Abstract

We investigate the potential of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates as dynamic memory devices for coherent optical information processing. Specifically, the number of ultraslow pulses that can be simultaneously present within the storage time in the condensate has been analyzed. By modeling short-pulse propagation through the condensate, taking into account high-order dispersive properties, constraints on the information storage capacity are discussed. The roles of temperature, spatial inhomogeneity, the interatomic interactions, and the coupling laser on the pulse shape are pointed out. For a restricted set of parameters, it has been found that coherent optical information storage capacity would be optimized.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metrespersecond in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
  2. D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767-1770 (1999).
  3. M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
  4. S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36-42 (1997).
  5. J. P. Marangos, "Topical review: electromagnetically induced transparency," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 471-503 (1998).
  6. M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).
  7. M. D. Lukin, "Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457-472 (2003).
  8. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).
  9. M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, "Nonlinear optics and quantum entanglement of ultraslow single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419-1422 (2000).
  10. H. Kang, G. Hernandez, and Y. Zhu, "Resonant four-wave mixing with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 70, 061804(R) (2004).
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  12. M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and M. Fleischhauer, "Entanglement of atomic ensembles by trapping correlated photon states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4232-4235 (2000).
  13. M. D. Lukin and A. Imamolu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature 413, 273-276 (2001).
  14. D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783786 (2001).
  15. Y. Li, P. Zhang, P. Zanardi, and C. P. Sun, "Non-Abelian geometric quantum memory with an atomic ensemble," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032330 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
  17. X.-G. Wei, J.-H. Wu, G.-X. Sun, Z. Shao, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, "Splitting of an electromagnetically induced transparency window of rubidium atoms in a static magnetic field," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023806 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, C. Y. Ye, G. R. Welch, O. Kocharovskaya, and M. O. Scully, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 063804 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Bashkansky, G. Beadie, Z. Dutton, F. K. Fatemi, J. Reintjes, and M. Steiner, "Slow-light dynamics of large-bandwidth pulses in warm rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033819 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Kasapi, "Dispersive properties of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 46, R29-R32 (1992).
  22. A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. W. Zhang, Z. Xu, and L. You, "Effective size of a trapped atomic Bose gas," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053627 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Giorgini, L. P. Pitaevskii, and S. Stringari, "Thermodynamics of a trapped Bose-condensed gas," J. Low Temp. Phys. 109, 309-355 (1997).
  27. M. Naraschewski and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, "Analytical description of a trapped semi-ideal Bose gas at finite temperature," Phys. Rev. A 58, 2423-2426 (1998).
  28. V. V. Goldman, I. F. Silvera, and A. J. Leggett, "Atomic hydrogen in an inhomogeneous magnetic field: density profile and Bose-Einstein condensation," Phys. Rev. B 24, 2870-2873 (1981).
  29. G. Baym and C. J. Pethick, "Ground-state properties of magnetically trapped bose-condensed rubidium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 6-9 (1996).
  30. E. P. Gross, "Structure of quantized vortex," Nuovo Cimento 20, 454-477 (1961).
  31. L. P. Pitaevskii, "Vortex lines in an imperfect Bose gas," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 40, 646 (1961); L. P. Pitaevskii,[Sov. Phys. JETP 13, 451-454 (1961);].
  32. V. Bagnato, D. E. Pritchard, and D. Kleppner, "Bose-Einstein condensation in an external potential," Phys. Rev. A 35, 4354-4358 (1987).
  33. Ö. Müstecaplioglu and L. You, "Propagation of raman-matched laser pulses through a Bose-Einstein condensate," Opt. Commun. 193, 301-312 (2001).
  34. P. O. Fedichev, Yu. Kagan, G. V. Shlyapnikov, and J. T. M. Walraven, "Influence of nearly resonant light on the scattering length in low-temperature atomic gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2913-2916 (1996).
  35. J. L. Bohn and P. S. Juliene, "Prospects for influencing scattering lengths with far-off-resonant light," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1486-1491 (1997).
  36. S. Inouye, M. R. Andrews, J. Stenger, H.-J. Miesner, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Observation of Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Nature 392, 151-154 (1998).
  37. A. L. Garcia, Numerical Methods for Physics (Prentice-Hall, 2000).

