Abstract

Fiber lasers are well suited to scaling to high average power using beam-combining techniques. For coherent combining, optical phase-noise characterization of a ytterbium fiber amplifier is required to perform a critical evaluation of various approaches to coherent combining. For wavelength beam combining, we demonstrate good beam quality from the combination of three fiber amplifiers, and we discuss system scaling and design trades between laser linewidth, beam width, grating dispersion, and beam quality.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  89. The grating is mounted in a near Littrow configuration. This means that the area illuminated on the grating is roughly a factor of two larger than the cross-sectional area of the laser beam.

2006 (7)

B. He, Q. Lou, J. Zhou, D. Xue, J. Dong, Y. Wei, Y. Zheng, Y. Qi, and Z. Wang, "Phase-locking of two large-core fiber lasers with 60 W of coherent output power," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 759-762 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Jensen, B. Thestrup, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, "Near-diffraction-limited segmented broad area diode laser base on off-axis spectral beam combining," Appl. Phys. B 83, 225-228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Eckhouse, A. A. Ishaaya, L. Shimshi, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, "Intracavity coherent addition of 16 laser distributions," Opt. Lett. 31, 350-352 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Goodno, H. Komine, S. J. McNaught, S. B. Weiss, S. Redmond, W. Long, R. Simpson, E. C. Cheung, D. Howland, P. Epp, M. Weber, M. McClellan, J. Sollee, and H. Injeyan, "Coherent combination of high-power, zigzag slab lasers," Opt. Lett. 31, 1247-1249 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chann, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez-Rubio, B. L. Volodin, and V. S. Ban, "Efficient, high-brightness wavelength-beam-combined commercial off-the-shelf diode stacks achieved by use of a wavelength-chirped volume Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 31, 1253-1255 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jechow, V. Raab, and R. Menzel, "High cw power using an external cavity for spectral beam combining of diode laser-bar emission," Appl. Opt. 45, 3545-3547 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, A. Schülzgen, S. Chen, V. L. Temyanko, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Phase locking and in-phase supermode selection in monolithic multicore fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 31, 2577-2579 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

M. Tröbs, P. Weßels, and C. Fallnich, "Power- and frequency-noise characteristics of an Yb-doped fiber amplifier and actuators for stabilization," Opt. Express 13, 2224-2235 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chann, R. K. Huang, L. J. Missaggia, C. T. Harris, Z. L. Liau, A. K. Goyal, J. P. Donnelly, T. Y. Fan, S. Sanchez-Rubio, and G. W. Turner, "Near-diffraction-limited diode laser arrays by wavelength beam combining," Opt. Lett. 30, 2104-2106 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salet, G. Lucas-Leclin, G. Roger, P. Georges, P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, N. Michel, S. C. Auzanneau, M. Calligaro, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, and M. Krakowski, "Spectral beam combining of a single-mode 980-nm laser array for pumping of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 738-740 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hou, R. Xiao, Z. F. Jiang, X. A. Cheng, B. H. Shu, J. B. Chen, and Z. J. Liu, "Coherent beam combination of two polarization maintaining ytterbium fibre amplifiers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2273-2275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, "Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 567-577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (7)

C. J. Corcoran and K. A. Pasch, "Self-Fourier functions and coherent laser combination," J. Phys. A 37, L461-L469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, Y. Zhou, F. Kong, and Y. C. Chen, "Phase locking in a fiber laser array with varying path lengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4837-4839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, Y. Zhou, F. Kong, and Y. C. Chen, "Phase locking in a fiber laser array with varying path lengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4837-4839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishaaya, N. Davidson, L. Shimshi, and A. A. Friesem, "Intracavity coherent addition of Gaussian beam distributions using a planar interferometric coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2187-2189 (2004).
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M. Reich, J. Limpert, A. Liem, T. Clausnitzer, H. Zellmer, E. B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, "Spectral beam combining of ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with a total output power of 100 W," Europhys. Conf. Abstr. 28C, Fib-10137 (2004).

