Abstract

We show that the organic polyene crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile (OH1) is a new material with excellent nonlinear optical and electro-optical properties. The principal refractive indices and the absorption constants have been determined over a broad wavelength range from 0.6to2.2μm. OH1 shows a large birefringence of Δn>0.55 and a low absorption of α<1cm1 in a large wavelength range between 800 and 1400nm. Furthermore, the nonlinear optical tensor elements d333=120±10pmV, d223=13±2pmV, and d322=8.5±2pmV have been determined by the Maker-fringe technique at the fundamental wavelength of 1.9μm. The electro-optic coefficients r333, r223, and r113 have been measured at the wavelengths of 633, 785, 1064, and 1319nm, and it is shown that the dispersion can be described by a one-oscillator model. OH1 is a promising material for nonlinear optical and electro-optical applications due to the large nonlinear coefficient d333, the large electro-optic coefficient r333=109±4pmV at 632.8nm, the favorable crystal growth properties, as well as the orthorhombic crystal symmetry (point group mm2), which renders crystal preparation and orientation much simpler than in most organic nonlinear optical crystals.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

H. S. Nalwa, Organic Electronics and Photonics (American Scientific, 2008).

D. Rezzonico, M. Jazbinsek, A. Guarino, O. P. Kwon, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic charon polymeric microring modulators,” Opt. Express 16, 613-627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Gunter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single-crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 543-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Mutter, F. D. J. Brunner, Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal dstms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2556-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and thz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, A. Choubey, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “New organic nonlinear optical polyene crystals and their unusual phase transitions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1750-1756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, and M. Dobeli, “Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Koechlin, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Direct electron beam writing of channel waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16828-16838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gupta and J. Ballato, The Handbook of Photonics (CRC, 2007).

2006

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, “Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Günter, “Generation of terahertz pulses through optical rectification in organic dast crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822-1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. Glavcheva, H. Umezawa, Y. Mineno, T. Odani, S. Okada, S. Ikeda, T. Taniuchi, and H. Nakanishi, “Synthesis and properties of i-methyl-4-(2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl)pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate derivatives with isomorphous crystal structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 5231-5235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. Cai, T. Ushiwata, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “Fabrication of serially grafted 4-(4-dimethyl-aminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium tosylate crystal waveguide by photobleaching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, L390-L392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Femtosecond laser ablation of dast,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Lavéant, C. Medrano, B. Ruiz, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic dast crystals,” Chimia 57, 349-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, “Fabrication of dast channel optical waveguides,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments,” C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

P.Günter, ed., Nonlinear Optical Effects and Materials, Vol. 72 of Optical Science (Springer, 2000).

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Thakur, J. J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. G. Zhou, “Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995).

1970

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes--a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667-1681 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966

Adachi, H.

Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akelaitis, A. J. P.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aravazhi, S.

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and thz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asselberghs, I.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

M. C. Gupta and J. Ballato, The Handbook of Photonics (CRC, 2007).

Bartlome, R.

P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Femtosecond laser ablation of dast,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhowmik, A.

M. Thakur, J. J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. G. Zhou, “Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, M.

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, C.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments,” C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995).

Brahadeeswaran, S.

Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, F. D. J.

L. Mutter, F. D. J. Brunner, Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal dstms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2556-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published).

Brunschwig, B. S.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cai, B.

B. Cai, T. Ushiwata, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “Fabrication of serially grafted 4-(4-dimethyl-aminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium tosylate crystal waveguide by photobleaching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, L390-L392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, “Fabrication of dast channel optical waveguides,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, D. R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A. T.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choubey, A.

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, A. Choubey, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “New organic nonlinear optical polyene crystals and their unusual phase transitions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1750-1756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clays, K.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Figi, L. Mutter, C. Hunziker, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, and B. J. Coe, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of a stilbazolium salt dapsh crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Coles, S. J.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
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P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dittrich, P.

P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Femtosecond laser ablation of dast,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dobeli, M.

Dunayevskiy, I.

Ehrensperger, M.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments,” C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eichinger, B. E.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

Figi, H.

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Gunter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single-crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 543-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Figi, L. Mutter, C. Hunziker, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, and B. J. Coe, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of a stilbazolium salt dapsh crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Firestone, K. A.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flörsheimer, M.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995).

