Abstract

Detailed spectral properties of Nd3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 cleavage crystal have been studied. Laser operation of a cleaved 1.2at.% Nd3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 crystal pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser was demonstrated. The achieved highest slope efficiencies are 51% and 16% for a 1061 and 1337nm laser, respectively. The corresponding thresholds are 3 and 45mW, respectively. The results reveal that the cleaved Nd3+:BGM crystal has a high optical quality, good parallelism, and flatness and is a promising candidate for microchip laser gain media without processing.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Krupke, "Radiative transition probabilities within the 4f3 ground configuration of Nd:YAG," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 153-159 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. F. Fedorov, V. V. Ipatov, and G. I. Rozhnovskaya, "Phase equilibria in the BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln=Nd or Gd)," Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 27, 1019-1022 (1982).
  21. F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, "Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, C. Mucchino, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, "Optical spectroscopy of Nd3+ in KLa(MoO4)2 crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1958-1965 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Jaque, Z. D. Luo, and J. G. Sole, "Quantum efficiency of Nd-doped lasers measured by pump-induced crystal heating: application to the Nd3+: Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal," Appl. Phys. B 72, 811-814 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136, A954-957 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, M. Montes, and D. Jaque, "Improving the performance of a neodymium aluminium borate microchip laser crystal by resonant pumping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 715-717 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. P. Meyn, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and efficient diode-pumped laser operation of neodymium-doped lanthanum scandium borate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 913-917 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. J. Zayhowski, "Microchip lasers," Opt. Mater. 11, 255-267 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, C. Y. Tu, J. J. Romero, and J. G. Sole, "High efficient laser operation of the Nd:KGd(WO4)2 crystal grown by flux method," Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 888-889 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. Boulon, G. Metrat, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, M. R. Kokta, L. Kravchik, and Y. Kalisky, "Efficient diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser grown by top nucleated floating crystal method," Opt. Mater. 24, 377-383 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. N. Faure, C. Borel, M. Couchaud, G. Basset, R. Templier, and C. Wyon, "Optical properties and laser performance of neodymium doped scheelites CaWO4 and NaGd(WO4)2," Appl. Phys. B 63, 593-598 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. T. T. Basiev, S. V. Vassiliev, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Osiko, V. M. Puzikov, and M. B. Kosmyna, "Laser and self-Raman-laser oscillations of PbMoO4:Nd3+ crystal under laser diode pumping," Opt. Lett. 31, 65-67 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, "Performance of various diode-pumped Nd-laser materials--influence of inhomogeneous broadening," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

D. Zhao, Z. B. Lin, L. Z. Zhang, and G. F. Wang, "Growth and spectroscopic characterizations of Nd3+-doped BaGd2(MoO4)4 crystal," J. Phys. D 40, 1018-1021 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Zhu, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Yb3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 cleavage crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Garcia-Cortes, C. Cascales, A. de Andres, C. Zaldo, E. V. Zharikov, K. A. Subbotin, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, and M. Rico, "Raman scattering and Nd3+ laser operation in NaLa(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 157-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, "Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+-doped NaGd(MoO4)2 crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 290, 670-673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Basiev, S. V. Vassiliev, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Osiko, V. M. Puzikov, and M. B. Kosmyna, "Laser and self-Raman-laser oscillations of PbMoO4:Nd3+ crystal under laser diode pumping," Opt. Lett. 31, 65-67 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Y. Sato and T. Taira, "Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:GdVO4 and Nd3+:YVO4 with hybrid process," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 613-620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, "Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, M. Montes, and D. Jaque, "Improving the performance of a neodymium aluminium borate microchip laser crystal by resonant pumping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 715-717 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. Boulon, G. Metrat, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, M. R. Kokta, L. Kravchik, and Y. Kalisky, "Efficient diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser grown by top nucleated floating crystal method," Opt. Mater. 24, 377-383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Mendez-Blas, M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, and C. Cascales, "Optical emission properties of Nd3+ in NaBi(WO4)2 single crystal," Mol. Phys. 101, 941-949 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

