Abstract

We experimentally demonstrated a GaAs-based air-bridge-type photonic crystal ring resonator that has a triangular lattice pattern of air holes. The fabricated photonic crystal ring resonator is composed of bent waveguides and an asymmetric directional coupler that has three rows of air holes between neighboring line-defect waveguides. We successfully demonstrated ring resonant spectral response in the fabricated devices and experimentally made clear the dependence of the oscillation period on the optical path length of the ring resonator and the dependence of ring resonant spectral response on the coupling properties of the directional coupler. In addition, we theoretically and experimentally discuss the group-velocity dispersion in the photonic crystal slab waveguide.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

Y. M. Landobassa and M. K. Chin, "Defect modes in microring resonator array," Opt. Express 13, 7800-7815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Waks and J. Vuvkovic, "Coupled mode theory for photonic crystal cavity waveguide interaction," Opt. Express 13, 5064-5073 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Altug and J. Vuvkovic, "Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60-deg waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanaka, H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, "Coupling properties in a 2-D photonic crystal slab directional coupler with a triangular lattice of air holes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 76-84 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, H. Nakamura, K. Kanamoto, and K. Asakawa, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of a two-dimensional photonic-crystal symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer for optical integrated circuit," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, "Low propagation losses in single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguides on GaAs membrane," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1315-1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, "Designing coupled-resonator optical waveguide delay lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1665-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, N. Yamamoto, Y. Watanabe, and K. Komori, "Novel ring waveguide device in a 2D photonic crystal slab--transmittance simulated by finite difference time domain analysis," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 1995-2001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Borel, A. Harpoth, L. H. Frandsen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, and O. Sigmund, "Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures," Opt. Express 12, 1996-2001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736-742 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, "Light propagation characteristics of straight single-line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs fabricated into a silicon-on-insulator substrate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743-752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, K. Asakawa, N. Kawai, and K. Inoue, "AlGaAs-based two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with defect waveguides for planar lightwave circuit applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 760-769 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, K. Asakawa, N. Kawai, and K. Inoue, "Light propagation characteristics of Y-branch defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge type two dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Lett. 27, 388-390 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Y. H. Lee, and J. S. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal hexagonal waveguide ring laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499-2501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tokushima and H. Yamada, "Photonic crystal line defect waveguide directional coupler," Electron. Lett. 37, 1454-1455 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

B. E. Little, J. S. Forsei, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. C. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alija, A. R.

A. R. Alija, L. J. Martinez, P. A. Postigo, C. Seassal, and P. Viktorovitch, "Coupled cavity two dimensional photonic crystal waveguide ring laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

H. Altug and J. Vuvkovic, "Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asakawa, K.

Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, H. Nakamura, K. Kanamoto, and K. Asakawa, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of a two-dimensional photonic-crystal symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer for optical integrated circuit," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, "Low propagation losses in single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguides on GaAs membrane," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1315-1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanaka, H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, "Coupling properties in a 2-D photonic crystal slab directional coupler with a triangular lattice of air holes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 76-84 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, "Low propagation loss of 0.76dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1cm in length," Opt. Express 12, 1090-1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, K. Asakawa, N. Kawai, and K. Inoue, "Light propagation characteristics of Y-branch defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge type two dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Lett. 27, 388-390 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, K. Asakawa, N. Kawai, and K. Inoue, "AlGaAs-based two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with defect waveguides for planar lightwave circuit applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 760-769 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, "Light propagation characteristics of straight single-line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs fabricated into a silicon-on-insulator substrate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743-752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bansropun, S.

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

Campenhout, J. V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J. R.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60-deg waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, N.

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, K. Asakawa, N. Kawai, and K. Inoue, "AlGaAs-based two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with defect waveguides for planar lightwave circuit applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 760-769 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, K. Asakawa, N. Kawai, and K. Inoue, "Light propagation characteristics of Y-branch defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge type two dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Lett. 27, 388-390 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cassette, S.

Chin, M. K.

Choi, S. J.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60-deg waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. S.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Y. H. Lee, and J. S. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal hexagonal waveguide ring laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499-2501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Forsei, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. C. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Combrie, S.

Cuesta, F.

A. Martinez, F. Cuesta, and J. Marti, "Ultrashort 2-D photonic crystal directional couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 694-696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60-deg waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DeRossi, A.

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Engelen, R. J. P.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Forsei, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Forsei, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. C. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

Fukaya, N.

T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, "Light propagation characteristics of straight single-line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs fabricated into a silicon-on-insulator substrate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743-752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Furuya, K.

K. Furuya, N. Yamamoto, Y. Watanabe, and K. Komori, "Novel ring waveguide device in a 2D photonic crystal slab--transmittance simulated by finite difference time domain analysis," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 1995-2001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gersen, H.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, W.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement setup for the transmission spectra of (a) PhC straight/bent waveguides and directional couplers, and (b) PhC ring resonators. DUT is the abbreviation for a device under test.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculation model (PhC line-defect waveguide) and calculated photonic band structure of the PhC line-defect waveguide. Band diagram was calculated by the 2D PWE method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM pictures of the fabricated PhC line-defect waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured transmission spectra for (a) a PhC line-defect straight waveguide, (b) a bent waveguide with L s = 100 a , and (c) a bent waveguide with L s = 200 a .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematics of a PhC straight, 2-bend, 4-bend, 6-bend, and 8-bend waveguides, and (b) superimposed transmission spectra for the straight and multiply bent waveguides.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured 3 and 10 dB bandwidths as functions of the number of bending times in the PhC waveguides.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculation model (PhC directional coupler) and calculated photonic band structure of the PhC directional coupler. Band diagram was calculated by the 2D PWE method.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated intensity distributions of the bar and cross ports in the directional coupler.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SEM pictures of an asymmetric PhC directional coupler. L c and L s were 80 a and 200 a , respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured transmission spectra for the asymmetric PhC directional coupler when the input light was incident on (a) upper input port or (b) lower input port.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Transmission spectra of the ring resonator calculated by TMM.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Calculated transmission spectra of the ring resonator when κ DC ( λ ) was considered at (a) λ = 1320 1330 nm and (b) λ = 1350 1360 nm .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

SEM pictures of the fabricated PhC ring resonators with (a) L r = 280 a , (b) L r = 480 a , and (c) L r = 680 a .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Measured transmission spectra of the fabricated PhC ring resonators with (a) L r = 280 a , (b) L r = 480 a , and (c) L r = 680 a .

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Estimated group index and group velocity in the PhC waveguide as functions of the optical wavelength.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Comparison of dispersion curves between the calculated and measured results. Solid curves are the calculated result based on 2D PWE method. Triangular dots are the experimentally determined dispersion from the results in Fig. 14a.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P bar = [ 1 + cos ( 2 π k e k o L c ) ] 2 ,
P cross = [ 1 cos ( 2 π k e k o L c ) ] 2 .
FSR = c ( N gr L r ) = V g L r ,

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