2005 (6)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).

X.-G. Wei, J.-H. Wu, G.-X. Sun, Z. Shao, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, "Splitting of an electromagnetically induced transparency window of rubidium atoms in a static magnetic field," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, C. Y. Ye, G. R. Welch, O. Kocharovskaya, and M. O. Scully, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 063804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bashkansky, G. Beadie, Z. Dutton, F. K. Fatemi, J. Reintjes, and M. Steiner, "Slow-light dynamics of large-bandwidth pulses in warm rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, and L. You, "Effective size of a trapped atomic Bose gas," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Li, P. Zhang, P. Zanardi, and C. P. Sun, "Non-Abelian geometric quantum memory with an atomic ensemble," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, and Y. Zhu, "Resonant four-wave mixing with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 70, 061804(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. D. Lukin, "Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457-472 (2003).

2002 (1)

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).

Ö. Müstecaplioglu and L. You, "Propagation of raman-matched laser pulses through a Bose-Einstein condensate," Opt. Commun. 193, 301-312 (2001).

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamolu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature 413, 273-276 (2001).

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783786 (2001).

2000 (4)

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, "Dark-state polaritons in electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094-5097 (2000).

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and M. Fleischhauer, "Entanglement of atomic ensembles by trapping correlated photon states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4232-4235 (2000).

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, "Nonlinear optics and quantum entanglement of ultraslow single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419-1422 (2000).

G. Morigi and G. Agarwal, "Temperature variation of ultraslow light in a cold gas," Phys. Rev. A 62, 013801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metrespersecond in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767-1770 (1999).

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

1998 (3)

J. P. Marangos, "Topical review: electromagnetically induced transparency," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 471-503 (1998).

M. Naraschewski and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, "Analytical description of a trapped semi-ideal Bose gas at finite temperature," Phys. Rev. A 58, 2423-2426 (1998).

S. Inouye, M. R. Andrews, J. Stenger, H.-J. Miesner, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Observation of Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Nature 392, 151-154 (1998).

1997 (3)

J. L. Bohn and P. S. Juliene, "Prospects for influencing scattering lengths with far-off-resonant light," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1486-1491 (1997).

S. Giorgini, L. P. Pitaevskii, and S. Stringari, "Thermodynamics of a trapped Bose-condensed gas," J. Low Temp. Phys. 109, 309-355 (1997).

S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36-42 (1997).

1996 (2)

P. O. Fedichev, Yu. Kagan, G. V. Shlyapnikov, and J. T. M. Walraven, "Influence of nearly resonant light on the scattering length in low-temperature atomic gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2913-2916 (1996).

G. Baym and C. J. Pethick, "Ground-state properties of magnetically trapped bose-condensed rubidium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 6-9 (1996).

1992 (1)

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Kasapi, "Dispersive properties of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 46, R29-R32 (1992).

1987 (1)

V. Bagnato, D. E. Pritchard, and D. Kleppner, "Bose-Einstein condensation in an external potential," Phys. Rev. A 35, 4354-4358 (1987).

1981 (1)

V. V. Goldman, I. F. Silvera, and A. J. Leggett, "Atomic hydrogen in an inhomogeneous magnetic field: density profile and Bose-Einstein condensation," Phys. Rev. B 24, 2870-2873 (1981).

1961 (2)

E. P. Gross, "Structure of quantized vortex," Nuovo Cimento 20, 454-477 (1961).

L. P. Pitaevskii, "Vortex lines in an imperfect Bose gas," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 40, 646 (1961); L. P. Pitaevskii,[Sov. Phys. JETP 13, 451-454 (1961);].

Agarwal, G.

G. Morigi and G. Agarwal, "Temperature variation of ultraslow light in a cold gas," Phys. Rev. A 62, 013801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. R.

S. Inouye, M. R. Andrews, J. Stenger, H.-J. Miesner, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Observation of Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Nature 392, 151-154 (1998).

