Abstract

We present an accurate and quantitative design scheme for erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain control systems. The proposed design scheme is demonstrated through the design of an eight-channel EDFA gain-clamping system with an all-optical self-tuning feedback loop. The effect of the time delay in the feedback loop and the selection of feedback wavelength are theoretically analyzed. Compared with existing electrical–optical EDFA gain schemes, the proposed design scheme is free from the feedback loop response speed limitation and does not need any predetermined information of the network traffic variation or operation point estimation. It can efficiently enhance the static and dynamic performance of the whole system. Furthermore, since the design can efficiently suppress the relaxation oscillation transient, it provides a cost-effective solution for the gain-clamping problem of a long EDFA chain by combining it with a fast-link control method.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Giles and T. Li, "Optical amplifiers transform long-distance lightwave telecommunications," Proc. IEEE 84, 870-883 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. M. Delavaux, R. M. Derosier, G. A. F. D. A. Fishman, C. R. Giles, J. A. Nagel, and B. M. Nyman, "1420-km transmission of sixteen 2.5-Gb/s channels using silica-fiber-based EDFA repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1371-1373 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Man and J. Conradi, "Gain modulation response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 224-226 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Karasek, M. Menif, and L. A. Rusch, "Output power excursions in a cascade of EDFAs fed by multichannel burst-mode packet traffic: experimentation and modeling," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 933-940 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 386-388 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Jiang, X. Liu, Q. Wang, and X. Feng, "Dynamical gain control in the serial structure C+L wide-band EDFA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 87-89 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. T. Cevski, L. A. Rusch, and A. Bononi, "Gain control in EDFAs by pump compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1313-1315 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. H. Yeh, C. C. Lee, C. Y. Chen, and S. Chi, "S band gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier by using optical feedback method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 90-92 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, "A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFAs and EDFA cascades," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027-1036 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Okamura, "Automatic optical loss compensation with erbium-doped fiber amplifier," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1110-1116 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and A. K. Srivastava, "Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Karasek and J. C. van der Plaats, "Analysis of dynamic pump-loss controlled gain-locking system for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1171-1173 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Males and A. Cantoni, "Experimental comparison of two pump control schemes for supressing transient gain excursions in EDFAs," Proc. SPIE 6021, 60211D (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Feng, T. Jin, Y. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Peng, "A simple control algorithm for wide-band channel-power clamped EDFA," Opt. Commun. 213, 285-292 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Tian and S. Kinoshita, "Analysis and control of transient dynamics of EDFA pumped by 1480- and 980-nm lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1728-1734 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. H. Thomas and J. P. von der Weid, "Dynamic gain fluctuations in all-optic ring-laser gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 44, 77-80 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. T. Ahn and K. H. Kim, "All-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier with improved noise figure and freedom from relaxation oscillation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 84-86 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Model for gain dynamics in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 32, 1490-1491 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Q. Yu and C. Fan, "Simple dynamic model of all-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1166-1171 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. S. Park, K. Y. Song, S. H. Yun, and B. Y. Kim, "All-fiber wavelength-tunable acoustooptic switches based on intermodal coupling in fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1864-1868 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Liu, "Optical gain control of EDFA using time-dependent feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 35, 1371-1372 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2005

M. Males and A. Cantoni, "Experimental comparison of two pump control schemes for supressing transient gain excursions in EDFAs," Proc. SPIE 6021, 60211D (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Thomas and J. P. von der Weid, "Dynamic gain fluctuations in all-optic ring-laser gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 44, 77-80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. T. Ahn and K. H. Kim, "All-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier with improved noise figure and freedom from relaxation oscillation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 84-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Jiang, X. Liu, Q. Wang, and X. Feng, "Dynamical gain control in the serial structure C+L wide-band EDFA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 87-89 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yeh, C. C. Lee, C. Y. Chen, and S. Chi, "S band gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier by using optical feedback method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 90-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

