Abstract

Phase-dependent interactions of two photovoltaic bright spatial solitons in photorefractive Fe:LiNbO3 have been studied experimentally. We have observed that in-phase solitons attract each other and fuse together for a small enough crossing angle, whereas out-of-phase solitons repel each other. These results are similar to interactions of bright screening spatial solitons found in saturable photorefractive media such as strontium barium niobate.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. T. Shi and S. Chi, "Nonlinear photonic switching by using the spatial soliton collision," Opt. Lett. 15, 1123-1125 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Shalaby and A. Barthelemy, "Experimental spatial soliton trapping and switching," Opt. Lett. 16, 1472-1474 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, "Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 324-326 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Segev, M. F. Shih, and G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, "Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states photorefractive media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628-1633 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, and A. A. Zozulya, "Phase-dependent collisions of (2+1)-dimensional spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2079-2082 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coksun, D. N. Christodulides, andY. S. Kivshar, "Coupled photorefractive spatial-soliton pairs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3066-3076 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. S. Garcia-Quirino, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, V. A. Vysloukh, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. I. Stepanov, G. Lugo-Martinez, and G. E. Torres-Cisneros, "Observation of interaction forces between one-dimensional spatial solitons in photorefractive crystals," Opt. Lett. 22, 154-154 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Shih and M. Segev, "Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 1538-1540 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. Krolikowski and S. A. Holmstrom, "Fusion and birth of spatial solitons upon collisions," Opt. Lett. 22, 369-371 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Induced coherence and stable soliton spiraling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 81-84 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, "Energy-exchange interactions between colliding vector solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332-2335 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, "Anomalous interaction of spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240-3243 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Anastassiou, M. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, "Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition," Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. L. She, C. C. Xu, B. Guo, and W. K. Lee, "Formation of photovoltaic bright spatial solitons in photorefractive crystal by a defocused laser beam induced by a background laser beam," submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.
  28. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. K. Lee, Chinese University of Hong Kong (personal communication, 2005).
  30. Measured in our laboratory.
  31. G. I. Stagemen and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity," Science 286, 1518-1523 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. The experimental setups of Refs. are similar to ours except that the beam splitter that was used to combine the signal beams and background beam was placed nearer to the crystal than the lens for focusing the signal beams. However, we observe that focused signal beams suffer severe astigmatism for such an optical arrangement.

1999 (6)

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Induced coherence and stable soliton spiraling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 81-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, "Energy-exchange interactions between colliding vector solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332-2335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stagemen and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity," Science 286, 1518-1523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (5)

1996 (3)

1995 (4)

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, "Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states photorefractive media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628-1633 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1979 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Aguillar, P. A.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anastassiou, C.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, "Energy-exchange interactions between colliding vector solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332-2335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Anastassiou, M. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, "Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition," Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

Bashaw, M.

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashaw, M. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buryak, A. V.

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Induced coherence and stable soliton spiraling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 81-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, M. I.

Castillo, M. D. I.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chi, S.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Christodulides, D. N.

Coksun, T. H.

Crosignani, B.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denz, C.

W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, "Anomalous interaction of spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240-3243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DiPorto, P.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G. C.

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fressengeas, N.

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Quirino, G. S.

Garret, M. H.

Giordmaine, J. A.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, "Energy-exchange interactions between colliding vector solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332-2335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, B.

W. L. She, C. C. Xu, B. Guo, and W. K. Lee, "Formation of photovoltaic bright spatial solitons in photorefractive crystal by a defocused laser beam induced by a background laser beam," submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Holmstrom, S. A.

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Induced coherence and stable soliton spiraling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 81-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coksun, D. N. Christodulides, andY. S. Kivshar, "Coupled photorefractive spatial-soliton pairs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3066-3076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kos, K.

K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

W. Krolikowski and S. A. Holmstrom, "Fusion and birth of spatial solitons upon collisions," Opt. Lett. 22, 369-371 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, "Anomalous interaction of spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240-3243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kugel, G.

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, "Energy-exchange interactions between colliding vector solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332-2335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leach, P.

Lee, K. K.

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. K.

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. She, C. C. Xu, B. Guo, and W. K. Lee, "Formation of photovoltaic bright spatial solitons in photorefractive crystal by a defocused laser beam induced by a background laser beam," submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Lugo-Martinez, G.

Luther-Davies, B.

W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, "Anomalous interaction of spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240-3243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mamaev, A. V.

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, "Energy-exchange interactions between colliding vector solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332-2335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maufoy, J.