Bagnato, V.

V. Bagnato, D. E. Pritchard, and D. Kleppner, "Bose-Einstein condensation in an external potential," Phys. Rev. A 35, 4354-4358 (1987).

Bashkansky, M.

M. Bashkansky, G. Beadie, Z. Dutton, F. K. Fatemi, J. Reintjes, and M. Steiner, "Slow-light dynamics of large-bandwidth pulses in warm rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baym, G.

G. Baym and C. J. Pethick, "Ground-state properties of magnetically trapped bose-condensed rubidium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 6-9 (1996).

Beadie, G.

M. Bashkansky, G. Beadie, Z. Dutton, F. K. Fatemi, J. Reintjes, and M. Steiner, "Slow-light dynamics of large-bandwidth pulses in warm rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metrespersecond in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

Bohn, J. L.

J. L. Bohn and P. S. Juliene, "Prospects for influencing scattering lengths with far-off-resonant light," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1486-1491 (1997).

Budker, D.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767-1770 (1999).

Dowling, J. P.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

M. Bashkansky, G. Beadie, Z. Dutton, F. K. Fatemi, J. Reintjes, and M. Steiner, "Slow-light dynamics of large-bandwidth pulses in warm rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metrespersecond in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

Fatemi, F. K.

M. Bashkansky, G. Beadie, Z. Dutton, F. K. Fatemi, J. Reintjes, and M. Steiner, "Slow-light dynamics of large-bandwidth pulses in warm rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fedichev, P. O.

P. O. Fedichev, Yu. Kagan, G. V. Shlyapnikov, and J. T. M. Walraven, "Influence of nearly resonant light on the scattering length in low-temperature atomic gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2913-2916 (1996).

Field, J. E.

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Kasapi, "Dispersive properties of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 46, R29-R32 (1992).

Fleischhauer, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783786 (2001).

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and M. Fleischhauer, "Entanglement of atomic ensembles by trapping correlated photon states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4232-4235 (2000).

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, "Dark-state polaritons in electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094-5097 (2000).

Fry, E. S.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

Gao, J.-Y.

X.-G. Wei, J.-H. Wu, G.-X. Sun, Z. Shao, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, "Splitting of an electromagnetically induced transparency window of rubidium atoms in a static magnetic field," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, A. L.

A. L. Garcia, Numerical Methods for Physics (Prentice-Hall, 2000).

Giorgini, S.

S. Giorgini, L. P. Pitaevskii, and S. Stringari, "Thermodynamics of a trapped Bose-condensed gas," J. Low Temp. Phys. 109, 309-355 (1997).

Goldman, V. V.

V. V. Goldman, I. F. Silvera, and A. J. Leggett, "Atomic hydrogen in an inhomogeneous magnetic field: density profile and Bose-Einstein condensation," Phys. Rev. B 24, 2870-2873 (1981).

Gross, E. P.

E. P. Gross, "Structure of quantized vortex," Nuovo Cimento 20, 454-477 (1961).

Ham, B. S.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metrespersecond in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36-42 (1997).

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Kasapi, "Dispersive properties of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 46, R29-R32 (1992).

Hau, L. V.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metrespersecond in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

Hemmer, P. R.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, G.

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, and Y. Zhu, "Resonant four-wave mixing with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 70, 061804(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, "Nonlinear optics and quantum entanglement of ultraslow single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419-1422 (2000).

Imamolu, A.

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamolu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature 413, 273-276 (2001).

Inouye, S.

S. Inouye, M. R. Andrews, J. Stenger, H.-J. Miesner, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Observation of Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Nature 392, 151-154 (1998).

Jiang, Y.

X.-G. Wei, J.-H. Wu, G.-X. Sun, Z. Shao, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, "Splitting of an electromagnetically induced transparency window of rubidium atoms in a static magnetic field," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Juliene, P. S.

J. L. Bohn and P. S. Juliene, "Prospects for influencing scattering lengths with far-off-resonant light," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1486-1491 (1997).