K. Fu, Z. P. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, J. H. Liu, R. B. Song, H. C. Chen, and Z. S. Shao, "Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, Z. D. Luo, and J. G. Sole, "Quantum efficiency of Nd-doped lasers measured by pump-induced crystal heating: application to the Nd3+: Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal," Appl. Phys. B 72, 811-814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, C. Y. Tu, J. J. Romero, and J. G. Sole, "High efficient laser operation of the Nd:KGd(WO4)2 crystal grown by flux method," Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 888-889 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, "Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics," Appl. Phys. B 71, 469-473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

E. Molva, "Microchip lasers and their applications in optical microsystems," Opt. Mater. 11, 289-299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, C. Mucchino, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, "Optical spectroscopy of Nd3+ in KLa(MoO4)2 crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1958-1965 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Zayhowski, "Microchip lasers," Opt. Mater. 11, 255-267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. Faure, C. Borel, M. Couchaud, G. Basset, R. Templier, and C. Wyon, "Optical properties and laser performance of neodymium doped scheelites CaWO4 and NaGd(WO4)2," Appl. Phys. B 63, 593-598 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. Meyn, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and efficient diode-pumped laser operation of neodymium-doped lanthanum scandium borate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 913-917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, "Performance of various diode-pumped Nd-laser materials--influence of inhomogeneous broadening," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Dai and O. M. Stafsudd, "Polarized absorption-spectrum and intensity analysis of trivalent neodymium in sodium beta alumina," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 367-379 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

N. F. Fedorov, V. V. Ipatov, and G. I. Rozhnovskaya, "Phase equilibria in the BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln=Nd or Gd)," Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 27, 1019-1022 (1982).

V. V. Vakulyuk, A. A. Evdokimov, and G. P. Khomchenko, "The BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln=Nd, Sm, Yb)," Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 27, 1016-1019 (1982).

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

T. P. Balakireva, C. M. Briskina, V. V. Vakulyuk, E. V. Vasil'ev, V. F. Zolin, A. A. Maier, V. M. Markushev, V. A. Murashov, and M. V. Provotorov, "Luminescence and stimulated emission from BaGd2−xNdx(MoO4)4 crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 398-400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

W. Krupke, "Radiative transition probabilities within the 4f3 ground configuration of Nd:YAG," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 153-159 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136, A954-957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Balakireva, T. P.

T. P. Balakireva, C. M. Briskina, V. V. Vakulyuk, E. V. Vasil'ev, V. F. Zolin, A. A. Maier, V. M. Markushev, V. A. Murashov, and M. V. Provotorov, "Luminescence and stimulated emission from BaGd2−xNdx(MoO4)4 crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 398-400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Basiev, T. T.

Basset, G.

N. Faure, C. Borel, M. Couchaud, G. Basset, R. Templier, and C. Wyon, "Optical properties and laser performance of neodymium doped scheelites CaWO4 and NaGd(WO4)2," Appl. Phys. B 63, 593-598 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

Bjurshagen, S.

A. Garcia-Cortes, C. Cascales, A. de Andres, C. Zaldo, E. V. Zharikov, K. A. Subbotin, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, and M. Rico, "Raman scattering and Nd3+ laser operation in NaLa(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 157-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borel, C.

N. Faure, C. Borel, M. Couchaud, G. Basset, R. Templier, and C. Wyon, "Optical properties and laser performance of neodymium doped scheelites CaWO4 and NaGd(WO4)2," Appl. Phys. B 63, 593-598 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

G. Boulon, G. Metrat, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, M. R. Kokta, L. Kravchik, and Y. Kalisky, "Efficient diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser grown by top nucleated floating crystal method," Opt. Mater. 24, 377-383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bovero, E.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, "Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, A.