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geis, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gelbrich, T.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glavcheva, Z.

Z. Glavcheva, H. Umezawa, Y. Mineno, T. Odani, S. Okada, S. Ikeda, T. Taniuchi, and H. Nakanishi, “Synthesis and properties of i-methyl-4-(2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl)pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate derivatives with isomorphous crystal structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 5231-5235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gramlich, V.

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, A. Choubey, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “New organic nonlinear optical polyene crystals and their unusual phase transitions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1750-1756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and thz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

Gunter, P.

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Gunter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Günter, P.

D. Rezzonico, M. Jazbinsek, A. Guarino, O. P. Kwon, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic charon polymeric microring modulators,” Opt. Express 16, 613-627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single-crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 543-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, A. Choubey, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “New organic nonlinear optical polyene crystals and their unusual phase transitions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1750-1756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and thz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, F. D. J. Brunner, Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal dstms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2556-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, and M. Dobeli, “Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Koechlin, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Direct electron beam writing of channel waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16828-16838 (2007).
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A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Günter, “Generation of terahertz pulses through optical rectification in organic dast crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822-1835 (2006).
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O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Femtosecond laser ablation of dast,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Lavéant, C. Medrano, B. Ruiz, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic dast crystals,” Chimia 57, 349-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments,” C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
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F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995).

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published).

H. Figi, L. Mutter, C. Hunziker, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, and B. J. Coe, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of a stilbazolium salt dapsh crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

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M. C. Gupta and J. Ballato, The Handbook of Photonics (CRC, 2007).

Harris, J. A.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
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Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
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C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995).

Hunziker, C.

H. Figi, L. Mutter, C. Hunziker, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, and B. J. Coe, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of a stilbazolium salt dapsh crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published).

Hursthouse, M. B.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, S.

Z. Glavcheva, H. Umezawa, Y. Mineno, T. Odani, S. Okada, S. Ikeda, T. Taniuchi, and H. Nakanishi, “Synthesis and properties of i-methyl-4-(2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl)pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate derivatives with isomorphous crystal structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 5231-5235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinsek, M.

D. Rezzonico, M. Jazbinsek, A. Guarino, O. P. Kwon, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic charon polymeric microring modulators,” Opt. Express 16, 613-627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Gunter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single-crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 543-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, A. Choubey, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “New organic nonlinear optical polyene crystals and their unusual phase transitions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1750-1756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and thz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, F. D. J. Brunner, Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal dstms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2556-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, and M. Dobeli, “Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Koechlin, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Direct electron beam writing of channel waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16828-16838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published).

H. Figi, L. Mutter, C. Hunziker, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, and B. J. Coe, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of a stilbazolium salt dapsh crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Jen, A. K. Y.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
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Kaino, T.

B. Cai, T. Ushiwata, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “Fabrication of serially grafted 4-(4-dimethyl-aminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium tosylate crystal waveguide by photobleaching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, L390-L392 (2004).
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P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
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Khan, R. U. A.

Kim, T. D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knöpfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koechlin, M.

Komatsu, K.

B. Cai, T. Ushiwata, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “Fabrication of serially grafted 4-(4-dimethyl-aminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium tosylate crystal waveguide by photobleaching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, L390-L392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krohn, K. E.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. H.

Kurtz, S. K.

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes--a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667-1681 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O. P.

D. Rezzonico, M. Jazbinsek, A. Guarino, O. P. Kwon, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic charon polymeric microring modulators,” Opt. Express 16, 613-627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Gunter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, A. Choubey, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “New organic nonlinear optical polyene crystals and their unusual phase transitions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1750-1756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O.-P.

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single-crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 543-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published).

Kwon, S. J.

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single-crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 543-545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Gunter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, A. Choubey, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “New organic nonlinear optical polyene crystals and their unusual phase transitions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1750-1756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published).

Lavéant, P.

P. Lavéant, C. Medrano, B. Ruiz, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic dast crystals,” Chimia 57, 349-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-S.

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published).

Liao, Y.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Light, M. E.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, “Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manetta, S.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments,” C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marchant, M. F.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masuhara, H.

Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Medrano, C.

P. Lavéant, C. Medrano, B. Ruiz, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic dast crystals,” Chimia 57, 349-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mineno, Y.

