bin-modulated biphotons from cavity-enhanced down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 223601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Wen and M. H. Rubin, “Transverse effects in paired-photon generation via an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. I. Perturbation theory,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 023808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Wen and M. H. Rubin, “Transverse effects in paired-photon generation via an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. II. Beyond perturbation theory,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 023809 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Thompson, J. Simon, H. Loh, and V. Vuletic, “A high-brightness source of narrowband, identical-photon pairs,” Science 313, 74-77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

S. Thanvanthri, J.-M. Wen, and M. H. Rubin, “Effects of mismatched transmissions on two-mode squeezing and EPR correlations with a slow light medium,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023822 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Manarangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Balić, D. A. Braje, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of paired photons with controllable waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, “Quantum information with continuous variables,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 513-577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D'Angelo and Y.-H. Shih, “Quantum imaging,” Laser Phys. Lett. 2, 567-596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

H. Wang, T. Horikiri, and T. Kobayashi, “Polarization-entangled mode-locked photons from cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balić, S. Goda, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Frequency mixing using electromagnetically induced transparency in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Wen and M. H. Rubin, “Theory of two-photon interference in an electromagnetically induced transparency system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 063806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196-200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature (London) 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balić, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Shih, “Entangled biphoton source--property and preparation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1009-1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

M. D'Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y.-H. Shih, “Two-photon diffraction and quantum lithography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413-418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Lloyd, M. S. Shahriar, J. H. Shapiro, and P. R. Hemmer, “Long distance, unconditional teleportation of atomic states via complete Bell state measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167903 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, “Observation of absorptive photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, “Quantum interferometric optical lithography: exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Z. Y. Ou and Y. J. Lu, “Cavity enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion for the prolongation of correlation time between conjugate photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2556-2559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, “Nonlinear optics at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611-4614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50, 36-40 (1997).

T. E. Keller and M. H. Rubin, “Theory of two-photon entanglement for spontaneous parametric down-conversion driven by a narrow pump pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 1534-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon 'ghost' interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600-3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, Y.-Q. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of dispersive properties of electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 666-669 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. H. Rubin, D. N. Klyshko, Y. H. Shih, and A. V. Sergienko, “Theory of two-photon entanglement in type-II optical parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 5122-5133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, and M. H. Rubin, “Experimental evaluation of a two-photon wave packet in type-II parametric downconversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 859-862 (1994).

1988 (1)

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921-2924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Ghosh and L. Mandel, “Observation of nonclassical effects in the interference of two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1903-1905 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, “Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691-695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

D. Burnham and D. Weinberg, “Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of optical photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84-87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, and R. L. Byer, “Observation of tunable optical parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732-734 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, D. S.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, “Quantum interferometric optical lithography: exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alley, C. O.

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921-2924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

André, A.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196-200 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balic, V.

V. Balić, D. A. Braje, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of paired photons with controllable waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balić, S. Goda, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Frequency mixing using electromagnetically induced transparency in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balić, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bell, J. S.

J. S. Bell, Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge University Press, 1987).

Belthangady, C.

S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183603 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Du, C. Belthangady, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of optical precursors at the biphoton level,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2149-2151 (2008).

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boca, A.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature (London) 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boozer, A. D.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature (London) 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boto, A. N.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, “Quantum interferometric optical lithography: exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, W. P.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature (London) 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

Boyer, V.

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544-547 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Braje, D. A.

V. Balić, D. A. Braje, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of paired photons with controllable waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balić, S. Goda, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Frequency mixing using electromagnetically induced transparency in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature (London) 423, 731-734 (2003).
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S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183603 (2008).
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P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113602 (2006).
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D. A. Braje, V. Balić, S. Goda, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Frequency mixing using electromagnetically induced transparency in cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183601 (2004).
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S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, “Nonlinear optics at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611-4614 (1999).
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S. Lloyd, M. S. Shahriar, J. H. Shapiro, and P. R. Hemmer, “Long distance, unconditional teleportation of atomic states via complete Bell state measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167903 (2001).
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C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
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R. M. Camacho, P. K. Vudyasetu, and J. H. Howell, “Storage and retrieval of optical pulses using a two-color optical memory,” Nature Phys. (to be published).