G. Boulon, G. Metrat, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, M. R. Kokta, L. Kravchik, and Y. Kalisky, "Efficient diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser grown by top nucleated floating crystal method," Opt. Mater. 24, 377-383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Briskina, C. M.

T. P. Balakireva, C. M. Briskina, V. V. Vakulyuk, E. V. Vasil'ev, V. F. Zolin, A. A. Maier, V. M. Markushev, V. A. Murashov, and M. V. Provotorov, "Luminescence and stimulated emission from BaGd2−xNdx(MoO4)4 crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 398-400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Caldino, U.

D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Carozzo, V.

Cascales, C.

A. Garcia-Cortes, C. Cascales, A. de Andres, C. Zaldo, E. V. Zharikov, K. A. Subbotin, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, and M. Rico, "Raman scattering and Nd3+ laser operation in NaLa(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 157-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Mendez-Blas, M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, and C. Cascales, "Optical emission properties of Nd3+ in NaBi(WO4)2 single crystal," Mol. Phys. 101, 941-949 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cavalli, E.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, "Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, C. Mucchino, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, "Optical spectroscopy of Nd3+ in KLa(MoO4)2 crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1958-1965 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, I.

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, "Performance of various diode-pumped Nd-laser materials--influence of inhomogeneous broadening," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. C.

K. Fu, Z. P. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, J. H. Liu, R. B. Song, H. C. Chen, and Z. S. Shao, "Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. Y.

Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, C. Y. Tu, J. J. Romero, and J. G. Sole, "High efficient laser operation of the Nd:KGd(WO4)2 crystal grown by flux method," Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 888-889 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

H. M. Zhu, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Yb3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 cleavage crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z. X.

K. Fu, Z. P. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, J. H. Liu, R. B. Song, H. C. Chen, and Z. S. Shao, "Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cornacchia, F.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, "Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Couchaud, M.

N. Faure, C. Borel, M. Couchaud, G. Basset, R. Templier, and C. Wyon, "Optical properties and laser performance of neodymium doped scheelites CaWO4 and NaGd(WO4)2," Appl. Phys. B 63, 593-598 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

H. Dai and O. M. Stafsudd, "Polarized absorption-spectrum and intensity analysis of trivalent neodymium in sodium beta alumina," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 367-379 (1991).
[CrossRef]

de Andres, A.

A. Garcia-Cortes, C. Cascales, A. de Andres, C. Zaldo, E. V. Zharikov, K. A. Subbotin, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, and M. Rico, "Raman scattering and Nd3+ laser operation in NaLa(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 157-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doroshenko, M. E.

Enguita, O.

D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Evdokimov, A. A.

V. V. Vakulyuk, A. A. Evdokimov, and G. P. Khomchenko, "The BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln=Nd, Sm, Yb)," Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 27, 1016-1019 (1982).

Faure, N.

N. Faure, C. Borel, M. Couchaud, G. Basset, R. Templier, and C. Wyon, "Optical properties and laser performance of neodymium doped scheelites CaWO4 and NaGd(WO4)2," Appl. Phys. B 63, 593-598 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, N. F.

N. F. Fedorov, V. V. Ipatov, and G. I. Rozhnovskaya, "Phase equilibria in the BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln=Nd or Gd)," Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 27, 1019-1022 (1982).

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Fu, K.

K. Fu, Z. P. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, J. H. Liu, R. B. Song, H. C. Chen, and Z. S. Shao, "Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garapon, C.

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, "Performance of various diode-pumped Nd-laser materials--influence of inhomogeneous broadening," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Garcia Sole, J.

D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Cortes, A.

A. Garcia-Cortes, C. Cascales, A. de Andres, C. Zaldo, E. V. Zharikov, K. A. Subbotin, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, and M. Rico, "Raman scattering and Nd3+ laser operation in NaLa(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 157-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X. H.

H. M. Zhu, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Yb3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 cleavage crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. D.

