Abstract

Based on the coupled-wave theory, we model the periodic structure and analyze the influence on composite surface-emitting organic distributed feedback (DFB) lasers. Second-order DFB gratings with duty cycles of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 patterned by electron-beam lithography were fabricated. The composite active layer consisted of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) spin-cast on a textured surface. Excited with 532nm laser pulses, different lasing characteristics and threshold pumping fluences are exhibited. These are explained by the discrepancy in the coupling coefficients and the threshold gains calculated from the proposed model.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature (London) 382, 695-697 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. G. Kozolov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature (London) 389, 362-364 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313-315 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. A. Turnbull, A. Carleton, G. F. Barlow, A. Tahraouhi, T. F. Krauss, K. A. Shore, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Influence of grating characteristics on the operation of circlar-grating distributed-feedback polymer lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0231051-7 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," J. Appl. Phys. 18, 152-154 (1971).
  10. S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. B B 71, 897-900 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupling coefficients for distributed feedback single- and double-hetrostructure diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867-873 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, and W. Streifer, "Single-heterostrucutre distributed-feedback GaAs-diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 439-449 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. H. Chen, J. Shi, and K. P. Klubek, "Red organic electroluminescent materials," US patent 5908521 (1999).
  14. W. Lu, B. Zhong, and D. Ma, "Amplified spontaneous emission and gain from optically pumped films of dye-doped polymers," Opt. Lett. 26, 5074-5078 (2004).
  15. K. L. Shaklee and R. F. Leheny, "Direct determination of optical gain in semiconductor crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475-477 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. A. Turnbull, A. Carleton, G. F. Barlow, A. Tahraouhi, T. F. Krauss, K. A. Shore, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Influence of grating characteristics on the operation of circlar-grating distributed-feedback polymer lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0231051-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

W. Lu, B. Zhong, and D. Ma, "Amplified spontaneous emission and gain from optically pumped films of dye-doped polymers," Opt. Lett. 26, 5074-5078 (2004).

2003 (1)

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313-315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. B B 71, 897-900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. G. Kozolov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature (London) 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature (London) 382, 695-697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupling coefficients for distributed feedback single- and double-hetrostructure diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867-873 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, and W. Streifer, "Single-heterostrucutre distributed-feedback GaAs-diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 439-449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," J. Appl. Phys. 18, 152-154 (1971).

K. L. Shaklee and R. F. Leheny, "Direct determination of optical gain in semiconductor crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475-477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313-315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, G. F.

G. A. Turnbull, A. Carleton, G. F. Barlow, A. Tahraouhi, T. F. Krauss, K. A. Shore, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Influence of grating characteristics on the operation of circlar-grating distributed-feedback polymer lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0231051-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313-315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benstem, T.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. B B 71, 897-900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozolov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature (London) 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. D.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupling coefficients for distributed feedback single- and double-hetrostructure diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867-873 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, and W. Streifer, "Single-heterostrucutre distributed-feedback GaAs-diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 439-449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozolov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature (London) 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carleton, A.

G. A. Turnbull, A. Carleton, G. F. Barlow, A. Tahraouhi, T. F. Krauss, K. A. Shore, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Influence of grating characteristics on the operation of circlar-grating distributed-feedback polymer lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0231051-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, J. Shi, and K. P. Klubek, "Red organic electroluminescent materials," US patent 5908521 (1999).

Denton, G. J.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature (London) 382, 695-697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Díaz-García, M. A.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. B B 71, 897-900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

V. G. Kozolov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature (London) 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature (London) 382, 695-697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. B B 71, 897-900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haugeneder, A.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hilmer, M.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hinze, P.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, H.-H.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kallinger, C.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klubek, K. P.

C. H. Chen, J. Shi, and K. P. Klubek, "Red organic electroluminescent materials," US patent 5908521 (1999).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," J. Appl. Phys. 18, 152-154 (1971).

Kowalsky, W.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. B B 71, 897-900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kozolov, V. G.

V. G. Kozolov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature (London) 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

G. A. Turnbull, A. Carleton, G. F. Barlow, A. Tahraouhi, T. F. Krauss, K. A. Shore, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Influence of grating characteristics on the operation of circlar-grating distributed-feedback polymer lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0231051-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leheny, R. F.

K. L. Shaklee and R. F. Leheny, "Direct determination of optical gain in semiconductor crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475-477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. B B 71, 897-900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

W. Lu, B. Zhong, and D. Ma, "Amplified spontaneous emission and gain from optically pumped films of dye-doped polymers," Opt. Lett. 26, 5074-5078 (2004).

Ma, D.

W. Lu, B. Zhong, and D. Ma, "Amplified spontaneous emission and gain from optically pumped films of dye-doped polymers," Opt. Lett. 26, 5074-5078 (2004).