H. S. Park, K. Y. Song, S. H. Yun, and B. Y. Kim, "All-fiber wavelength-tunable acoustooptic switches based on intermodal coupling in fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1864-1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, T. Jin, Y. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Peng, "A simple control algorithm for wide-band channel-power clamped EDFA," Opt. Commun. 213, 285-292 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1999

Q. Yu and C. Fan, "Simple dynamic model of all-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1166-1171 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, "Optical gain control of EDFA using time-dependent feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 35, 1371-1372 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Karasek and J. C. van der Plaats, "Analysis of dynamic pump-loss controlled gain-locking system for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1171-1173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Cevski, L. A. Rusch, and A. Bononi, "Gain control in EDFAs by pump compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1313-1315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, "A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFAs and EDFA cascades," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 386-388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and A. K. Srivastava, "Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Model for gain dynamics in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 32, 1490-1491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Giles and T. Li, "Optical amplifiers transform long-distance lightwave telecommunications," Proc. IEEE 84, 870-883 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. R. Chraplyvy, J. M. Delavaux, R. M. Derosier, G. A. F. D. A. Fishman, C. R. Giles, J. A. Nagel, and B. M. Nyman, "1420-km transmission of sixteen 2.5-Gb/s channels using silica-fiber-based EDFA repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1371-1373 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. F. Man and J. Conradi, "Gain modulation response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 224-226 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. Okamura, "Automatic optical loss compensation with erbium-doped fiber amplifier," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1110-1116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J. T.

J. T. Ahn and K. H. Kim, "All-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier with improved noise figure and freedom from relaxation oscillation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 84-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ali, M. A.

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, "A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFAs and EDFA cascades," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bononi, A.

L. T. Cevski, L. A. Rusch, and A. Bononi, "Gain control in EDFAs by pump compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1313-1315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cantoni, A.

M. Males and A. Cantoni, "Experimental comparison of two pump control schemes for supressing transient gain excursions in EDFAs," Proc. SPIE 6021, 60211D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cevski, L. T.

L. T. Cevski, L. A. Rusch, and A. Bononi, "Gain control in EDFAs by pump compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1313-1315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

C. H. Yeh, C. C. Lee, C. Y. Chen, and S. Chi, "S band gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier by using optical feedback method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 90-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chi, S.

C. H. Yeh, C. C. Lee, C. Y. Chen, and S. Chi, "S band gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier by using optical feedback method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 90-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

A. R. Chraplyvy, J. M. Delavaux, R. M. Derosier, G. A. F. D. A. Fishman, C. R. Giles, J. A. Nagel, and B. M. Nyman, "1420-km transmission of sixteen 2.5-Gb/s channels using silica-fiber-based EDFA repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1371-1373 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, R. W. T. A. R.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Conradi, J.

J. F. Man and J. Conradi, "Gain modulation response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 224-226 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Delavaux, J. M.

A. R. Chraplyvy, J. M. Delavaux, R. M. Derosier, G. A. F. D. A. Fishman, C. R. Giles, J. A. Nagel, and B. M. Nyman, "1420-km transmission of sixteen 2.5-Gb/s channels using silica-fiber-based EDFA repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1371-1373 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Derosier, R. M.

A. R. Chraplyvy, J. M. Delavaux, R. M. Derosier, G. A. F. D. A. Fishman, C. R. Giles, J. A. Nagel, and B. M. Nyman, "1420-km transmission of sixteen 2.5-Gb/s channels using silica-fiber-based EDFA repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1371-1373 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ellson, J.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, C.

Feng, X.

Q. Jiang, X. Liu, Q. Wang, and X. Feng, "Dynamical gain control in the serial structure C+L wide-band EDFA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 87-89 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, T. Jin, Y. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Peng, "A simple control algorithm for wide-band channel-power clamped EDFA," Opt. Commun. 213, 285-292 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, G. A. F. D. A.