S. J. Augst, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez, "Coherent beam combining and phase noise measurements of ytterbium fiber amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 29, 474-476 (2004).
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A. Ishaaya, L. Shimshi, N. Davidson, and A. A. Freisem, "Coherent addition of spatially incoherent light beams," Opt. Express 12, 4929-4934 (2004).
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2003 (2)

2002 (4)

D. Sabourdy, V. Kermene, A. Desgarges-Berthelemont, L. Lefort, A. Barthélémy, C. Mahodaux, and D. Pureru, "Power scaling of fiber lasers with all-fiber interferometric cavity," Electron. Lett. 38, 692-693 (2002).
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A. Shirakawa, T. Saitou, T. Sekiguchi, and K. Ueda, "Coherent addition of fiber lasers by use of a fiber coupler," Opt. Express 10, 1167-1172 (2002).
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T. H. Russell, S. M. Willis, M. B. Crookston, and W. B. Roh, "Stimulated Raman scattering in multimode fibers and its application to beam cleanup and combining," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 303-316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Bochove, "Theory of spectral beam combining of fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 432-445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

V. Daneu, A. Sanchez, T. Y. Fan, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, and C. C. Cook, "Spectral beam combining of a broad-stripe diode laser array in an external cavity," Opt. Lett. 25, 405-407 (2000).
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Y. Kono, M. Takeoka, K. Uto, A. Uchida, and F. Kannari, "A coherent all-solid-state laser array using the Talbot effect in a three-mirror cavity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 607-614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Menard, M. Vampouille, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermene, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, "Highly efficient phase locking of four diode pumped Nd:YAG laser beams," Opt. Commun. 160, 344-353 (1999).
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C. Rodgers, T. H. Russell, and W. B. Roh, "Laser beam combining and cleanup by stimulated Brillouin scattering in a multimode optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 16, 1124-1126 (1999).
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L. Bartelt-Berger, U. Brauch, A. Giesen, and H. Opower, "Power-scalable system of phase-locked single-mode diode lasers," 38, 5752-5760 (1999).

1997 (1)

H. J. Kong, J. Y. Lee, Y. S. Shin, J. O. Byun, H. S. Park, and H. Kim, "Beam recombination characteristics in array laser amplification using stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation," Opt. Rev. 4, 277-283 (1997).
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1995 (1)

J. S. Osinski, D. Mehuys, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, J. S. Major, K. M. Dzurko, and R. J. Lang, "Phased array of high-power, coherent, monolithic flared amplifier master oscillator power amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 556-558 (1995).
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1994 (3)

S. Sumida, D. C. Jones, and D. A. Rockwell, "An 8.2 J phase-conjugate solid-state laser coherently combining eight parallel amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2617-2627 (1994).
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K. H. No, R. W. Herrick, C. Leung, R. Reinhart, and J. L. Levy, "One-dimensional scaling of 100 ridge waveguide amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1062-1066 (1994).
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S. Saunders, R. Waarts, D. Nam, D. Welch, D. Scifres, J. C. Ehlert, W. J. Cassarly, J. M. Finlan, and K. M. Flood, "High power coherent two-dimensional semiconductor laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1478-1480 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, M. Jansen, C. Tu, T. J. Roth, and J. Yun, "Resonant self-aligned-stripe antiguided diode laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 668-670 (1992).
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M. Oka, H. Masuda, Y. Kaneda, and S. Kubota, "Laser-diode-pumped phase-locked Nd:YAG laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1142-1147 (1992).
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D. L. Carroll, R. Johnson, S. J. Pfeifer, and R. H. Moyer, "Experimental investigations of stimulated Brillouin-scattering beam combination," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2214-2224 (1992).
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1991 (2)

J. Corcoran and R. H. Rediker, "Operation of five individual diode lasers as a coherent ensemble by fiber coupling into an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 759-761 (1991).
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F. Vasli'ev, S. B. Gladin, and V. E. Yashin, "Pulses-periodic Nd:YAlO3 laser with a phase-locked aperture under conditions of phase conjugation by stimulated Brillouin scattering," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 494-497 (1991).
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1990 (2)

K. V. Gratsianov, A. F. Komev, V. V. Lyubimov, and V. G. Pankov,"Laser beam phasing with phase conjugation in Brillouin scattering," Opt. Spectrosc. 68, 360-361 (1990).