Z. Glavcheva, H. Umezawa, Y. Mineno, T. Odani, S. Okada, S. Ikeda, T. Taniuchi, and H. Nakanishi, “Synthesis and properties of i-methyl-4-(2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl)pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate derivatives with isomorphous crystal structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 5231-5235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Femtosecond laser ablation of dast,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mowers, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mutter, L.

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, and M. Dobeli, “Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Koechlin, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Direct electron beam writing of channel waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16828-16838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, F. D. J. Brunner, Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal dstms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2556-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and thz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Figi, L. Mutter, C. Hunziker, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, and B. J. Coe, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of a stilbazolium salt dapsh crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Nakanishi, H.

Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Glavcheva, H. Umezawa, Y. Mineno, T. Odani, S. Okada, S. Ikeda, T. Taniuchi, and H. Nakanishi, “Synthesis and properties of i-methyl-4-(2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl)pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate derivatives with isomorphous crystal structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 5231-5235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakatani, K.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nalwa, H. S.

H. S. Nalwa, Organic Electronics and Photonics (American Scientific, 2008).

Neis, M.

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Odani, T.

Z. Glavcheva, H. Umezawa, Y. Mineno, T. Odani, S. Okada, S. Ikeda, T. Taniuchi, and H. Nakanishi, “Synthesis and properties of i-methyl-4-(2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl)pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate derivatives with isomorphous crystal structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 5231-5235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okada, S.

Z. Glavcheva, H. Umezawa, Y. Mineno, T. Odani, S. Okada, S. Ikeda, T. Taniuchi, and H. Nakanishi, “Synthesis and properties of i-methyl-4-(2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl)pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate derivatives with isomorphous crystal structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 5231-5235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olbricht, B. C.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onzuka, S.

Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prêtre, P.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995).

Reid, P. J.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rezzonico, D.

D. Rezzonico, M. Jazbinsek, A. Guarino, O. P. Kwon, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic charon polymeric microring modulators,” Opt. Express 16, 613-627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Gunter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, B. H.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rommel, H.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruiz, B.

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and thz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Günter, “Generation of terahertz pulses through optical rectification in organic dast crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822-1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lavéant, C. Medrano, B. Ruiz, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic dast crystals,” Chimia 57, 349-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, A.

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and thz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Günter, “Generation of terahertz pulses through optical rectification in organic dast crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822-1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published).

Seo, J.

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published).

Shi, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shumate, M. S.

Sinta, R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spreiter, R.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, “Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stillhart, M.

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and thz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Günter, “Generation of terahertz pulses through optical rectification in organic dast crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822-1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P. A.

P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutter, K.

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T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, “Fabrication of dast channel optical waveguides,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
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Z. Glavcheva, H. Umezawa, Y. Mineno, T. Odani, S. Okada, S. Ikeda, T. Taniuchi, and H. Nakanishi, “Synthesis and properties of i-methyl-4-(2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl)pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate derivatives with isomorphous crystal structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 5231-5235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Umezawa, H.

Z. Glavcheva, H. Umezawa, Y. Mineno, T. Odani, S. Okada, S. Ikeda, T. Taniuchi, and H. Nakanishi, “Synthesis and properties of i-methyl-4-(2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl)pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate derivatives with isomorphous crystal structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 5231-5235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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B. Cai, T. Ushiwata, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “Fabrication of serially grafted 4-(4-dimethyl-aminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium tosylate crystal waveguide by photobleaching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, L390-L392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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M. Thakur, J. J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. G. Zhou, “Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
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Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and thz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
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Yoshimura, M.

Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published).

Zgonik, M.

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, and M. Dobeli, “Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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M. Thakur, J. J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. G. Zhou, “Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
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Adv. Funct. Mater.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, “Quadratic optical nonlinearities of n-methyl and n-aryl pyridinium salts,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, “Fabrication of dast channel optical waveguides,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and thz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, A. Choubey, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “New organic nonlinear optical polyene crystals and their unusual phase transitions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1750-1756 (2007).
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Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.)

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single-crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 543-545 (2008).
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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

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F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
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W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
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Chem. Mater.