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M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Manarangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).
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M. Xiao, Y.-Q. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of dispersive properties of electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 666-669 (1995).
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A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature (London) 423, 731-734 (2003).
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D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon 'ghost' interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600-3603 (1995).
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A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, “Quantum interferometric optical lithography: exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
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S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183603 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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P. Kolchin, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based paired photon generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033814 (2007).
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P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Balić, D. A. Braje, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of paired photons with controllable waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183601 (2005).
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C. E. Kuklewicz, F. N. C. Wong, and J. H. Shapiro, “Time-bin-modulated biphotons from cavity-enhanced down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 223601 (2006).
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A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature (London) 423, 731-734 (2003).
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M. Xiao, Y.-Q. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of dispersive properties of electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 666-669 (1995).
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S. Lloyd, M. S. Shahriar, J. H. Shapiro, and P. R. Hemmer, “Long distance, unconditional teleportation of atomic states via complete Bell state measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167903 (2001).
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J. K. Thompson, J. Simon, H. Loh, and V. Vuletic, “A high-brightness source of narrowband, identical-photon pairs,” Science 313, 74-77 (2006).
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Z. Y. Ou and Y. J. Lu, “Cavity enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion for the prolongation of correlation time between conjugate photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2556-2559 (1999).
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C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196-200 (2003).
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L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413-418 (2001).
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Manarangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Manarangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).
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R. Ghosh and L. Mandel, “Observation of nonclassical effects in the interference of two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1903-1905 (1987).
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C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
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H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, “Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691-695 (1977).
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H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004).
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V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544-547 (2008).
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H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, Laser Cooling and Trapping (Springer Verlag, 2002).

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Neilson, M.

M. Neilson and I. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge U. Press, 2000).

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Oh, E.

J.-M. Wen, S. Du, M. H. Rubin, and E. Oh, “Two-photon beatings using biphotons generated from a two-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033801 (2008).

S. Du, E. Oh, J.-M. Wen, and M. H. Rubin, “Four-wave mixing in three-level systems: interference and entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013803 (2007).
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C. H. R. Ooi, Q. Sun, M. S. Zubairy, and M. O. Scully, “Correlation of photon pairs from the double Raman amplifier: generalized analytical quantum Langevin theory,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013820 (2007).
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Oshman, M. K.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, and R. L. Byer, “Observation of tunable optical parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732-734 (1967).
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Z. Y. Ou and Y. J. Lu, “Cavity enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion for the prolongation of correlation time between conjugate photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2556-2559 (1999).
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C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196-200 (2003).
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Pooser, R. C.

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544-547 (2008).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
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M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, “Observation of absorptive photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801(R) (2001).
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J.-M. Wen, S. Du, Y. Zhang, M. Xiao, and M. H. Rubin, “Nonclassical light generation via a four-level inverted-Y system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033816 (2008).
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J.-M. Wen, S. Du, M. H. Rubin, and E. Oh, “Two-photon beatings using biphotons generated from a two-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033801 (2008).

S. Du, E. Oh, J.-M. Wen, and M. H. Rubin, “Four-wave mixing in three-level systems: interference and entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013803 (2007).
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J.-M. Wen, S. Du, and M. H. Rubin, “Spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013825 (2007).
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J.-M. Wen, S. Du, and M. H. Rubin, “Biphoton generation in a two-level atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033814 (2007).
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S. Du, J.-M. Wen, M. H. Rubin, and G. Y. Yin, “Four-wave mixing and biphoton generation in a two-level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053601 (2007).
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J.-M. Wen and M. H. Rubin, “Transverse effects in paired-photon generation via an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. II. Beyond perturbation theory,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 023809 (2006).
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J.-M. Wen and M. H. Rubin, “Theory of two-photon interference in an electromagnetically induced transparency system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 063806 (2004).
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C. H. R. Ooi, Q. Sun, M. S. Zubairy, and M. O. Scully, “Correlation of photon pairs from the double Raman amplifier: generalized analytical quantum Langevin theory,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013820 (2007).
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A. Migdall, R. Datla, A. V. Sergienko, J. S. Orszak, and Y.-H. Shih, “Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated visible photons: technique verification and measurement uncertainty,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3455-3463 (1998).

