Abstract

We discuss an approach for the practical implementation of photonic arbitrary waveform generation of microwave signals. We describe and demonstrate an approach using spatial-spectral (S2) holography in rare earth ion doped crystals that has the potential to achieve extremely wide bandwidths (>40 GHz) using conventional electro-optic phase modulators and low bandwidth (<100 MHz) control electronics. We provide analysis of this approach, show simulations, and perform experimental demonstrations of the technique. We show a pulse compression factor of ~15,000 and demonstrate the largest effective bandwidth of 3.8 GHz to date for pulse compression using S2 holography. We also show control and manipulation of up to 30 independent compressed pulses for the creation of arbitrary waveforms.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  11. Z. Barber, M. Tian, R. Reibel, and W. R. Babbitt, "Optical pulse shaping using optical coherent transients," Opt. Express 10, 1145-1147 (2002).
  12. R. Reibel, T. Chang, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, "Optical linear sideband chirp compression for microwave arbitrary waveform generation," in IEEE Microwave Photonics Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2004) pp. 197-200.
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. W. Barber, J. Law, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, "Optical coherent transient high bandwidth arbitrary waveform generation and pulse shaping," presented at the 8th International Meeting on Hole Burning, Single Molecule, and Related Spectroscopies: Science and Applications (HBSM'03)MT, USA, 27-31July 2003.
  15. V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and I. Lorgeré, "Wideband and high-resolution coherent optical transients with a frequency-agile laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 31, 3264-3266 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. See, e.g., EOSPACE product line (www.eospace.com).
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  22. L. Ménager, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, R. Mohan Krishna, and S. Kröll, "Time-domain Fresnel-to-Fraunhofer diffraction with photon echoes," Opt. Lett. 24, 927-929 (1999).
  23. V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, "High resolution radio frequency spectral analysis with photon echo chirp transfor in an Er:YSO crystal," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1450-1457 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. T. W. Mossberg, "Time-domain frequency-selective optical storage," Opt. Lett. 7, 77-79 (1982).
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  27. L. Levin, "Mode-hop-free electro-optically tuned diode laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 237-239 (2002).
  28. K. S. Repasky, J. D. Williams, J. L. Carlsten, E. J. Noonan, and G. W. Switzer, "Tunable external-cavity diode laser based on integrated waveguide structures," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 42, 2229-2234 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Gorju, A. Jucha, A. Jain, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and M. Colice, "Active stabilization of a rapidly chirped laser by an optoelectronic digital servo-loop control," Opt. Lett. 32, 484-486 (2007).
  33. P. B. Sellin, N. M. Strickland, T. Böttger, J. L. Carlsten, and R. L. Cone, "Laser stabilization at 1536nm using regenerative spectral hole burning," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155111 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. Willyard, Airborne Radar for Measuring Snow Thickness over Sea Ice (U. of Kansas, 2004).
  35. R. Reibel, Z. Barber, M. Tian, W. R. Babbitt, Z. Cole, and K. D. Merkel, "Amplification of high bandwidth phase modulated signals at 793nm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2315-2322 (2002).
  36. T. Chang, M. Tian, Z. W. Barber, and W. R. Babbitt, "Numerical modeling of optical coherent transient processes with complex configurations-II. Angled beams with arbitrary phase modulations," J. Lumin. 107, 138-145 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  37. T. K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, and H. Miyazawa, "Millimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO optical modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 615-619 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. O. V. Kolokoltsev, C. S. Pérez, and R. A. Correa, "Phase-reversal broad-band traveling-wave LiNbO3 electro-optic modulator optimized for time-domain applications by a genetic algorithm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1258-1264 (2002).

2007

2006

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and I. Lorgeré, "Wideband and high-resolution coherent optical transients with a frequency-agile laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 31, 3264-3266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McKinney, I. S. Lin, and A. M. Weiner, "Ultrabroadband arbitrary electromagnetic waveform synthesis," Opt. Photonics News 17, 24-29 (2006).