A. R. Chraplyvy, J. M. Delavaux, R. M. Derosier, G. A. F. D. A. Fishman, C. R. Giles, J. A. Nagel, and B. M. Nyman, "1420-km transmission of sixteen 2.5-Gb/s channels using silica-fiber-based EDFA repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1371-1373 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. R.

A. R. Chraplyvy, J. M. Delavaux, R. M. Derosier, G. A. F. D. A. Fishman, C. R. Giles, J. A. Nagel, and B. M. Nyman, "1420-km transmission of sixteen 2.5-Gb/s channels using silica-fiber-based EDFA repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1371-1373 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Giles, R.

R. Giles and T. Li, "Optical amplifiers transform long-distance lightwave telecommunications," Proc. IEEE 84, 870-883 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, "A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFAs and EDFA cascades," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Q.

Q. Jiang, X. Liu, Q. Wang, and X. Feng, "Dynamical gain control in the serial structure C+L wide-band EDFA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 87-89 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, T.

X. Feng, T. Jin, Y. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Peng, "A simple control algorithm for wide-band channel-power clamped EDFA," Opt. Commun. 213, 285-292 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karasek, M.

M. Karasek, M. Menif, and L. A. Rusch, "Output power excursions in a cascade of EDFAs fed by multichannel burst-mode packet traffic: experimentation and modeling," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 933-940 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Karasek and J. C. van der Plaats, "Analysis of dynamic pump-loss controlled gain-locking system for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1171-1173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, K. H.

J. T. Ahn and K. H. Kim, "All-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier with improved noise figure and freedom from relaxation oscillation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 84-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, S.

Lee, C. C.

C. H. Yeh, C. C. Lee, C. Y. Chen, and S. Chi, "S band gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier by using optical feedback method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 90-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

R. Giles and T. Li, "Optical amplifiers transform long-distance lightwave telecommunications," Proc. IEEE 84, 870-883 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Q. Jiang, X. Liu, Q. Wang, and X. Feng, "Dynamical gain control in the serial structure C+L wide-band EDFA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 87-89 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, T. Jin, Y. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Peng, "A simple control algorithm for wide-band channel-power clamped EDFA," Opt. Commun. 213, 285-292 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, "Optical gain control of EDFA using time-dependent feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 35, 1371-1372 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, G.

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Model for gain dynamics in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 32, 1490-1491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Males, M.

M. Males and A. Cantoni, "Experimental comparison of two pump control schemes for supressing transient gain excursions in EDFAs," Proc. SPIE 6021, 60211D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Man, J. F.

J. F. Man and J. Conradi, "Gain modulation response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 224-226 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Menif, M.

Nagel, J. A.

A. R. Chraplyvy, J. M. Delavaux, R. M. Derosier, G. A. F. D. A. Fishman, C. R. Giles, J. A. Nagel, and B. M. Nyman, "1420-km transmission of sixteen 2.5-Gb/s channels using silica-fiber-based EDFA repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1371-1373 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Newsome, G.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nyman, B. M.

A. R. Chraplyvy, J. M. Delavaux, R. M. Derosier, G. A. F. D. A. Fishman, C. R. Giles, J. A. Nagel, and B. M. Nyman, "1420-km transmission of sixteen 2.5-Gb/s channels using silica-fiber-based EDFA repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1371-1373 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Okamura, H.

H. Okamura, "Automatic optical loss compensation with erbium-doped fiber amplifier," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1110-1116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. S.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.

X. Feng, T. Jin, Y. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Peng, "A simple control algorithm for wide-band channel-power clamped EDFA," Opt. Commun. 213, 285-292 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richards, D. H.

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, "A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFAs and EDFA cascades," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, L. A.

Saleh, M. A. A. M.

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Model for gain dynamics in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 32, 1490-1491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Song, K. Y.

Srivastava, A. K.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and A. K. Srivastava, "Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 386-388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Model for gain dynamics in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 32, 1490-1491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 386-388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Model for gain dynamics in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 32, 1490-1491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and A. K. Srivastava, "Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 386-388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Model for gain dynamics in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 32, 1490-1491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, D. H.