H. M. Zhu, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Yb3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 cleavage crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, M. Montes, and D. Jaque, "Improving the performance of a neodymium aluminium borate microchip laser crystal by resonant pumping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 715-717 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

J. P. Meyn, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and efficient diode-pumped laser operation of neodymium-doped lanthanum scandium borate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 913-917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ipatov, V. V.

N. F. Fedorov, V. V. Ipatov, and G. I. Rozhnovskaya, "Phase equilibria in the BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln=Nd or Gd)," Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 27, 1019-1022 (1982).

Jaque, D.

Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, M. Montes, and D. Jaque, "Improving the performance of a neodymium aluminium borate microchip laser crystal by resonant pumping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 715-717 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, Z. D. Luo, and J. G. Sole, "Quantum efficiency of Nd-doped lasers measured by pump-induced crystal heating: application to the Nd3+: Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal," Appl. Phys. B 72, 811-814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

J. P. Meyn, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and efficient diode-pumped laser operation of neodymium-doped lanthanum scandium borate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 913-917 (1994).
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Jenssen, H. P.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
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Jiang, A. D.

D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
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Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kalisky, Y.

G. Boulon, G. Metrat, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, M. R. Kokta, L. Kravchik, and Y. Kalisky, "Efficient diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser grown by top nucleated floating crystal method," Opt. Mater. 24, 377-383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, "Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics," Appl. Phys. B 71, 469-473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khomchenko, G. P.

V. V. Vakulyuk, A. A. Evdokimov, and G. P. Khomchenko, "The BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln=Nd, Sm, Yb)," Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 27, 1016-1019 (1982).

Kokta, M. R.

G. Boulon, G. Metrat, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, M. R. Kokta, L. Kravchik, and Y. Kalisky, "Efficient diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser grown by top nucleated floating crystal method," Opt. Mater. 24, 377-383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kosmyna, M. B.

Kravchik, L.

G. Boulon, G. Metrat, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, M. R. Kokta, L. Kravchik, and Y. Kalisky, "Efficient diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser grown by top nucleated floating crystal method," Opt. Mater. 24, 377-383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W.

W. Krupke, "Radiative transition probabilities within the 4f3 ground configuration of Nd:YAG," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 153-159 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, "Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics," Appl. Phys. B 71, 469-473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, "Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+-doped NaGd(MoO4)2 crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 290, 670-673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. Q.

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. F.

H. M. Zhu, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Yb3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 cleavage crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

X. Li, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, "Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+-doped NaGd(MoO4)2 crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 290, 670-673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z. B.

D. Zhao, Z. B. Lin, L. Z. Zhang, and G. F. Wang, "Growth and spectroscopic characterizations of Nd3+-doped BaGd2(MoO4)4 crystal," J. Phys. D 40, 1018-1021 (2007).
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Liu, J. H.

K. Fu, Z. P. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, J. H. Liu, R. B. Song, H. C. Chen, and Z. S. Shao, "Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, "Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics," Appl. Phys. B 71, 469-473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z. D.

H. M. Zhu, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Yb3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 cleavage crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, M. Montes, and D. Jaque, "Improving the performance of a neodymium aluminium borate microchip laser crystal by resonant pumping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 715-717 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, Z. D. Luo, and J. G. Sole, "Quantum efficiency of Nd-doped lasers measured by pump-induced crystal heating: application to the Nd3+: Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal," Appl. Phys. B 72, 811-814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, C. Y. Tu, J. J. Romero, and J. G. Sole, "High efficient laser operation of the Nd:KGd(WO4)2 crystal grown by flux method," Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 888-889 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Magnani, N.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, "Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maier, A. A.

T. P. Balakireva, C. M. Briskina, V. V. Vakulyuk, E. V. Vasil'ev, V. F. Zolin, A. A. Maier, V. M. Markushev, V. A. Murashov, and M. V. Provotorov, "Luminescence and stimulated emission from BaGd2−xNdx(MoO4)4 crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 398-400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Markushev, V. M.