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics,” Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
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P. A. Sullivan, H. Rommel, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, K. A. Firestone, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, J. A. Davies, D. H. Choi, B. E. Eichinger, P. J. Reid, A. T. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided design and synthesis of multichromophore dendrimers: an analysis of the electro-optic effect,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7523-7530 (2007).
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U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
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L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,n-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Photochem. Photobiol., A

Y. Takahashi, H. Adachi, T. Taniuchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, S. Onzuka, S. Brahadeeswaran, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, H. Masuhara, T. Sasaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic nonlinear optical dast crystals for electro-optic measurement and terahertz wave generation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 183, 247-252 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1

Z. Glavcheva, H. Umezawa, Y. Mineno, T. Odani, S. Okada, S. Ikeda, T. Taniuchi, and H. Nakanishi, “Synthesis and properties of i-methyl-4-(2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl)pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate derivatives with isomorphous crystal structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 5231-5235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cai, T. Ushiwata, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “Fabrication of serially grafted 4-(4-dimethyl-aminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium tosylate crystal waveguide by photobleaching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, L390-L392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/solgel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Science

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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P.Günter, ed., Nonlinear Optical Effects and Materials, Vol. 72 of Optical Science (Springer, 2000).

M. C. Gupta and J. Ballato, The Handbook of Photonics (CRC, 2007).

H. S. Nalwa, Organic Electronics and Photonics (American Scientific, 2008).

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published).

H. Figi, L. Mutter, C. Hunziker, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, and B. J. Coe, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of a stilbazolium salt dapsh crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Chemical formula of the molecule OH1. (b) View of the unit cell of OH1 projected along the a axis. The charge transfer axes of the molecules form an angle θ a = ± 20.2 ° with the crystallographic c axis in this plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscope image of a typical OH1 single crystal with its crystallographic axes indicated. The material has a tendency to crystallize in plates with the largest surface perpendicular to the a axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Number of fringe maxima of the transmission spectrum of a thin film. The light was polarized along the dielectric x 2 and x 3 axis. The solid curve corresponds to the Sellmeier model in Eq. (1) with the parameters of Table 1. The inset shows the transmission spectrum based on which the fringe maxima were extracted for the x 3 polarization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dispersion of the refractive index for the three dielectric axes n 1 , n 2 , and n 3 . The solid curve represents a least square fit to the data from a normal incidence transmission spectrum. The discrete data points represent the resulting refractive indices based on an interferometric measurement method. n 1 is constant within experimental error in the measured wavelength range (represented by the dashed curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated orientation of the optical axes in OH1. The crystal becomes uniaxial at the wavelength λ * = 820 nm . For λ < λ * the optical axes lie in the x 1 x 3 plane at an angle ± θ 2 ( λ ) from the polar x 3 axis. For λ > λ * the optical axes lie in the x 2 x 3 plane at an angle ± θ 1 ( λ ) , as indicated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption coefficients α 2 (solid curve) and α 3 (dashed curve) of OH1 as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maker-fringe curve obtained by rotating an a-plate OH1 crystal around the dielectric x 3 axis. The impinged fundamental beam at 1.9 μ m as well as the generated second-harmonic light at 0.95 μ m were s polarized.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dispersion of the electro-optic coefficients r 113 , r 223 , and r 333 of OH1. The experimentally measured dispersion is modeled by the function in Eq. (6), based on the parameters in Table 1.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sellmeier Parameters for the Refractive Index Dispersion of Eq. (1) That Correspond Best to the Experimental Data Shown in Fig. 3

Tables Icon

Table 2 Nonlinear Optical Coefficients d i j k , Coherence Length l c i j k , and Miller-δ Coefficients δ i j k of OH1 at 1.9 μ m

Tables Icon

Table 3 Electro-Optic Coefficients of OH1 a

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 ( λ ) = n 0 2 + E d E 0 E 0 2 E 2 = n 0 2 + q λ 2 λ 2 λ 0 2 ,
P 1 2 ω = 2 ε 0 d 113 E 1 E 3 ,
P 2 2 ω = 2 ε 0 d 223 E 2 E 3 ,
P 3 2 ω = ε 0 ( d 311 E 1 2 + d 322 E 2 2 + d 333 E 3 2 ) ,
r = δ I M Δ I M 2 λ π l n 3 δ E ,
r i i k = B i i k ω 0 2 ( 3 ω 0 2 ω 2 ) ( ω 0 2 ω 2 ) 2 ( ( n i ω ) 2 + 2 3 ) 2 1 ( n i ω ) 4 ,

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