M. H. Smith, D. W. Trainor, and C. Duzy, "Shallow angle beam combining using a broad band XeF laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 942-949 (1990).
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1989 (1)

S. Goldobin, N. N. Evtikhiev, A. G. Plyavenek, and S. D. Yakubovich, "Phase-locked integrated arrays of injection lasers," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1261-1284 (1989).
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1988 (4)

J. R. Leger, M. Holz, G. J. Swanson, and W. Veldkamp, "Coherent beam addition: an application of binary optics," Lincoln Lab. J. 1, 225-245 (1988).

O. R. Kachurin, F. V. Lebedev, and A. P. Napartovich, "Properties of an array of phase-locked CO2 lasers," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1128-1131 (1988).
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J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, "Coherent addition of AlGaAs lasers using microlenses and diffractive coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771-1773 (1988).
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R. H. Moyer, M. Valley, and M. Cimolino, "Beam combination through stimulated Brillouin scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2473-2489 (1988).
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1987 (2)

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, "Coherent laser addition using binary phase gratings," Appl. Opt. 26, 4391-4399 (1987).
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V. M. Leont'ev, V. G. Novoselov, Yu. P. Rudnitskii, and I. V. Chemyshava, "Solid-state laser with a composite active element and diffraction-limit divergence," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 220-223 (1987).
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1986 (4)

A. F. Vasil'ev, A. A. Mak, V. Mit'kin, V. A. Serebryakov, and V. E. Yashin, "Correction of thermally induced optical aberrations and coherent phasing of beams during stimulated Brillouin scattering," Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 31, 191-193 (1986).

K. V. Gratsianov, A. F. Komev, V. V. Lyubimov, A. A. Mak, V. G. Pankov, and A. I. Stepanov, "Investigation of an amplifier with a composite active element and a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1544-1546 (1986).
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L. A. Newman, R. A. Hart, J. T. Kennedy, A. J. Cantor, A. J. DeMaria, and W. B. Bridges, "High power coupled CO2 waveguide laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1701-1703 (1986).
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A. Rockwell and C. R. Giuliano, "Coherent coupling of laser gain media using phase conjugation," Opt. Lett. 11, 147-149 (1986).
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1985 (1)

F. Glova, Yu. A. Dreizin, O. R. Kachurin, F. V. Lebedev, and V. D. Pis'mennyi, "Phase locking of a two-dimensional array of CO2 waveguide lasers," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 102-103 (1985).

1984 (1)

G. Youmans, "Phase locking of adjacent channel leaky waveguide CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 365-367 (1984).
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1981 (1)

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efmkov, I. G. Zubarev, A. V. Kotov, and S. I. Mikhailov, "Control of the characteristics of reversing mirrors in the amplification regime," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1335-1337 (1981).
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1979 (1)

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efmkov, I. G. Zubarev, A. V. Kotov, A. B. Mironov, S. I. Mikhailov, and M. J. Smimov, "Influence of certain radiation parameters on wavefront reversal of a pump wave in a Brillouin mirror," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 455-458 (1979).
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1978 (1)

R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, "Phase-locked semiconductor laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 1015-1017 (1978).
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1975 (1)

E. M. Philipp-Rutz, "Spatially coherent radiation from an array of GaAs lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 475-477 (1975).
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1972 (1)

P. W. Smith, "Mode selection in lasers," Proc. IEEE 60, 422-440 (1972).
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1966 (1)

M. DiDomenico, Jr., "Characteristics of a single-frequency Michelson-type He-Ne gas laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 311-322 (1966).
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Aggarwal, R. L.

Alegria, C.

D. N. Payne, Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. B. S. Soh, C. Alegria, P. Dupriez, C. A. Codemard, V. N. Philippov, V. Hernandez, R. Horley, L. Hickey, L. Wanzcyk, C. E. Chryssou, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, and P. W. Turner, "Kilowatt-class single-frequency fiber sources," in Fiber Lasers II: Technology, Systems, and Applications, L.N.Durvasula, A.J. W.Brown, and J.Nilsson, eds., Proc. SPIE 5709, 133-141 (2004).

Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

D. N. Payne, Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. B. S. Soh, C. Alegria, P. Dupriez, C. A. Codemard, V. N. Philippov, V. Hernandez, R. Horley, L. Hickey, L. Wanzcyk, C. E. Chryssou, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, and P. W. Turner, "Kilowatt-class single-frequency fiber sources," in Fiber Lasers II: Technology, Systems, and Applications, L.N.Durvasula, A.J. W.Brown, and J.Nilsson, eds., Proc. SPIE 5709, 133-141 (2004).

Anderegg, J.

J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, E. Cheung, P. Epp, D. Hammons, H. Komine, M. Weber, and M. Wickham, "Coherently coupled high power fiber arrays," in Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications, A.J. W.Brown, J.Nilsson, D.J.Harter, and A.Tünnermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020U (2006).

M. Wickham, J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, E. Cheung, P. Epp, D. Hammons, H. Komine, and M. Weber, "Coherently coupled high power fiber arrays," in Digest of the IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2006), pp. 23-24.
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J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, M. Weber, H. Komine, and M. Wickham, "8-W coherently phased 4-element fiber array," in Advances in Fiber Lasers, L.N.Durvasula, ed., Proc. SPIE 4974, 1-6 (2003).

Andersen, P. E.

O. B. Jensen, B. Thestrup, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, "Near-diffraction-limited segmented broad area diode laser base on off-axis spectral beam combining," Appl. Phys. B 83, 225-228 (2006).
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Auzanneau, S. C.

P. Salet, G. Lucas-Leclin, G. Roger, P. Georges, P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, N. Michel, S. C. Auzanneau, M. Calligaro, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, and M. Krakowski, "Spectral beam combining of a single-mode 980-nm laser array for pumping of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 738-740 (2005).
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Baker, J. T.

T. M. Shay, V. Benham, J. Spring, B. Ward, F. Ghebremichael, M. A. Culpepper, A. D. Sanchez, J. T. Baker, D. Pilkington, and R. Berdine, "Self-referenced locking of optical coherence by single-detector electronic-frequency tagging," in Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications, A.J. W.Brown, J.Nilsson, D.J.Harter, and A.Tünnermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020V (2006).

Ban, V. S.

Bartelt-Berger, L.

L. Bartelt-Berger, U. Brauch, A. Giesen, and H. Opower, "Power-scalable system of phase-locked single-mode diode lasers," 38, 5752-5760 (1999).

Barthélémy, A.

D. Sabourdy, V. Kermene, A. Desgarges-Berthelemont, L. Lefort, A. Barthélémy, C. Mahodaux, and D. Pureru, "Power scaling of fiber lasers with all-fiber interferometric cavity," Electron. Lett. 38, 692-693 (2002).
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Basov, N. G.

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efmkov, I. G. Zubarev, A. V. Kotov, and S. I. Mikhailov, "Control of the characteristics of reversing mirrors in the amplification regime," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1335-1337 (1981).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efmkov, I. G. Zubarev, A. V. Kotov, A. B. Mironov, S. I. Mikhailov, and M. J. Smimov, "Influence of certain radiation parameters on wavefront reversal of a pump wave in a Brillouin mirror," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 455-458 (1979).
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Bayart, D.

P. Salet, G. Lucas-Leclin, G. Roger, P. Georges, P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, N. Michel, S. C. Auzanneau, M. Calligaro, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, and M. Krakowski, "Spectral beam combining of a single-mode 980-nm laser array for pumping of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 738-740 (2005).
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Benham, V.

T. M. Shay, V. Benham, J. Spring, B. Ward, F. Ghebremichael, M. A. Culpepper, A. D. Sanchez, J. T. Baker, D. Pilkington, and R. Berdine, "Self-referenced locking of optical coherence by single-detector electronic-frequency tagging," in Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications, A.J. W.Brown, J.Nilsson, D.J.Harter, and A.Tünnermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020V (2006).