Kagan, Yu.

P. O. Fedichev, Yu. Kagan, G. V. Shlyapnikov, and J. T. M. Walraven, "Influence of nearly resonant light on the scattering length in low-temperature atomic gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2913-2916 (1996).

Kang, H.

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, and Y. Zhu, "Resonant four-wave mixing with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 70, 061804(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Z.-H.

X.-G. Wei, J.-H. Wu, G.-X. Sun, Z. Shao, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, "Splitting of an electromagnetically induced transparency window of rubidium atoms in a static magnetic field," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasapi, A.

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Kasapi, "Dispersive properties of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 46, R29-R32 (1992).

Kash, M. M.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

Ketterle, W.

S. Inouye, M. R. Andrews, J. Stenger, H.-J. Miesner, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Observation of Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Nature 392, 151-154 (1998).

Kimball, D. F.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767-1770 (1999).

Kleppner, D.

V. Bagnato, D. E. Pritchard, and D. Kleppner, "Bose-Einstein condensation in an external potential," Phys. Rev. A 35, 4354-4358 (1987).

Kocharovskaya, O.

V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, C. Y. Ye, G. R. Welch, O. Kocharovskaya, and M. O. Scully, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 063804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leggett, A. J.

V. V. Goldman, I. F. Silvera, and A. J. Leggett, "Atomic hydrogen in an inhomogeneous magnetic field: density profile and Bose-Einstein condensation," Phys. Rev. B 24, 2870-2873 (1981).

Li, Y.

Y. Li, P. Zhang, P. Zanardi, and C. P. Sun, "Non-Abelian geometric quantum memory with an atomic ensemble," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Lukin, "Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457-472 (2003).

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamolu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature 413, 273-276 (2001).

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783786 (2001).

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and M. Fleischhauer, "Entanglement of atomic ensembles by trapping correlated photon states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4232-4235 (2000).

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, "Nonlinear optics and quantum entanglement of ultraslow single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419-1422 (2000).

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, "Dark-state polaritons in electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094-5097 (2000).

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

Mair, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783786 (2001).

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).

J. P. Marangos, "Topical review: electromagnetically induced transparency," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 471-503 (1998).

Miesner, H.-J.

S. Inouye, M. R. Andrews, J. Stenger, H.-J. Miesner, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Observation of Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Nature 392, 151-154 (1998).

Morigi, G.

G. Morigi and G. Agarwal, "Temperature variation of ultraslow light in a cold gas," Phys. Rev. A 62, 013801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Musser, J. A.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Müstecaplioglu, Ö.

Ö. Müstecaplioglu and L. You, "Propagation of raman-matched laser pulses through a Bose-Einstein condensate," Opt. Commun. 193, 301-312 (2001).

Naraschewski, M.

M. Naraschewski and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, "Analytical description of a trapped semi-ideal Bose gas at finite temperature," Phys. Rev. A 58, 2423-2426 (1998).

Pethick, C. J.

G. Baym and C. J. Pethick, "Ground-state properties of magnetically trapped bose-condensed rubidium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 6-9 (1996).

Phillips, D. F.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783786 (2001).

Pitaevskii, L. P.

S. Giorgini, L. P. Pitaevskii, and S. Stringari, "Thermodynamics of a trapped Bose-condensed gas," J. Low Temp. Phys. 109, 309-355 (1997).

L. P. Pitaevskii, "Vortex lines in an imperfect Bose gas," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 40, 646 (1961); L. P. Pitaevskii,[Sov. Phys. JETP 13, 451-454 (1961);].

Pritchard, D. E.

V. Bagnato, D. E. Pritchard, and D. Kleppner, "Bose-Einstein condensation in an external potential," Phys. Rev. A 35, 4354-4358 (1987).

Reintjes, J.

M. Bashkansky, G. Beadie, Z. Dutton, F. K. Fatemi, J. Reintjes, and M. Steiner, "Slow-light dynamics of large-bandwidth pulses in warm rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, S. M.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767-1770 (1999).