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E. K.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nalamasu, O.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nehls, B.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perner, M.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riechel, S.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. B B 71, 897-900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riedl, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

G. A. Turnbull, A. Carleton, G. F. Barlow, A. Tahraouhi, T. F. Krauss, K. A. Shore, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Influence of grating characteristics on the operation of circlar-grating distributed-feedback polymer lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0231051-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313-315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. B B 71, 897-900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schiortino, P.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupling coefficients for distributed feedback single- and double-hetrostructure diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867-873 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, and W. Streifer, "Single-heterostrucutre distributed-feedback GaAs-diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 439-449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shaklee, K. L.

K. L. Shaklee and R. F. Leheny, "Direct determination of optical gain in semiconductor crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475-477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," J. Appl. Phys. 18, 152-154 (1971).

Shi, J.

C. H. Chen, J. Shi, and K. P. Klubek, "Red organic electroluminescent materials," US patent 5908521 (1999).

Shore, K. A.

G. A. Turnbull, A. Carleton, G. F. Barlow, A. Tahraouhi, T. F. Krauss, K. A. Shore, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Influence of grating characteristics on the operation of circlar-grating distributed-feedback polymer lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0231051-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spirkl, W.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupling coefficients for distributed feedback single- and double-hetrostructure diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867-873 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, and W. Streifer, "Single-heterostrucutre distributed-feedback GaAs-diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 439-449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tahraouhi, A.

G. A. Turnbull, A. Carleton, G. F. Barlow, A. Tahraouhi, T. F. Krauss, K. A. Shore, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Influence of grating characteristics on the operation of circlar-grating distributed-feedback polymer lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0231051-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature (London) 382, 695-697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Timko, A.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

G. A. Turnbull, A. Carleton, G. F. Barlow, A. Tahraouhi, T. F. Krauss, K. A. Shore, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Influence of grating characteristics on the operation of circlar-grating distributed-feedback polymer lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0231051-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313-315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veenstra, S.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. B B 71, 897-900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, B.

W. Lu, B. Zhong, and D. Ma, "Amplified spontaneous emission and gain from optically pumped films of dye-doped polymers," Opt. Lett. 26, 5074-5078 (2004).

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "Laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. B B 71, 897-900 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. L. Shaklee and R. F. Leheny, "Direct determination of optical gain in semiconductor crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475-477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241161-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 313-315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, "Coupling coefficients for distributed feedback single- and double-hetrostructure diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867-873 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Burnham, D. R. Scifres, and W. Streifer, "Single-heterostrucutre distributed-feedback GaAs-diode lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 439-449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, "Resonators and materialsfor organic lasers based on energy transfer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," J. Appl. Phys. 18, 152-154 (1971).

G. A. Turnbull, A. Carleton, G. F. Barlow, A. Tahraouhi, T. F. Krauss, K. A. Shore, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Influence of grating characteristics on the operation of circlar-grating distributed-feedback polymer lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0231051-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature (London) 382, 695-697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozolov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature (London) 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

W. Lu, B. Zhong, and D. Ma, "Amplified spontaneous emission and gain from optically pumped films of dye-doped polymers," Opt. Lett. 26, 5074-5078 (2004).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. H. Chen, J. Shi, and K. P. Klubek, "Red organic electroluminescent materials," US patent 5908521 (1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of 1-D organic DFB laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Periodic corrugation measured by atomic force microscopy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption (dashed curve) and emission spectra (solid curve) of DCJTB and molecular structures of DCJTB and PVK.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Simulation result of coupling coefficient κ versus duty cycle D with different etched depth d: d = 50 nm (solid curve), d = 100 nm (dashed curve), d = 150 nm (dotted curve), d = 200 nm (dotted-dashed curve). (b) Simulation result of threshold gain g t h versus detuning factor δ with different coupling coefficient κ: κ = 200 cm 1 (filled squares), κ = 400 cm 1 (filled diamonds), κ = 600 cm 1 (filled upright triangles), and κ = 800 cm 1 (filled inverted triangles) (here m = 2 , n SiO 2 = 1.457 , n D C J T B : P V K = 1.637 , Λ = 400 nm , and t = 250 nm ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectra of devices with different duty cycles ( D ) under various pumping fluences ϵ [ = 143 μ J cm 2 (solid curves), 203 μ J cm 2 (dashed curves), 264 μ J cm 2 (dotted curves), 324 μ J cm 2 (dashed–dotted curves), and 391 μ J cm 2 (dashed–double dotted curves)]: (a) D = 0.3 , (b) D = 0.5 , and (c) D = 0.7 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission characteristics and fitted lines with different duty cycles: D = 0.3 (filled triangles), D = 0.5 (filled diamonds), and D = 0.7 (filled squares).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic drawing of the device setup and image of output beam shape.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d E R d z + ( g j δ ) E R = j κ E L ,
d E L d z + ( g j δ ) E L = j κ E R ,
κ = k 0 2 ( n 1 2 n 2 2 ) 4 π β m N 2 sin ( m π D ) { g 2 + sin ( 2 g 2 h ) 2 h [ 1 cos ( 2 g 2 h ) ] + q 2 h 2 [ g 2 sin ( 2 g 2 h ) 2 h ] + 1 q [ 1 exp ( 2 g 1 q ) ] } ,
κ sinh ( γ L ) = ± j γ ,

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