Bennett, C. R.

L. Michaille, C. R. Bennett, D. M. Taylor, and T. J. Shepherd, "Multi-core photonic crystal fibers for high power lasers and amplifiers," in Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications, A.J. W.Brown, J.Nilsson, D.J.Harter, and A.Tünnermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020W (2006).

Berdine, R.

T. M. Shay, V. Benham, J. Spring, B. Ward, F. Ghebremichael, M. A. Culpepper, A. D. Sanchez, J. T. Baker, D. Pilkington, and R. Berdine, "Self-referenced locking of optical coherence by single-detector electronic-frequency tagging," in Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications, A.J. W.Brown, J.Nilsson, D.J.Harter, and A.Tünnermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020V (2006).

Bochove, E. J.

E. J. Bochove, "Theory of spectral beam combining of fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 432-445 (2002).
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L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, M. Jansen, C. Tu, T. J. Roth, and J. Yun, "Resonant self-aligned-stripe antiguided diode laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 668-670 (1992).
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D. Botez, "Monolithic phase-locked semiconductor laser arrays," in Diode Laser Arrays, D.Botez and D.R.Scrifres, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1994), pp. 1-67.
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Bousselet, P.

P. Salet, G. Lucas-Leclin, G. Roger, P. Georges, P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, N. Michel, S. C. Auzanneau, M. Calligaro, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, and M. Krakowski, "Spectral beam combining of a single-mode 980-nm laser array for pumping of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 738-740 (2005).
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Brauch, U.

L. Bartelt-Berger, U. Brauch, A. Giesen, and H. Opower, "Power-scalable system of phase-locked single-mode diode lasers," 38, 5752-5760 (1999).

Bridges, W. B.

L. A. Newman, R. A. Hart, J. T. Kennedy, A. J. Cantor, A. J. DeMaria, and W. B. Bridges, "High power coupled CO2 waveguide laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1701-1703 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brosnan, S.

J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, M. Weber, H. Komine, and M. Wickham, "8-W coherently phased 4-element fiber array," in Advances in Fiber Lasers, L.N.Durvasula, ed., Proc. SPIE 4974, 1-6 (2003).

M. Wickham, J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, E. Cheung, P. Epp, D. Hammons, H. Komine, and M. Weber, "Coherently coupled high power fiber arrays," in Digest of the IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2006), pp. 23-24.
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J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, E. Cheung, P. Epp, D. Hammons, H. Komine, M. Weber, and M. Wickham, "Coherently coupled high power fiber arrays," in Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications, A.J. W.Brown, J.Nilsson, D.J.Harter, and A.Tünnermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020U (2006).

Bruesselbach, H.

M. L. Minden, H. Bruesselbach, J. L. Rogers, M. S. Mangir, D. C. Jones, G. J. Dunning, D. L. Hammon, A. J. Solis, and L. Vaughan, in Fiber Lasers: Technology, Systems, and Applications, L.N.Darvasula, ed., "Self-organized coherence in fiber laser arrays," Proc. SPIE 5335, 89-97 (2004).

Burnham, R. D.

R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, "Phase-locked semiconductor laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 1015-1017 (1978).
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Byun, J. O.

H. J. Kong, J. Y. Lee, Y. S. Shin, J. O. Byun, H. S. Park, and H. Kim, "Beam recombination characteristics in array laser amplification using stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation," Opt. Rev. 4, 277-283 (1997).
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Calligaro, M.

P. Salet, G. Lucas-Leclin, G. Roger, P. Georges, P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, N. Michel, S. C. Auzanneau, M. Calligaro, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, and M. Krakowski, "Spectral beam combining of a single-mode 980-nm laser array for pumping of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 738-740 (2005).
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Cantor, A. J.

L. A. Newman, R. A. Hart, J. T. Kennedy, A. J. Cantor, A. J. DeMaria, and W. B. Bridges, "High power coupled CO2 waveguide laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1701-1703 (1986).
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Carroll, D. L.

Cassarly, W. J.