Rostovtsev, Y.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, C. Y. Ye, G. R. Welch, O. Kocharovskaya, and M. O. Scully, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 063804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

Sautenkov, V. A.

V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, C. Y. Ye, G. R. Welch, O. Kocharovskaya, and M. O. Scully, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 063804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

Scully, M. O.

V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, C. Y. Ye, G. R. Welch, O. Kocharovskaya, and M. O. Scully, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 063804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

Shahriar, M. S.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z.

X.-G. Wei, J.-H. Wu, G.-X. Sun, Z. Shao, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, "Splitting of an electromagnetically induced transparency window of rubidium atoms in a static magnetic field," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shlyapnikov, G. V.

P. O. Fedichev, Yu. Kagan, G. V. Shlyapnikov, and J. T. M. Walraven, "Influence of nearly resonant light on the scattering length in low-temperature atomic gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2913-2916 (1996).

Silvera, I. F.

V. V. Goldman, I. F. Silvera, and A. J. Leggett, "Atomic hydrogen in an inhomogeneous magnetic field: density profile and Bose-Einstein condensation," Phys. Rev. B 24, 2870-2873 (1981).

Stamper-Kurn, D. M.

S. Inouye, M. R. Andrews, J. Stenger, H.-J. Miesner, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Observation of Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Nature 392, 151-154 (1998).

M. Naraschewski and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, "Analytical description of a trapped semi-ideal Bose gas at finite temperature," Phys. Rev. A 58, 2423-2426 (1998).

Steiner, M.

M. Bashkansky, G. Beadie, Z. Dutton, F. K. Fatemi, J. Reintjes, and M. Steiner, "Slow-light dynamics of large-bandwidth pulses in warm rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

S. Inouye, M. R. Andrews, J. Stenger, H.-J. Miesner, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Observation of Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Nature 392, 151-154 (1998).

Stringari, S.

S. Giorgini, L. P. Pitaevskii, and S. Stringari, "Thermodynamics of a trapped Bose-condensed gas," J. Low Temp. Phys. 109, 309-355 (1997).

Sudarshanam, V. S.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. P.

Y. Li, P. Zhang, P. Zanardi, and C. P. Sun, "Non-Abelian geometric quantum memory with an atomic ensemble," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.-X.

X.-G. Wei, J.-H. Wu, G.-X. Sun, Z. Shao, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, "Splitting of an electromagnetically induced transparency window of rubidium atoms in a static magnetic field," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

Turukhin, A. V.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walraven, J. T. M.

P. O. Fedichev, Yu. Kagan, G. V. Shlyapnikov, and J. T. M. Walraven, "Influence of nearly resonant light on the scattering length in low-temperature atomic gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2913-2916 (1996).

Walsworth, R. L.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783786 (2001).

Wei, X.-G.

X.-G. Wei, J.-H. Wu, G.-X. Sun, Z. Shao, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, "Splitting of an electromagnetically induced transparency window of rubidium atoms in a static magnetic field," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, C. Y. Ye, G. R. Welch, O. Kocharovskaya, and M. O. Scully, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 063804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

Wu, J.-H.

X.-G. Wei, J.-H. Wu, G.-X. Sun, Z. Shao, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, "Splitting of an electromagnetically induced transparency window of rubidium atoms in a static magnetic field," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, and L. You, "Effective size of a trapped atomic Bose gas," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yashchuk, V. V.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767-1770 (1999).

Ye, C. Y.

V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, C. Y. Ye, G. R. Welch, O. Kocharovskaya, and M. O. Scully, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 063804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, S. F.

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and M. Fleischhauer, "Entanglement of atomic ensembles by trapping correlated photon states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4232-4235 (2000).

You, L.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, and L. You, "Effective size of a trapped atomic Bose gas," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ö. Müstecaplioglu and L. You, "Propagation of raman-matched laser pulses through a Bose-Einstein condensate," Opt. Commun. 193, 301-312 (2001).

Zanardi, P.