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, I. Lorgeré, C. Gagnol, and E. Ducloux, "Phase locking of a frequency agile laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, "High resolution radio frequency spectral analysis with photon echo chirp transfor in an Er:YSO crystal," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1450-1457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Chang, M. Tian, Z. W. Barber, and W. R. Babbitt, "Numerical modeling of optical coherent transient processes with complex configurations-II. Angled beams with arbitrary phase modulations," J. Lumin. 107, 138-145 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003

K. S. Repasky, J. D. Williams, J. L. Carlsten, E. J. Noonan, and G. W. Switzer, "Tunable external-cavity diode laser based on integrated waveguide structures," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 42, 2229-2234 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).

V. Lavielle, I. Lorgere, J.-L. Gouet, S. Tonda, and D. Dolfi, "Wideband versatile radio-frequency spectrum analyzer," Opt. Lett. 28, 384-386 (2003).

2002

L. Levin, "Mode-hop-free electro-optically tuned diode laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 237-239 (2002).

R. Reibel, Z. Barber, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, "Temporally overlapped linear frequency chirped programming for true-time delay applications," Opt. Lett. 27, 494-496 (2002).

R. Reibel, Z. Barber, M. Tian, W. R. Babbitt, Z. Cole, and K. D. Merkel, "Amplification of high bandwidth phase modulated signals at 793nm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2315-2322 (2002).

Z. Barber, M. Tian, R. Reibel, and W. R. Babbitt, "Optical pulse shaping using optical coherent transients," Opt. Express 10, 1145-1147 (2002).

R. Reibel, Z. Barber, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, "High bandwidth spectral gratings programmed with linear frequency chirps," J. Lumin. 98, 355-365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Kolokoltsev, C. S. Pérez, and R. A. Correa, "Phase-reversal broad-band traveling-wave LiNbO3 electro-optic modulator optimized for time-domain applications by a genetic algorithm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1258-1264 (2002).

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, "Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1608-1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

1998

1995

R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, Y. Sun, R. M. Macfarlane, and R. Hutcheson, "Ultraslow dephasing and dephasing mechanisms in rare earth materials for optical data storage," Laser Phys. 5, 573 (1995).

1986

1982

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, "Tera-sample per second real-time waveform digitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, I. Lorgeré, C. Gagnol, and E. Ducloux, "Phase locking of a frequency agile laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, "High resolution radio frequency spectral analysis with photon echo chirp transfor in an Er:YSO crystal," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1450-1457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Kolokoltsev, C. S. Pérez, and R. A. Correa, "Phase-reversal broad-band traveling-wave LiNbO3 electro-optic modulator optimized for time-domain applications by a genetic algorithm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1258-1264 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, "Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1608-1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Lumin.

T. Chang, M. Tian, Z. W. Barber, and W. R. Babbitt, "Numerical modeling of optical coherent transient processes with complex configurations-II. Angled beams with arbitrary phase modulations," J. Lumin. 107, 138-145 (2004)
[CrossRef]

R. Reibel, Z. Barber, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, "High bandwidth spectral gratings programmed with linear frequency chirps," J. Lumin. 98, 355-365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Phys.

R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, Y. Sun, R. M. Macfarlane, and R. Hutcheson, "Ultraslow dephasing and dephasing mechanisms in rare earth materials for optical data storage," Laser Phys. 5, 573 (1995).

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham)

K. S. Repasky, J. D. Williams, J. L. Carlsten, E. J. Noonan, and G. W. Switzer, "Tunable external-cavity diode laser based on integrated waveguide structures," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 42, 2229-2234 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

V. Lavielle, I. Lorgere, J.-L. Gouet, S. Tonda, and D. Dolfi, "Wideband versatile radio-frequency spectrum analyzer," Opt. Lett. 28, 384-386 (2003).

L. Levin, "Mode-hop-free electro-optically tuned diode laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 237-239 (2002).