S. Saunders, R. Waarts, D. Nam, D. Welch, D. Scifres, J. C. Ehlert, W. J. Cassarly, J. M. Finlan, and K. M. Flood, "High power coherent two-dimensional semiconductor laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1478-1480 (1994).
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Chann, B.

Chemyshava, I. V.

V. M. Leont'ev, V. G. Novoselov, Yu. P. Rudnitskii, and I. V. Chemyshava, "Solid-state laser with a composite active element and diffraction-limit divergence," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 220-223 (1987).
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Chen, J. B.

J. Hou, R. Xiao, Z. F. Jiang, X. A. Cheng, B. H. Shu, J. B. Chen, and Z. J. Liu, "Coherent beam combination of two polarization maintaining ytterbium fibre amplifiers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2273-2275 (2005).
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Chen, Y. C.

L. Liu, Y. Zhou, F. Kong, and Y. C. Chen, "Phase locking in a fiber laser array with varying path lengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4837-4839 (2004).
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L. Liu, Y. Zhou, F. Kong, and Y. C. Chen, "Phase locking in a fiber laser array with varying path lengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4837-4839 (2004).
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J. Hou, R. Xiao, Z. F. Jiang, X. A. Cheng, B. H. Shu, J. B. Chen, and Z. J. Liu, "Coherent beam combination of two polarization maintaining ytterbium fibre amplifiers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2273-2275 (2005).
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Cheung, E.

J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, E. Cheung, P. Epp, D. Hammons, H. Komine, M. Weber, and M. Wickham, "Coherently coupled high power fiber arrays," in Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications, A.J. W.Brown, J.Nilsson, D.J.Harter, and A.Tünnermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020U (2006).

M. Wickham, J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, E. Cheung, P. Epp, D. Hammons, H. Komine, and M. Weber, "Coherently coupled high power fiber arrays," in Digest of the IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2006), pp. 23-24.
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S. R. Chinn, "Review of edge-emitting coherent laser arrays," in Surface Emitting Semiconductor Lasers and Arrays, G.A.Evans and J.M.Hammer, eds. (Academic, 1993), pp. 9-70.

Choi, H. K.

Chryssou, C. E.

D. N. Payne, Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. B. S. Soh, C. Alegria, P. Dupriez, C. A. Codemard, V. N. Philippov, V. Hernandez, R. Horley, L. Hickey, L. Wanzcyk, C. E. Chryssou, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, and P. W. Turner, "Kilowatt-class single-frequency fiber sources," in Fiber Lasers II: Technology, Systems, and Applications, L.N.Durvasula, A.J. W.Brown, and J.Nilsson, eds., Proc. SPIE 5709, 133-141 (2004).

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Clark, S.

D. C. Jones, A. M. Scott, S. Clark, C. Stace, and R. G. Clarke, "Beam steering of a fiber bundle laser output using phased array techniques," in Fiber Lasers: Technology, Systems, and Applications, L.N.Durvasula, ed., Proc. SPIE 5335, 125-131 (2004).

Clarke, R. G.

D. C. Jones, A. M. Scott, S. Clark, C. Stace, and R. G. Clarke, "Beam steering of a fiber bundle laser output using phased array techniques," in Fiber Lasers: Technology, Systems, and Applications, L.N.Durvasula, ed., Proc. SPIE 5335, 125-131 (2004).

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W. A. Clarkson, V. Matera, T. M. J. Kendall, D. C. Hanna, J. Nilsson, and P. W. Turner, "High-power wavelength-combined cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber lasers," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 363-364.

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M. Reich, J. Limpert, A. Liem, T. Clausnitzer, H. Zellmer, E. B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, "Spectral beam combining of ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with a total output power of 100 W," Europhys. Conf. Abstr. 28C, Fib-10137 (2004).

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D. N. Payne, Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. B. S. Soh, C. Alegria, P. Dupriez, C. A. Codemard, V. N. Philippov, V. Hernandez, R. Horley, L. Hickey, L. Wanzcyk, C. E. Chryssou, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, and P. W. Turner, "Kilowatt-class single-frequency fiber sources," in Fiber Lasers II: Technology, Systems, and Applications, L.N.Durvasula, A.J. W.Brown, and J.Nilsson, eds., Proc. SPIE 5709, 133-141 (2004).