T. P. Balakireva, C. M. Briskina, V. V. Vakulyuk, E. V. Vasil'ev, V. F. Zolin, A. A. Maier, V. M. Markushev, V. A. Murashov, and M. V. Provotorov, "Luminescence and stimulated emission from BaGd2−xNdx(MoO4)4 crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 398-400 (1981).
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D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136, A954-957 (1964).
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Mendez-Blas, A.

A. Mendez-Blas, M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, and C. Cascales, "Optical emission properties of Nd3+ in NaBi(WO4)2 single crystal," Mol. Phys. 101, 941-949 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mermilliod, N.

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, "Performance of various diode-pumped Nd-laser materials--influence of inhomogeneous broadening," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Metrat, G.

G. Boulon, G. Metrat, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, M. R. Kokta, L. Kravchik, and Y. Kalisky, "Efficient diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser grown by top nucleated floating crystal method," Opt. Mater. 24, 377-383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J. P.

J. P. Meyn, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and efficient diode-pumped laser operation of neodymium-doped lanthanum scandium borate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 913-917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Molva, E.

E. Molva, "Microchip lasers and their applications in optical microsystems," Opt. Mater. 11, 289-299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, "Performance of various diode-pumped Nd-laser materials--influence of inhomogeneous broadening," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Montes, M.

Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, M. Montes, and D. Jaque, "Improving the performance of a neodymium aluminium borate microchip laser crystal by resonant pumping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 715-717 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mucchino, C.

Muhlstein, N.

G. Boulon, G. Metrat, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, M. R. Kokta, L. Kravchik, and Y. Kalisky, "Efficient diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser grown by top nucleated floating crystal method," Opt. Mater. 24, 377-383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Munoz-Santiuste, J. E.

D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murashov, V. A.

T. P. Balakireva, C. M. Briskina, V. V. Vakulyuk, E. V. Vasil'ev, V. F. Zolin, A. A. Maier, V. M. Markushev, V. A. Murashov, and M. V. Provotorov, "Luminescence and stimulated emission from BaGd2−xNdx(MoO4)4 crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 398-400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, V. V.

Pasiskevicius, V.

A. Garcia-Cortes, C. Cascales, A. de Andres, C. Zaldo, E. V. Zharikov, K. A. Subbotin, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, and M. Rico, "Raman scattering and Nd3+ laser operation in NaLa(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 157-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prabhu, M.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, "Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics," Appl. Phys. B 71, 469-473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Provotorov, M. V.

T. P. Balakireva, C. M. Briskina, V. V. Vakulyuk, E. V. Vasil'ev, V. F. Zolin, A. A. Maier, V. M. Markushev, V. A. Murashov, and M. V. Provotorov, "Luminescence and stimulated emission from BaGd2−xNdx(MoO4)4 crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 398-400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Puzikov, V. M.

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, M. O.

D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rico, M.

A. Garcia-Cortes, C. Cascales, A. de Andres, C. Zaldo, E. V. Zharikov, K. A. Subbotin, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, and M. Rico, "Raman scattering and Nd3+ laser operation in NaLa(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 157-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Mendez-Blas, M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, and C. Cascales, "Optical emission properties of Nd3+ in NaBi(WO4)2 single crystal," Mol. Phys. 101, 941-949 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J. J.

Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, C. Y. Tu, J. J. Romero, and J. G. Sole, "High efficient laser operation of the Nd:KGd(WO4)2 crystal grown by flux method," Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 888-889 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Romero, R.

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, "Performance of various diode-pumped Nd-laser materials--influence of inhomogeneous broadening," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rozhnovskaya, G. I.

N. F. Fedorov, V. V. Ipatov, and G. I. Rozhnovskaya, "Phase equilibria in the BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln=Nd or Gd)," Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 27, 1019-1022 (1982).

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, "Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:GdVO4 and Nd3+:YVO4 with hybrid process," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 613-620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z. S.

K. Fu, Z. P. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, J. H. Liu, R. B. Song, H. C. Chen, and Z. S. Shao, "Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sole, J. G.

