Abstract

The effect of hydrostatic pressure on solid and hollow microsphere optical resonators was investigated. The primary goal was to explore the feasibility of a micro-optical pressure sensor based on whispering gallery modes (WGMs) and to quantify the deleterious effect of environmental pressure changes on other WGM-based sensors. Expressions were developed for WGM shifts due to changes in hydrostatic pressure of the environment surrounding the spherical resonators. These expressions were validated through experiments in which the pressure-induced WGM shifts of hollow polymethyl methacrylate microspheres were monitored. The effect of atmospheric pressure variations on silica resonators is negligible, but hydrostatic pressure may be effective in the optical tuning of hollow polymer spheres.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Review of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics," IPN Progress Report 42-162, (2005), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progresslowbarreport/42-162/162D.pdf.
  2. M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators," Opt. Lett. 21, 453-455 (1996).
  3. A. Serpenguzel, S. Arnold, G. Griffel, and J. A. Lock, "Enhanced coupling to microsphere resonances with optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 790-795 (1997).
  4. H. C. Tapalian, J.-P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, "Thermo-optic switches using coated microsphere resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Strain tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, "Shift of whispering gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption," Opt. Lett. 28, 272-274 (2003).
  8. I. Teraoka, S. Arnold, and F. Vallmer, "Perturbation approach to resonance shifts of whispering gallery modes in a dielectric microsphere as a probe of surrounding medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1937-1946 (2003).
  9. A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Rezac, "Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection," Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Das, T. Ioppolo, and V. Ötügen, "Investigation of a micro-optical concentration sensor concept based on whispering gallery mode resonators," presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., January 8-11, 2007.
  11. G. Guan, S. Arnold, and M. V. Ötügen, "Temperature measurements using a micro-optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes," AIAA J. 44, 2385-2389 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, "Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler," Sens. Actuators, A 93, 1-7 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Ioppolo, M. Kozhevnikov, M. V. Ötügen, and V. Sheverev, "Performance of a whispering gallery mode resonator-based micro-optical force sensor," presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., January 8-11, 2007.
  14. S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, 1970).
  15. J. F. Rudd and E. F. Gurnee, "Photoelastic properties of polystyrene in the glassy state. II. effect of temperature," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1096-1100 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Ay, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, A. Aydinli, and S. Agan, "Prism coupling technique investigation of elasto-optical properties of thin polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 341-345 (2004).
  17. W. Primak and D. Post, "Photoelastic constant of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index," J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779-788 (1959).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Guan, S. Arnold, and M. V. Ötügen, "Temperature measurements using a micro-optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes," AIAA J. 44, 2385-2389 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

F. Ay, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, A. Aydinli, and S. Agan, "Prism coupling technique investigation of elasto-optical properties of thin polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 341-345 (2004).

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

H. C. Tapalian, J.-P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, "Thermo-optic switches using coated microsphere resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Rezac, "Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection," Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, "Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler," Sens. Actuators, A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Strain tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1959 (1)

W. Primak and D. Post, "Photoelastic constant of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index," J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779-788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

J. F. Rudd and E. F. Gurnee, "Photoelastic properties of polystyrene in the glassy state. II. effect of temperature," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1096-1100 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Agan, S.

F. Ay, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, A. Aydinli, and S. Agan, "Prism coupling technique investigation of elasto-optical properties of thin polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 341-345 (2004).

Arnold, S.

Ay, F.

F. Ay, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, A. Aydinli, and S. Agan, "Prism coupling technique investigation of elasto-optical properties of thin polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 341-345 (2004).

Aydinli, A.

F. Ay, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, A. Aydinli, and S. Agan, "Prism coupling technique investigation of elasto-optical properties of thin polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 341-345 (2004).

Brown, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Das, N.

N. Das, T. Ioppolo, and V. Ötügen, "Investigation of a micro-optical concentration sensor concept based on whispering gallery mode resonators," presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., January 8-11, 2007.

Goodier, J. N.

S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, 1970).

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Griffel, G.

Guan, G.

G. Guan, S. Arnold, and M. V. Ötügen, "Temperature measurements using a micro-optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes," AIAA J. 44, 2385-2389 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gurnee, E. F.

J. F. Rudd and E. F. Gurnee, "Photoelastic properties of polystyrene in the glassy state. II. effect of temperature," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1096-1100 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Strain tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, "Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler," Sens. Actuators, A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holler, S.

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Strain tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators," Opt. Lett. 21, 453-455 (1996).

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Review of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics," IPN Progress Report 42-162, (2005), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progresslowbarreport/42-162/162D.pdf.

Ioppolo, T.

T. Ioppolo, M. Kozhevnikov, M. V. Ötügen, and V. Sheverev, "Performance of a whispering gallery mode resonator-based micro-optical force sensor," presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., January 8-11, 2007.