Y. Li, P. Zhang, P. Zanardi, and C. P. Sun, "Non-Abelian geometric quantum memory with an atomic ensemble," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

Y. Li, P. Zhang, P. Zanardi, and C. P. Sun, "Non-Abelian geometric quantum memory with an atomic ensemble," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, and L. You, "Effective size of a trapped atomic Bose gas," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, and Y. Zhu, "Resonant four-wave mixing with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 70, 061804(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

Zubairy, M. S.

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

J. Low Temp. Phys. (1)

S. Giorgini, L. P. Pitaevskii, and S. Stringari, "Thermodynamics of a trapped Bose-condensed gas," J. Low Temp. Phys. 109, 309-355 (1997).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. P. Marangos, "Topical review: electromagnetically induced transparency," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 471-503 (1998).

Nature (4)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metrespersecond in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamolu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature 413, 273-276 (2001).

S. Inouye, M. R. Andrews, J. Stenger, H.-J. Miesner, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Observation of Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Nature 392, 151-154 (1998).

Nuovo Cimento (1)

E. P. Gross, "Structure of quantized vortex," Nuovo Cimento 20, 454-477 (1961).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Ö. Müstecaplioglu and L. You, "Propagation of raman-matched laser pulses through a Bose-Einstein condensate," Opt. Commun. 193, 301-312 (2001).

Phys. Rev. A (12)

M. Naraschewski and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, "Analytical description of a trapped semi-ideal Bose gas at finite temperature," Phys. Rev. A 58, 2423-2426 (1998).

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, and Y. Zhu, "Resonant four-wave mixing with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 70, 061804(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, P. Zhang, P. Zanardi, and C. P. Sun, "Non-Abelian geometric quantum memory with an atomic ensemble," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Morigi and G. Agarwal, "Temperature variation of ultraslow light in a cold gas," Phys. Rev. A 62, 013801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, and L. You, "Effective size of a trapped atomic Bose gas," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X.-G. Wei, J.-H. Wu, G.-X. Sun, Z. Shao, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, "Splitting of an electromagnetically induced transparency window of rubidium atoms in a static magnetic field," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, C. Y. Ye, G. R. Welch, O. Kocharovskaya, and M. O. Scully, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 063804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bashkansky, G. Beadie, Z. Dutton, F. K. Fatemi, J. Reintjes, and M. Steiner, "Slow-light dynamics of large-bandwidth pulses in warm rubidium vapor," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Kasapi, "Dispersive properties of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 46, R29-R32 (1992).

V. Bagnato, D. E. Pritchard, and D. Kleppner, "Bose-Einstein condensation in an external potential," Phys. Rev. A 35, 4354-4358 (1987).

J. L. Bohn and P. S. Juliene, "Prospects for influencing scattering lengths with far-off-resonant light," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1486-1491 (1997).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. V. Goldman, I. F. Silvera, and A. J. Leggett, "Atomic hydrogen in an inhomogeneous magnetic field: density profile and Bose-Einstein condensation," Phys. Rev. B 24, 2870-2873 (1981).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

G. Baym and C. J. Pethick, "Ground-state properties of magnetically trapped bose-condensed rubidium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 6-9 (1996).

P. O. Fedichev, Yu. Kagan, G. V. Shlyapnikov, and J. T. M. Walraven, "Influence of nearly resonant light on the scattering length in low-temperature atomic gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2913-2916 (1996).

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, "Nonlinear optics and quantum entanglement of ultraslow single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419-1422 (2000).

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, "Dark-state polaritons in electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094-5097 (2000).

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, and M. Fleischhauer, "Entanglement of atomic ensembles by trapping correlated photon states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4232-4235 (2000).

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783786 (2001).

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767-1770 (1999).

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).

Phys. Today (1)

S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36-42 (1997).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

M. D. Lukin, "Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457-472 (2003).

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

L. P. Pitaevskii, "Vortex lines in an imperfect Bose gas," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 40, 646 (1961); L. P. Pitaevskii,[Sov. Phys. JETP 13, 451-454 (1961);].

Other (3)

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

A. L. Garcia, Numerical Methods for Physics (Prentice-Hall, 2000).

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