Abstract

We report on optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers passively mode locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. The effect of second- and third-order dispersion and dynamic gain saturation on the pulse formation is studied both experimentally and numerically. Improvement of the pulse quality and duration in the disk laser with resonant periodic gain structure requires accurate control of dispersion by wavelength detuning.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 267-269 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. J. Saarinen, A. Härkönen, R. Herda, S. Suomalainen L. Orsila, T. Hakulinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Harmonically mode-locked VECSELs for multi-GHz pulse train generation," Opt. Express 15, 955-964 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).
  4. Q. Zhang, K. Jasim, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, "Operation of a passively mode-locked extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser in multi-GHz regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 885-887 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Paschotta, R. Häring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, "Soliton like pulse-shaping in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, "High-power ultrafast laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203-2219 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).

Q. Zhang, K. Jasim, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, "Operation of a passively mode-locked extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser in multi-GHz regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 885-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, "Soliton like pulse-shaping in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, "High-power ultrafast laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alphonse, G. A.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, "High-power ultrafast laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N. C.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, "High-power ultrafast laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aschwanden, A.

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).

Carey, G.

Q. Zhang, K. Jasim, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, "Operation of a passively mode-locked extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser in multi-GHz regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 885-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, "High-power ultrafast laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ebling, D.

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).

Florez, L. T.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, "High-power ultrafast laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, "Soliton like pulse-shaping in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).

Gmitter, T.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, "High-power ultrafast laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).

Guina, M.

Ha, W.

Q. Zhang, K. Jasim, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, "Operation of a passively mode-locked extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser in multi-GHz regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 885-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hakulinen, T.

Häring, R.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, "Soliton like pulse-shaping in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Härkönen, A.

Herda, R.

Heritage, J. P.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, "High-power ultrafast laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, "Soliton like pulse-shaping in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E.

Q. Zhang, K. Jasim, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, "Operation of a passively mode-locked extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser in multi-GHz regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 885-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jasim, K.

Q. Zhang, K. Jasim, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, "Operation of a passively mode-locked extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser in multi-GHz regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 885-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, "Soliton like pulse-shaping in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lorenser, D.

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).

Maas, D. J. H. C.

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).

Mooradian, A.

Q. Zhang, K. Jasim, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, "Operation of a passively mode-locked extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser in multi-GHz regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 885-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A. V.

Q. Zhang, K. Jasim, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, "Operation of a passively mode-locked extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser in multi-GHz regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 885-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Orsila, S. Suomalainen L.

Paschotta, R.

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, "Soliton like pulse-shaping in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. S.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, E. J.

Sagnes, I.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, "High-power ultrafast laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stoffel, N.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, "High-power ultrafast laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, "Soliton like pulse-shaping in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unold, H. J.

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, K. Jasim, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, "Operation of a passively mode-locked extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser in multi-GHz regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 885-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards wafer-scale integration of high repetition rate passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. A 79, 927-932 (2004).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, "Soliton like pulse-shaping in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, "High-power ultrafast laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, K. Jasim, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, "Operation of a passively mode-locked extended-cavity surface-emitting diode laser in multi-GHz regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 885-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cavity setup of the mode-locked SDL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated dispersion and gain of the resonant periodic QW structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse duration from SDL versus average (a) output power and (b) pulse energy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-bandwidth product versus average (a) output power and (b) pulse energy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse width dependence on harmonic number (number of pulses circulating in the laser cavity).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Redshift of the pulse spectra with an increase in the pulse energy.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Center wavelength of the pulse spectra versus average (a) pulse energy and (b) output power.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photoluminescence from the gain structure as a function of the pump power. The abrupt changes in the growth of the PL level correspond to the changes in the number of pulses in the cavity.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated spectra and pulse shapes (inset) of mode-locked SDL for (a) anomalous and (b) normal cavity dispersion.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence of pulse parameters on the pulse energy for normal second-order dispersion and positive third-order dispersion. (a) Pulse duration and spectral shift and (b) spectral width and relative time-bandwidth product versus pulse energy.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated pulse spectra for different pulse energies for normal second-order dispersion and positive third-order dispersion. The inset shows a typical pulse shape.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Temporal evolution of the SDL gain (top) and dynamic evolution of the pulse power (bottom) during one round trip for different harmonics and constant pump power.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dynamics of temporal gain evolution in semiconductor disk laser (top) and corresponding pulse sequence obtained from numerical simulation for different harmonics and constant pulse energy (bottom).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters Used in the Simulations a

Equations (6)

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d q ( t ) d t = q ( t ) q 0 τ a b s q A ( t ) 2 E s a t , a ,
d g ( t ) d t = g ( t ) g 0 τ g a i n g ( t ) A ( t ) 2 E s a t , g ,
A ( z , t ) z ̃ = i 2 D 2 2 A ( z ̃ , t ) t 2 + 1 6 D 3 3 A ( z ̃ , t ) t 3 + 1 2 ( 1 i α g ) g ( z ̃ , t ) A ( z ̃ , t ) 1 2 l g A ( z ̃ , t ) ,
P a v g , P p u m p = const g t const ;
Δ G = g t T p e r i o d 1 F r e p r a t e .
E p u l s e = const Δ G = const , g t F r e p r a t e .

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