D. Jaque, Z. D. Luo, and J. G. Sole, "Quantum efficiency of Nd-doped lasers measured by pump-induced crystal heating: application to the Nd3+: Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal," Appl. Phys. B 72, 811-814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, C. Y. Tu, J. J. Romero, and J. G. Sole, "High efficient laser operation of the Nd:KGd(WO4)2 crystal grown by flux method," Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 888-889 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, "Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics," Appl. Phys. B 71, 469-473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, R. B.

K. Fu, Z. P. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, J. H. Liu, R. B. Song, H. C. Chen, and Z. S. Shao, "Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
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H. Dai and O. M. Stafsudd, "Polarized absorption-spectrum and intensity analysis of trivalent neodymium in sodium beta alumina," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 367-379 (1991).
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Subbotin, K. A.

A. Garcia-Cortes, C. Cascales, A. de Andres, C. Zaldo, E. V. Zharikov, K. A. Subbotin, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, and M. Rico, "Raman scattering and Nd3+ laser operation in NaLa(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 157-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, "Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:GdVO4 and Nd3+:YVO4 with hybrid process," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 613-620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Q. G.

H. M. Zhu, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Yb3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 cleavage crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Templier, R.

N. Faure, C. Borel, M. Couchaud, G. Basset, R. Templier, and C. Wyon, "Optical properties and laser performance of neodymium doped scheelites CaWO4 and NaGd(WO4)2," Appl. Phys. B 63, 593-598 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toncelli, A.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, "Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, C. Mucchino, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, "Optical spectroscopy of Nd3+ in KLa(MoO4)2 crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1958-1965 (1999).
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Tonelli, M.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, "Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, C. Mucchino, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, "Optical spectroscopy of Nd3+ in KLa(MoO4)2 crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1958-1965 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C. Y.

Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, C. Y. Tu, J. J. Romero, and J. G. Sole, "High efficient laser operation of the Nd:KGd(WO4)2 crystal grown by flux method," Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 888-889 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, "Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics," Appl. Phys. B 71, 469-473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vakulyuk, V. V.

V. V. Vakulyuk, A. A. Evdokimov, and G. P. Khomchenko, "The BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln=Nd, Sm, Yb)," Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 27, 1016-1019 (1982).

T. P. Balakireva, C. M. Briskina, V. V. Vakulyuk, E. V. Vasil'ev, V. F. Zolin, A. A. Maier, V. M. Markushev, V. A. Murashov, and M. V. Provotorov, "Luminescence and stimulated emission from BaGd2−xNdx(MoO4)4 crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 398-400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vasil'ev, E. V.

T. P. Balakireva, C. M. Briskina, V. V. Vakulyuk, E. V. Vasil'ev, V. F. Zolin, A. A. Maier, V. M. Markushev, V. A. Murashov, and M. V. Provotorov, "Luminescence and stimulated emission from BaGd2−xNdx(MoO4)4 crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 398-400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vassiliev, S. V.

Volkov, V.

A. Mendez-Blas, M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, and C. Cascales, "Optical emission properties of Nd3+ in NaBi(WO4)2 single crystal," Mol. Phys. 101, 941-949 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

X. Li, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, "Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+-doped NaGd(MoO4)2 crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 290, 670-673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. F.

D. Zhao, Z. B. Lin, L. Z. Zhang, and G. F. Wang, "Growth and spectroscopic characterizations of Nd3+-doped BaGd2(MoO4)4 crystal," J. Phys. D 40, 1018-1021 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. P.

K. Fu, Z. P. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, J. H. Liu, R. B. Song, H. C. Chen, and Z. S. Shao, "Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wyon, C.

N. Faure, C. Borel, M. Couchaud, G. Basset, R. Templier, and C. Wyon, "Optical properties and laser performance of neodymium doped scheelites CaWO4 and NaGd(WO4)2," Appl. Phys. B 63, 593-598 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, "Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics," Appl. Phys. B 71, 469-473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, H.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, "Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics," Appl. Phys. B 71, 469-473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yanagitani, T.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, "Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics," Appl. Phys. B 71, 469-473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zaldo, C.