Colombeau, B.

S. Menard, M. Vampouille, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermene, B. Colombeau, and C. Froehly, "Highly efficient phase locking of four diode pumped Nd:YAG laser beams," Opt. Commun. 160, 344-353 (1999).
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V. Daneu, A. Sanchez, T. Y. Fan, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, and C. C. Cook, "Spectral beam combining of a broad-stripe diode laser array in an external cavity," Opt. Lett. 25, 405-407 (2000).
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C. Hamilton, S. Tidwell, D. Meekhof, J. Seamans, N. Gitkind, and D. Lowenthal, "High-power laser source with spectrally beam-combined diode laser bars," in High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications II, M.S.Zediker, ed., Proc. SPIE 5336, 1-10 (2004).

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P. Salet, G. Lucas-Leclin, G. Roger, P. Georges, P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, N. Michel, S. C. Auzanneau, M. Calligaro, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, and M. Krakowski, "Spectral beam combining of a single-mode 980-nm laser array for pumping of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 738-740 (2005).
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N. G. Basov, V. F. Efmkov, I. G. Zubarev, A. V. Kotov, A. B. Mironov, S. I. Mikhailov, and M. J. Smimov, "Influence of certain radiation parameters on wavefront reversal of a pump wave in a Brillouin mirror," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 455-458 (1979).
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T. H. Loftus, A. Liu, P. R. Hoffman, A. Thomas, M. Norsen, C. E. Hamilton, and E. Honea, "258 W of spectrally beam combined power with near-diffraction limited beam quality," in Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications, A.J. W.Brown, J.Nilsson, D.J.Harter, and A.Tünnermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020S (2006).

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V. M. Leont'ev, V. G. Novoselov, Yu. P. Rudnitskii, and I. V. Chemyshava, "Solid-state laser with a composite active element and diffraction-limit divergence," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 220-223 (1987).
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J. S. Osinski, D. Mehuys, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, J. S. Major, K. M. Dzurko, and R. J. Lang, "Phased array of high-power, coherent, monolithic flared amplifier master oscillator power amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 556-558 (1995).
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K. V. Gratsianov, A. F. Komev, V. V. Lyubimov, and V. G. Pankov,"Laser beam phasing with phase conjugation in Brillouin scattering," Opt. Spectrosc. 68, 360-361 (1990).

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P. Salet, G. Lucas-Leclin, G. Roger, P. Georges, P. Bousselet, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, N. Michel, S. C. Auzanneau, M. Calligaro, O. Parillaud, M. Lecomte, and M. Krakowski, "Spectral beam combining of a single-mode 980-nm laser array for pumping of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 738-740 (2005).
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H. J. Kong, J. Y. Lee, Y. S. Shin, J. O. Byun, H. S. Park, and H. Kim, "Beam recombination characteristics in array laser amplification using stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation," Opt. Rev. 4, 277-283 (1997).
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J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, E. Cheung, P. Epp, D. Hammons, H. Komine, M. Weber, and M. Wickham, "Coherently coupled high power fiber arrays," in Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications, A.J. W.Brown, J.Nilsson, D.J.Harter, and A.Tünnermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020U (2006).

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IPG Photonics YAR-30K-1065-LP polarized Yb fiber amplifier with ∼40 dB of gain and 30 W saturated output at gain center.

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C. C. Cook and T. Y. Fan, "Spectral beam combining of Yb-doped fiber lasers in an external cavity," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, andU.Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 163-166.

C. Hamilton, S. Tidwell, D. Meekhof, J. Seamans, N. Gitkind, and D. Lowenthal, "High-power laser source with spectrally beam-combined diode laser bars," in High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications II, M.S.Zediker, ed., Proc. SPIE 5336, 1-10 (2004).

W. A. Clarkson, V. Matera, T. M. J. Kendall, D. C. Hanna, J. Nilsson, and P. W. Turner, "High-power wavelength-combined cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber lasers," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 363-364.