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M. H. Rubin, D. N. Klyshko, Y. H. Shih, and A. V. Sergienko, “Theory of two-photon entanglement in type-II optical parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 5122-5133 (1994).
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S. Lloyd, M. S. Shahriar, J. H. Shapiro, and P. R. Hemmer, “Long distance, unconditional teleportation of atomic states via complete Bell state measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167903 (2001).
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C. E. Kuklewicz, F. N. C. Wong, and J. H. Shapiro, “Time-bin-modulated biphotons from cavity-enhanced down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 223601 (2006).
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S. Lloyd, M. S. Shahriar, J. H. Shapiro, and P. R. Hemmer, “Long distance, unconditional teleportation of atomic states via complete Bell state measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167903 (2001).
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D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon 'ghost' interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600-3603 (1995).
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M. H. Rubin, D. N. Klyshko, Y. H. Shih, and A. V. Sergienko, “Theory of two-photon entanglement in type-II optical parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 5122-5133 (1994).
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M. D'Angelo and Y.-H. Shih, “Quantum imaging,” Laser Phys. Lett. 2, 567-596 (2005).
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J. K. Thompson, J. Simon, H. Loh, and V. Vuletic, “A high-brightness source of narrowband, identical-photon pairs,” Science 313, 74-77 (2006).
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D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon 'ghost' interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600-3603 (1995).
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C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196-200 (2003).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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Nature (1)

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Nature (London) (1)

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, “Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles,” Nature (London) 423, 731-734 (2003).
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Opt. Express (1)

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S. Du, E. Oh, J.-M. Wen, and M. H. Rubin, “Four-wave mixing in three-level systems: interference and entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013803 (2007).
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J.-M. Wen and M. H. Rubin, “Theory of two-photon interference in an electromagnetically induced transparency system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 063806 (2004).
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S. Thanvanthri, J.-M. Wen, and M. H. Rubin, “Effects of mismatched transmissions on two-mode squeezing and EPR correlations with a slow light medium,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023822 (2005).
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J.-M. Wen, S. Du, M. H. Rubin, and E. Oh, “Two-photon beatings using biphotons generated from a two-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033801 (2008).

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P. Kolchin, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based paired photon generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033814 (2007).
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C. H. R. Ooi, Q. Sun, M. S. Zubairy, and M. O. Scully, “Correlation of photon pairs from the double Raman amplifier: generalized analytical quantum Langevin theory,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013820 (2007).
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J.-M. Wen and M. H. Rubin, “Transverse effects in paired-photon generation via an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. I. Perturbation theory,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 023808 (2006).
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J.-M. Wen and M. H. Rubin, “Transverse effects in paired-photon generation via an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. II. Beyond perturbation theory,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 023809 (2006).
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J.-M. Wen, S. Du, and M. H. Rubin, “Biphoton generation in a two-level atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033814 (2007).
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J.-M. Wen, S. Du, and M. H. Rubin, “Spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013825 (2007).
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J.-M. Wen, S. Du, Y. Zhang, M. Xiao, and M. H. Rubin, “Nonclassical light generation via a four-level inverted-Y system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033816 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183603 (2008).
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S. Du, J.-M. Wen, M. H. Rubin, and G. Y. Yin, “Four-wave mixing and biphoton generation in a two-level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053601 (2007).
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Phys. Today (1)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50, 36-40 (1997).

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Y.-H. Shih, “Entangled biphoton source--property and preparation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1009-1044 (2003).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (3)

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, “Quantum information with continuous variables,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 513-577 (2005).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
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M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Manarangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).
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C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196-200 (2003).
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J. K. Thompson, J. Simon, H. Loh, and V. Vuletic, “A high-brightness source of narrowband, identical-photon pairs,” Science 313, 74-77 (2006).
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Other (8)

J.-M. Wen, M. H. Rubin, and S. Du, “A new beating experiment using biphotons generated from a two-level system,” in Slow and Fast Light (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper STuD4.

R. M. Camacho, P. K. Vudyasetu, and J. H. Howell, “Storage and retrieval of optical pulses using a two-color optical memory,” Nature Phys. (to be published).

L. Brillouin, Wave Propagation and Group Velocity (Academic, 1960).

H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, Laser Cooling and Trapping (Springer Verlag, 2002).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

J. S. Bell, Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge University Press, 1987).

M. Neilson and I. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge U. Press, 2000).

D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1988).

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