A. Garcia-Cortes, C. Cascales, A. de Andres, C. Zaldo, E. V. Zharikov, K. A. Subbotin, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, and M. Rico, "Raman scattering and Nd3+ laser operation in NaLa(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 157-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Mendez-Blas, M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, and C. Cascales, "Optical emission properties of Nd3+ in NaBi(WO4)2 single crystal," Mol. Phys. 101, 941-949 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zannoni, E.

Zayhowski, J. J.

J. J. Zayhowski, "Microchip lasers," Opt. Mater. 11, 255-267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. Li, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, "Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+-doped NaGd(MoO4)2 crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 290, 670-673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. Z.

D. Zhao, Z. B. Lin, L. Z. Zhang, and G. F. Wang, "Growth and spectroscopic characterizations of Nd3+-doped BaGd2(MoO4)4 crystal," J. Phys. D 40, 1018-1021 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

D. Zhao, Z. B. Lin, L. Z. Zhang, and G. F. Wang, "Growth and spectroscopic characterizations of Nd3+-doped BaGd2(MoO4)4 crystal," J. Phys. D 40, 1018-1021 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zharikov, E. V.

A. Garcia-Cortes, C. Cascales, A. de Andres, C. Zaldo, E. V. Zharikov, K. A. Subbotin, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, and M. Rico, "Raman scattering and Nd3+ laser operation in NaLa(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 157-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H. M.

H. M. Zhu, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Yb3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 cleavage crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zolin, V. F.

T. P. Balakireva, C. M. Briskina, V. V. Vakulyuk, E. V. Vasil'ev, V. F. Zolin, A. A. Maier, V. M. Markushev, V. A. Murashov, and M. V. Provotorov, "Luminescence and stimulated emission from BaGd2−xNdx(MoO4)4 crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 398-400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, "Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics," Appl. Phys. B 71, 469-473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, Z. D. Luo, and J. G. Sole, "Quantum efficiency of Nd-doped lasers measured by pump-induced crystal heating: application to the Nd3+: Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal," Appl. Phys. B 72, 811-814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Faure, C. Borel, M. Couchaud, G. Basset, R. Templier, and C. Wyon, "Optical properties and laser performance of neodymium doped scheelites CaWO4 and NaGd(WO4)2," Appl. Phys. B 63, 593-598 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, M. Montes, and D. Jaque, "Improving the performance of a neodymium aluminium borate microchip laser crystal by resonant pumping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 715-717 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, C. Y. Tu, J. J. Romero, and J. G. Sole, "High efficient laser operation of the Nd:KGd(WO4)2 crystal grown by flux method," Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 888-889 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

N. Mermilliod, R. Romero, I. Chartier, C. Garapon, and R. Moncorge, "Performance of various diode-pumped Nd-laser materials--influence of inhomogeneous broadening," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1179-1187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Meyn, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and efficient diode-pumped laser operation of neodymium-doped lanthanum scandium borate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 913-917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. Krupke, "Radiative transition probabilities within the 4f3 ground configuration of Nd:YAG," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 153-159 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Garcia-Cortes, C. Cascales, A. de Andres, C. Zaldo, E. V. Zharikov, K. A. Subbotin, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, and M. Rico, "Raman scattering and Nd3+ laser operation in NaLa(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 157-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Sato and T. Taira, "Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:GdVO4 and Nd3+:YVO4 with hybrid process," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 613-620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Zhu, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Yb3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 cleavage crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, O. Enguita, U. Caldino, M. O. Ramirez, J. Garcia Sole, C. Zaldo, J. E. Munoz-Santiuste, A. D. Jiang, and Z. D. Luo, "Optical characterization and laser gain modeling of a NdAl3(BO3)4 (NAB) microchip laser crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 561-569 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