T. H. Loftus, A. Liu, P. R. Hoffman, A. Thomas, M. Norsen, C. E. Hamilton, and E. Honea, "258 W of spectrally beam combined power with near-diffraction limited beam quality," in Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications, A.J. W.Brown, J.Nilsson, D.J.Harter, and A.Tünnermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020S (2006).

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A. Liu, R. Mead, T. Vatter, A. Henderson, and R. Stafford, "Spectral beam combining of high power fiber lasers," in Fiber Lasers: Technology, Systems, and Applications, L.N.Durvasula, ed., Proc. SPIE 5335, 81-88 (2006).

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T. M. Shay, V. Benham, J. Spring, B. Ward, F. Ghebremichael, M. A. Culpepper, A. D. Sanchez, J. T. Baker, D. Pilkington, and R. Berdine, "Self-referenced locking of optical coherence by single-detector electronic-frequency tagging," in Fiber Lasers III: Technology, Systems, and Applications, A.J. W.Brown, J.Nilsson, D.J.Harter, and A.Tünnermann, eds., Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020V (2006).

The dielectric grating was manufactured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories for use in chirped-pulse compression.

D. N. Payne, Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. B. S. Soh, C. Alegria, P. Dupriez, C. A. Codemard, V. N. Philippov, V. Hernandez, R. Horley, L. Hickey, L. Wanzcyk, C. E. Chryssou, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, and P. W. Turner, "Kilowatt-class single-frequency fiber sources," in Fiber Lasers II: Technology, Systems, and Applications, L.N.Durvasula, A.J. W.Brown, and J.Nilsson, eds., Proc. SPIE 5709, 133-141 (2004).

IPG Photonics, 50 Old Webster Road, Oxford, Mass. 01540, USA (personal communication).

Nufern, 7 Airport Park Road, East Granby, Conn. 06026, USA (personal communication).

The grating is mounted in a near Littrow configuration. This means that the area illuminated on the grating is roughly a factor of two larger than the cross-sectional area of the laser beam.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified phase-noise-measurement setup. An ASE source is filtered to provide a 60 GHz linewidth. The source is then split to seed the fiber amplifier and to be used as a reference beam in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. A fiber and free-space delay line is placed in the reference arm in order to match the path lengths to within the coherence length of the source 1 mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical optical phase variation of a Yb fiber amplifier operating at 30 W after reaching a thermally steady-state condition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase-noise spectral density (solid curve, in rad Hz 1 2 ) and integrated phase noise (dashed curve, in rad) characterization of a commercial 30 W Yb-doped fiber amplifier operating at full power in a thermally steady-state condition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase variation over various time windows for three 8 s stretches of data. Thermal steady-state operation rms values (solid curves) and maximum values (dashed curves).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical phase variation of a commercial 30 W Yb-doped fiber amplifier during turn-on and warm-up operation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MOPA implementation of a WBC system. Each element in the master oscillator operates at a unique wavelength determined by the grating. Part of the light from each oscillator element is used to seed its own amplifier and the amplifier outputs are combined with an identical transform lens and grating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fiber amplifier outputs are mounted in a silicon v-groove array ( 500 μ m pitch) for stable and reproducible packaging that can be scaled to a large number of elements. The outputs are collimated in the combining dimension with an array of cylindrical microlenses.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Far-field WBC beam quality is measured to have M x 2 = 1.4 (combining plane), M y 2 = 1.3 , which is the same as for a single element.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

WBC output spectrum at 73 W combined average power. The amplified spectrum matches the input spectrum.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

WBC design trade space for maintaining beam quality of M 2 < 1.4 for two different values of grating dispersion. Theoretical values approach M 2 = 1.0 as the operating point goes further below the illustrated lines.

Equations (3)

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Integrated phase noise ( f ) = ( f f max S 2 ( ν ) d ν ) 1 2 ,
grating dispersion angle natural diffraction angle ,
sin 1 [ ( λ + Δ 2 ) g sin ( θ i ) ] sin 1 [ ( λ Δ 2 ) g sin ( θ i ) ] 4 λ π d ,

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