D. H. Thomas and J. P. von der Weid, "Dynamic gain fluctuations in all-optic ring-laser gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 44, 77-80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, C.

Tkach, R. W.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van der Plaats, J. C.

M. Karasek and J. C. van der Plaats, "Analysis of dynamic pump-loss controlled gain-locking system for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1171-1173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

von der Weid, J. P.

D. H. Thomas and J. P. von der Weid, "Dynamic gain fluctuations in all-optic ring-laser gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 44, 77-80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Jiang, X. Liu, Q. Wang, and X. Feng, "Dynamical gain control in the serial structure C+L wide-band EDFA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 87-89 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, T. Jin, Y. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Peng, "A simple control algorithm for wide-band channel-power clamped EDFA," Opt. Commun. 213, 285-292 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

X. Feng, T. Jin, Y. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Peng, "A simple control algorithm for wide-band channel-power clamped EDFA," Opt. Commun. 213, 285-292 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, C.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. H.

C. H. Yeh, C. C. Lee, C. Y. Chen, and S. Chi, "S band gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier by using optical feedback method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 90-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Yun, S. H.

Zyskind, J. L.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 386-388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and A. K. Srivastava, "Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Model for gain dynamics in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 32, 1490-1491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Model for gain dynamics in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 32, 1490-1491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, M. A. A. M. Saleh, A. K. Srivastava, and J. W. Sulhoff, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, "Optical gain control of EDFA using time-dependent feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 35, 1371-1372 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, "A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFAs and EDFA cascades," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1027-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and A. K. Srivastava, "Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Karasek and J. C. van der Plaats, "Analysis of dynamic pump-loss controlled gain-locking system for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1171-1173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 386-388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Jiang, X. Liu, Q. Wang, and X. Feng, "Dynamical gain control in the serial structure C+L wide-band EDFA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 87-89 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Cevski, L. A. Rusch, and A. Bononi, "Gain control in EDFAs by pump compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1313-1315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. T. A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf, and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1667-1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yeh, C. C. Lee, C. Y. Chen, and S. Chi, "S band gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier by using optical feedback method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 90-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Chraplyvy, J. M. Delavaux, R. M. Derosier, G. A. F. D. A. Fishman, C. R. Giles, J. A. Nagel, and B. M. Nyman, "1420-km transmission of sixteen 2.5-Gb/s channels using silica-fiber-based EDFA repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1371-1373 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Man and J. Conradi, "Gain modulation response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 224-226 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Ahn and K. H. Kim, "All-optical gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier with improved noise figure and freedom from relaxation oscillation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 84-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.

D. H. Thomas and J. P. von der Weid, "Dynamic gain fluctuations in all-optic ring-laser gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 44, 77-80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

X. Feng, T. Jin, Y. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Peng, "A simple control algorithm for wide-band channel-power clamped EDFA," Opt. Commun. 213, 285-292 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

R. Giles and T. Li, "Optical amplifiers transform long-distance lightwave telecommunications," Proc. IEEE 84, 870-883 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Males and A. Cantoni, "Experimental comparison of two pump control schemes for supressing transient gain excursions in EDFAs," Proc. SPIE 6021, 60211D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of static all-optical EDFA gain control.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EDFA gain control with feedback loop. (a) Electrical feedback; (b) all-optical feedback.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gain variation of the survival channel when seven out of eight signal channels are added and dropped.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output power transient of the feedback laser channel when seven out of eight signal channels are added and dropped.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of EDFA chain gain control with dynamic feedback level control. LD, laser diode; SMF, single-mode fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Accumulation of the relaxation oscillation transient along the EDFA chain.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Recovery time via EDFA number in a chain. 1, 2—fixed feedback level; 3, 4— r = 0.2 , s = 0 ; 5, 6— r = 0.2 , s = 0.4 ; 7, 8—with dynamic speed feedback.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Power excursion of the survival channel along the EDFA chain when seven out of eight channels are added and dropped.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Power excursion of the feedback laser channel along the EDFA chain when seven out of eight channels are added and dropped.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Gain variation of the survival channel along the EDFA chain when seven out of eight channels are added and dropped.