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, "Energy-exchange interactions between colliding vector solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332-2335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Anastassiou, M. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, "Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition," Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morin, M.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saffman, M.

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, and A. A. Zozulya, "Phase-dependent collisions of (2+1)-dimensional spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2079-2082 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, "Anomalous interaction of spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240-3243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, "Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 324-326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

G. S. Garcia-Quirino, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, V. A. Vysloukh, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. I. Stepanov, G. Lugo-Martinez, and G. E. Torres-Cisneros, "Observation of interaction forces between one-dimensional spatial solitons in photorefractive crystals," Opt. Lett. 22, 154-154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, "Energy-exchange interactions between colliding vector solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332-2335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Induced coherence and stable soliton spiraling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 81-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stagemen and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity," Science 286, 1518-1523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Anastassiou, M. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, "Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition," Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coksun, D. N. Christodulides, andY. S. Kivshar, "Coupled photorefractive spatial-soliton pairs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3066-3076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, M. F. Shih, and G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, "Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 324-326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih and M. Segev, "Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 1538-1540 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaby, M.

Sharp, E.

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

She, W. L.

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. She, C. C. Xu, B. Guo, and W. K. Lee, "Formation of photovoltaic bright spatial solitons in photorefractive crystal by a defocused laser beam induced by a background laser beam," submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Shi, T. T.

Shih, M.

Shih, M. F.

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stagemen, G. I.

G. I. Stagemen and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity," Science 286, 1518-1523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steiglitz, K.

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, "Energy-exchange interactions between colliding vector solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332-2335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S. I.

Taya, M.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres-Cisneros, G. E.

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, M. F. Shih, and G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, "Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 324-326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinetskii, V. L.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vyloukh, V.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V. A.

Wiki, M.

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolfersberger, D.

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. C.

W. L. She, C. C. Xu, B. Guo, and W. K. Lee, "Formation of photovoltaic bright spatial solitons in photorefractive crystal by a defocused laser beam induced by a background laser beam," submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Yariv, A.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zozulya, A. A.

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, and A. A. Zozulya, "Phase-dependent collisions of (2+1)-dimensional spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2079-2082 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Induced coherence and stable soliton spiraling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 81-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Anastassiou, M. Segev, K. Steiglitz, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, S. Lan, and J. Martin, "Energy-exchange interactions between colliding vector solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2332-2335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, "Anomalous interaction of spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240-3243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. I. Stagemen and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity," Science 286, 1518-1523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

The experimental setups of Refs. are similar to ours except that the beam splitter that was used to combine the signal beams and background beam was placed nearer to the crystal than the lens for focusing the signal beams. However, we observe that focused signal beams suffer severe astigmatism for such an optical arrangement.

W. K. Lee, Chinese University of Hong Kong (personal communication, 2005).

Measured in our laboratory.

W. L. She, C. C. Xu, B. Guo, and W. K. Lee, "Formation of photovoltaic bright spatial solitons in photorefractive crystal by a defocused laser beam induced by a background laser beam," submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. M1–M4, mirrors; BS1–BS3, beam splitters; L1–L3, lenses; F, neutral-density filters and red-color filter; BB, background beam; SB1–SB2, signal beams; CCD, CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CCD images of output beams. 2 θ = 0.5 ° . φ: (a) 0; (b) π; (c) 0.6 π ; (d) 0.5 π . Region size ( horizontal × vertical ) : 100 μ m × 60 μ m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CCD images of SSs. 2 θ = 0.5 ° . Individual SSs combined in one photo by image processing software: (a) at entrance face of the crystal; (b) at exit face of the crystal. Region size ( horizontal × vertical ) : 100 μ m × 60 μ m . The corresponding horizontal intensity profiles are shown in the lower row.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Horizontal intensity profiles showing high spatial contrast of SSs for two extreme phases. 2 θ = 0.5 ° . φ: thin curve, π; thick curve, 0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CCD images of output beams. 2 θ = 0.9 ° . (a) φ = π ; (b)–(k) every 10 s after phase switching from π to 0. Region size ( horizontal × vertical ) : 100 μ m × 60 μ m .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Horizontal intensity profiles showing high spatial contrast of SSs for two extreme phases. 2 θ = 0.9 ° . φ: thin curve, π; thick curve, 0.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E sc = K p b K p s + s s I s b I b 1 + s s I s b I b E p ,
Δ n = 1 2 n 0 3 r eff E sc = Δ n 0 K p b K p s + s s I s b I b 1 + s s I s b I b ,

Metrics