X. Li, Z. Lin, L. Zhang, and G. Wang, "Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+-doped NaGd(MoO4)2 crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 290, 670-673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

H. Dai and O. M. Stafsudd, "Polarized absorption-spectrum and intensity analysis of trivalent neodymium in sodium beta alumina," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 367-379 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, E. Cavalli, E. Bovero, and N. Magnani, "Optical spectroscopy of SrWO4:Nd3+ single crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16, 6867-6876 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

D. Zhao, Z. B. Lin, L. Z. Zhang, and G. F. Wang, "Growth and spectroscopic characterizations of Nd3+-doped BaGd2(MoO4)4 crystal," J. Phys. D 40, 1018-1021 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (1)

A. Mendez-Blas, M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, and C. Cascales, "Optical emission properties of Nd3+ in NaBi(WO4)2 single crystal," Mol. Phys. 101, 941-949 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

K. Fu, Z. P. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, J. H. Liu, R. B. Song, H. C. Chen, and Z. S. Shao, "Effect of Nd3+ concentration on the laser performance of a new laser crystal: Nd:NaY(WO4)2," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 593-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (3)

G. Boulon, G. Metrat, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, M. R. Kokta, L. Kravchik, and Y. Kalisky, "Efficient diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser grown by top nucleated floating crystal method," Opt. Mater. 24, 377-383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Zayhowski, "Microchip lasers," Opt. Mater. 11, 255-267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Molva, "Microchip lasers and their applications in optical microsystems," Opt. Mater. 11, 289-299 (1999).
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N. F. Fedorov, V. V. Ipatov, and G. I. Rozhnovskaya, "Phase equilibria in the BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln=Nd or Gd)," Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 27, 1019-1022 (1982).

V. V. Vakulyuk, A. A. Evdokimov, and G. P. Khomchenko, "The BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln=Nd, Sm, Yb)," Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 27, 1016-1019 (1982).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. P. Balakireva, C. M. Briskina, V. V. Vakulyuk, E. V. Vasil'ev, V. F. Zolin, A. A. Maier, V. M. Markushev, V. A. Murashov, and M. V. Provotorov, "Luminescence and stimulated emission from BaGd2−xNdx(MoO4)4 crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 398-400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the 1.2 at. % Nd 3 + :BGM sample: ( a ) ( 010 ) plane is parallel to the paper plane; ( b ) ( 010 ) plane is perpendicular to the paper plane. The ( 010 ) plane is the cleavage plane and without polishing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarized absorption spectra of the 1.2 at. % Nd 3 + :BGM crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarized absorption cross sections of the 1.2 at. % Nd 3 + :BGM crystal in a range of 720 910 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarized emission cross sections of the F 3 2 4 I 9 2 4 transition calculated by the F-L and RM methods.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarized emission cross sections of the F 3 2 4 I 11 2 4 and F 3 2 4 I 13 2 4 transitions calculated by the F-L method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Laser output power of 1061 nm versus absorbed pump power. (b) Laser spectrum of the 3.5% output coupler when the output power is 700 mW .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Laser output power of 1337 nm versus absorbed pump power. (b) Laser spectrum of the 1.8% output coupler when the output power is 210 mW .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 J-O Intensity Parameters, Measured and Calculated Line Strengths for Polarized Spectra of Nd 3 + :BGM Crystal at Room Temperature a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated Spontaneous Emission Probabilities, Branching Ratios, and Radiative Lifetime of the F 3 2 4 Multiplet for the Nd 3 + :BGM Crystal

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Several Important Parameters between the Nd 3 + :BGM and other Nd 3 + -Doped Laser Crystals

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ F - L q = λ 5 A q ( J J ) I q ( λ ) 8 π c n 2 band λ I q ( λ ) d λ ,
σ RM q ( λ ) = σ abs q ( λ ) Z l Z u exp ( E z l h c λ 1 k B T ) ,

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