Equations (28)

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P i I S [ τ d G i ( t ) d t + G i ( t ) + A i ] = j = 1 N P j i n ( t ) [ e G j ( t ) 1 ] P L i n ( t ) [ e G L ( t ) 1 ] ,
A i = α i L E , i = 1 N ,
P i I S [ τ d G i ( t ) d t + G i ( t ) + A i ] = P L I S [ τ d G L ( t ) d t + G L ( t ) + A L ] .
G i ( t ) = P L I S P i I S ( G L ( t ) + A L ) A i + ( P L I S P i I S ( G L ( 0 ) + A L ) G i ( 0 ) A i ) exp ( t τ ) .
G i ( t ) = P L I S P i I S ( G L ( t ) + A L ) A i ; i = 1 N .
d G L ( t ) d t + G L ( t ) τ + A L τ = i = 1 N P i i n ( t ) ( e ( P L I S P i I S ) ( G L ( t ) + A L ) A i 1 ) P L I S τ P L i n ( t ) ( e G L ( t ) 1 ) P L I S τ .
P L i n ( t ) = K f f P a l l i n ( t ) + O f f ,
K f f = j = 1 N P j i n ( t ) ( e G j ( t ) 1 ) j = 1 N P j i n ( e G L ( t ) 1 ) average ( e G j ( t ) 1 e G L ( t ) 1 ) ,
O f f = P L I S ( G L ( t ) + A L ) e G L ( t ) 1 .
τ r t d P L i n ( t ) d t = ln [ e G L ( t ) β ( t ) k 1 k 2 ] [ P L i n ( t ) P e x ( t ) 1 e G L ( t ) β ( t ) k 1 k 2 ] ,
τ r t d ln P L i n ( t ) d t = ln [ e G L ( t ) β ( t ) k 1 k 2 ] .
d β ( t ) d t = β ( t ) T + K p u ( t ) ,
d x 1 d t = ( 1 τ + i = 1 N , L [ P i i n ( ) e G i ( ) P i I S ] τ ) x 1 P L i n ( ) ( e G L ( ) 1 ) P L I S τ x 2 ,
d x 2 d t = x 1 τ r t + e G L ( ) k 1 k 2 x 3 τ r t ,
d x 3 d t = x 3 T + K p Δ u ,
G L ( ) = P s I S P L I S ( G s d + A s ) A L ,
β ( ) = 1 e G L ( ) k 1 k 2 ,
P L i n ( ) = i = 1 N [ P i i n ( ) ( e G i ( ) 1 ) ] + P L I S ( G L ( ) + A L ) ( e G L ( ) 1 ) ,
x ̇ = ( A + B H ) x = A ̃ x ,
A ̃ = [ 1 τ i = 1 N , L [ P i i n ( ) e G i ( ) P i I S ] τ P L ( ) ( e G L ( ) 1 ) P L I S τ 0 1 τ r t 0 e G L ( ) k 1 k 2 τ r t K p h 1 0 1 T + K p h 3 ] .
q + 2 r = a 11 + a 33 ,
r 2 + s 2 + 2 q r = a 11 a 33 a 12 a 21 ,
q ( r 2 + s 2 ) = ( a 31 a 23 a 21 a 33 ) a 12 ,
q = ( a 11 r ) 2 + s 2 + a 12 a 21 a 11 2 r .
h 1 = ( r 2 + s 2 a 11 r a 12 a 21 ) 2 + ( 4 a 12 a 21 + a 11 2 ) s 2 K p a 12 a 23 ( a 11 2 r ) ,
h 3 = 1 K p T + 2 r K p + r 2 + s 2 + a 12 a 21 K p ( a 11 2 r ) .
( a 11 r ) 2 + s 2 + a 12 a 21 > 0 ;
r > a 11 2 .

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