R. Reibel, Z. Barber, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, "Temporally overlapped linear frequency chirped programming for true-time delay applications," Opt. Lett. 27, 494-496 (2002).

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and I. Lorgeré, "Wideband and high-resolution coherent optical transients with a frequency-agile laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 31, 3264-3266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Gorju, A. Jucha, A. Jain, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and M. Colice, "Active stabilization of a rapidly chirped laser by an optoelectronic digital servo-loop control," Opt. Lett. 32, 484-486 (2007).

T. W. Mossberg, "Time-domain frequency-selective optical storage," Opt. Lett. 7, 77-79 (1982).

Y. S. Bai and T. W. Mossberg, "Experimental studies of photon-echo pulse compression," Opt. Lett. 11, 30-32 (1986).

C. Greiner, B. Boggs, T. Wang, and T. W. Mossberg, "Laser frequency stabilization by means of optical self-heterodyne beat-frequency control," Opt. Lett. 23, 1280-1282 (1998).

K. D. Merkel and W. R. Babbitt, "Optical coherent transient continuously programmed continuous processor," Opt. Lett. 24, 172-174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, M. Afzelius, N. Ohlsson, U. Gustafsson, and S. Kroll, "Coherent transient data-rate conversion and data transformation," Opt. Lett. 25, 945-947 (2000).

L. Ménager, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, R. Mohan Krishna, and S. Kröll, "Time-domain Fresnel-to-Fraunhofer diffraction with photon echoes," Opt. Lett. 24, 927-929 (1999).

X. Ribeyre, C. Rouyer, F. Raoult, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, and A. Migus, "All-optical programmable shaping of narrow-band nanosecond pulses with picosecond accuracy by use of adapted chirps and quadratic nonlinearities," Opt. Lett. 26, 1173-1175 (2001).

L. Menager, J. L. Le Gouet, and I. Lorgere, "Time-to-frequency Fourier transformation with photon echoes," Opt. Lett. 26, 1397-1399 (2001).

Opt. Photonics News

J. D. McKinney, I. S. Lin, and A. M. Weiner, "Ultrabroadband arbitrary electromagnetic waveform synthesis," Opt. Photonics News 17, 24-29 (2006).

Phys. Rev. B

P. B. Sellin, N. M. Strickland, T. Böttger, J. L. Carlsten, and R. L. Cone, "Laser stabilization at 1536nm using regenerative spectral hole burning," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Willyard, Airborne Radar for Measuring Snow Thickness over Sea Ice (U. of Kansas, 2004).

See, e.g., EOSPACE product line (www.eospace.com).

Z. W. Barber, J. Law, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, "Optical coherent transient high bandwidth arbitrary waveform generation and pulse shaping," presented at the 8th International Meeting on Hole Burning, Single Molecule, and Related Spectroscopies: Science and Applications (HBSM'03)MT, USA, 27-31July 2003.

E. C. Farnett and G. H. Stevens, "Pulse compression radar," in Radar Handbook, 2nd ed., M.Skolnik, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1990) pp. 10.11-10.13.

Agilent, "N6030A Arbitrary Waveform Generator," http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5989-1457EN.pdf.

Tektronix, "Arbitrary Waveform Generator 7102," http://www.tek.com/products/signallowbarsources/awg7000/index.html.

W. Cheng, R. Stevens, F. Rupp, C. Engels, W. Ali, M. Choi, D. Devendorf, S. Ding, L. Linder, K. Liu, and T. Tat, "A 3b 40GS/s ADC-DAC in 0.12 mu m SiGe," in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 262-263.

H. Kim, A. B. Kozyrev, S. J. Ho, and D. W. van der Weide, "Fourier synthesizer using left-handed transmission lines," in Proceedings of IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2005) pp. 4-8.

R. Reibel, T. Chang, M. Tian, and W. R. Babbitt, "Optical linear sideband chirp compression for microwave arbitrary waveform generation," in IEEE Microwave Photonics Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2004) pp. 197-200.

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