N. Das, T. Ioppolo, and V. Ötügen, "Investigation of a micro-optical concentration sensor concept based on whispering gallery mode resonators," presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., January 8-11, 2007.

Khoshsima, M.

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, "Shift of whispering gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption," Opt. Lett. 28, 272-274 (2003).

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kocabas, A.

F. Ay, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, A. Aydinli, and S. Agan, "Prism coupling technique investigation of elasto-optical properties of thin polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 341-345 (2004).

Kocabas, C.

F. Ay, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, A. Aydinli, and S. Agan, "Prism coupling technique investigation of elasto-optical properties of thin polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 341-345 (2004).

Kozhevnikov, M.

T. Ioppolo, M. Kozhevnikov, M. V. Ötügen, and V. Sheverev, "Performance of a whispering gallery mode resonator-based micro-optical force sensor," presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., January 8-11, 2007.

Laine, J. P.

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, "Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler," Sens. Actuators, A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

H. C. Tapalian, J.-P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, "Thermo-optic switches using coated microsphere resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lane, P. A.

H. C. Tapalian, J.-P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, "Thermo-optic switches using coated microsphere resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Strain tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Little, B.

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, "Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler," Sens. Actuators, A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lock, J. A.

Maleki, L.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Review of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics," IPN Progress Report 42-162, (2005), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progresslowbarreport/42-162/162D.pdf.

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Review of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics," IPN Progress Report 42-162, (2005), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progresslowbarreport/42-162/162D.pdf.

Ötügen, M. V.

G. Guan, S. Arnold, and M. V. Ötügen, "Temperature measurements using a micro-optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes," AIAA J. 44, 2385-2389 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Ioppolo, M. Kozhevnikov, M. V. Ötügen, and V. Sheverev, "Performance of a whispering gallery mode resonator-based micro-optical force sensor," presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., January 8-11, 2007.

Ötügen, V.

N. Das, T. Ioppolo, and V. Ötügen, "Investigation of a micro-optical concentration sensor concept based on whispering gallery mode resonators," presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., January 8-11, 2007.

Post, D.

W. Primak and D. Post, "Photoelastic constant of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index," J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779-788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Primak, W.

W. Primak and D. Post, "Photoelastic constant of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index," J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779-788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J.-M.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Strain tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rezac, J. P.

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Rezac, "Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection," Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberger, A. T.

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Rezac, "Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection," Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J. F.

J. F. Rudd and E. F. Gurnee, "Photoelastic properties of polystyrene in the glassy state. II. effect of temperature," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1096-1100 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators," Opt. Lett. 21, 453-455 (1996).

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Review of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics," IPN Progress Report 42-162, (2005), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progresslowbarreport/42-162/162D.pdf.

Serpenguzel, A.

Sheverev, V.

T. Ioppolo, M. Kozhevnikov, M. V. Ötügen, and V. Sheverev, "Performance of a whispering gallery mode resonator-based micro-optical force sensor," presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., January 8-11, 2007.

Strekalov, D.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Review of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics," IPN Progress Report 42-162, (2005), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progresslowbarreport/42-162/162D.pdf.

Tapalian, C.

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, "Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler," Sens. Actuators, A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tapalian, H. C.

H. C. Tapalian, J.-P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, "Thermo-optic switches using coated microsphere resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

Timoshenko, S. P.

S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, 1970).

Treussart, F.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Strain tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vallmer, F.

Velichansky, V. L.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Strain tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volikov, P. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Strain tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, "Shift of whispering gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption," Opt. Lett. 28, 272-274 (2003).

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

G. Guan, S. Arnold, and M. V. Ötügen, "Temperature measurements using a micro-optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes," AIAA J. 44, 2385-2389 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. C. Tapalian, J.-P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, "Thermo-optic switches using coated microsphere resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. F. Rudd and E. F. Gurnee, "Photoelastic properties of polystyrene in the glassy state. II. effect of temperature," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1096-1100 (1957).
[CrossRef]

F. Ay, A. Kocabas, C. Kocabas, A. Aydinli, and S. Agan, "Prism coupling technique investigation of elasto-optical properties of thin polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 341-345 (2004).

W. Primak and D. Post, "Photoelastic constant of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index," J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779-788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Strain tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Rezac, "Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection," Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators, A (1)

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, "Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler," Sens. Actuators, A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

T. Ioppolo, M. Kozhevnikov, M. V. Ötügen, and V. Sheverev, "Performance of a whispering gallery mode resonator-based micro-optical force sensor," presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., January 8-11, 2007.

S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, 1970).

N. Das, T. Ioppolo, and V. Ötügen, "Investigation of a micro-optical concentration sensor concept based on whispering gallery mode resonators," presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., January 8-11, 2007.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Review of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics," IPN Progress Report 42-162, (2005), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progresslowbarreport/42-162/162D.pdf.

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