Abstract

The validity of the theory of McCumber [Phys. Rev.136, A954-A957 (1964)] has been tested by applying it to a number of ground-state transition in various rare-earth-doped glasses. Special attention was given to those aspects of the experimental procedure that can lead to systematic errors, such as reabsorption of fluorescence and baseline subtraction uncertainties in the absorption measurements. To ensure consistency between absorption and fluorescence measurements, we used the same geometry for light collection and measurement. With these experimental procedures properly implemented, we find that in all cases there is excellent agreement between the spectral shape of calculated and measured cross-section spectra at room temperature. This is true even for the thermally coupled (2H9/2,4F5/2) and 4F3/2 levels of Nd, which span an energy range of ∼2000 cm−1, much larger than the typical width of a single Stark level manifold. The results suggest that, at room temperature, the McCumber theory is not restricted to crystalline hosts but remains valid for the broader transitions characteristic of rare-earth-doped glass.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136, A954-A957 (1964).
  2. R. S. Quimby, "Range of validity of McCumber theory in relating absorption and emission cross sections," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 180-187 (2002).
  3. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
  4. M. J. F. Digonnet, E. Murphy-Chutorian, and D. G. Falquier, "Fundamental limitations of the McCumber relation applied to Er-doped silica and other amorphous-host lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1629-1637 (2002).
  5. B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, "Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).
  6. J. A. Lazaro, J. A. Valles, and M. A. Rebolledo, "In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827-831 (1999).
  7. W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, "General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections," Opt. Lett. 16, 258-260 (1991).
  8. T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Spectroscopic data of the 1.8-, 2.9-, and 4.3-μm transitions in dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," Opt. Lett. 21, 1594-1596 (1996).
  9. T. Schweizer and B. N. Samson, "Infrared emission and ion-ion interaction in thulium- and terbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 308-316 (1999).
  10. C. Florea and K. A. Winick, "Ytterbium-doped glass waveguide laser fabricated by ion exchange," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1593-1601 (1999).
  11. X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, "Spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped ultraphosphate glasses for 1.5 μm amplification," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3560-3567 (2001).
  12. D. J. Coleman, S. D. Jackson, P. Golding, and T. A. King, "Measurements of the spectroscopic and energy transfer parameters for Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped PbO—Bi2O3—Ga2O3 glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2927-2937 (2002).
  13. J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Juo, J. Lin, and H. Song, "Spectral components and their contributions to the 1.5 μm emission bandwidth of erbium-doped oxide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1325-1328 (2003).
  14. M. C. Williams and R. T. Brundage, "Stimulated-emission cross sections and nonradiative relaxation of the L65 state of trivalent americium in fluorozirconate glass," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4561-4565 (1992).
  15. P. M. Krummrich, "Experimental determination of the emission cross-section spectrum of the pump transition of praseodymium," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 62-64 (1995).
  16. J. F. Philipps, T. Topfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, "Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+:Nd3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).
  17. V. Sudesh, J. A. Piper, E. M. Goldys, and R. S. Seymour, "Growth, characterization, and laser potential of Tm:La2Be2O5," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 239-246 (1998).
  18. R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, "Measurements of optical refrigeration in ytterbium-doped crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815-4819 (2001).
  19. R. S. Quimby and B. Zheng, "New excited-state absorption measurement technique and application to Pr3+ doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1055-1057 (1992).

2003 (1)

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Juo, J. Lin, and H. Song, "Spectral components and their contributions to the 1.5 μm emission bandwidth of erbium-doped oxide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1325-1328 (2003).

2002 (3)

R. S. Quimby, "Range of validity of McCumber theory in relating absorption and emission cross sections," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 180-187 (2002).

M. J. F. Digonnet, E. Murphy-Chutorian, and D. G. Falquier, "Fundamental limitations of the McCumber relation applied to Er-doped silica and other amorphous-host lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1629-1637 (2002).

D. J. Coleman, S. D. Jackson, P. Golding, and T. A. King, "Measurements of the spectroscopic and energy transfer parameters for Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped PbO—Bi2O3—Ga2O3 glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2927-2937 (2002).

2001 (3)

J. F. Philipps, T. Topfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, "Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+:Nd3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, "Measurements of optical refrigeration in ytterbium-doped crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815-4819 (2001).

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, "Spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped ultraphosphate glasses for 1.5 μm amplification," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3560-3567 (2001).

1999 (3)

T. Schweizer and B. N. Samson, "Infrared emission and ion-ion interaction in thulium- and terbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 308-316 (1999).

J. A. Lazaro, J. A. Valles, and M. A. Rebolledo, "In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827-831 (1999).

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, "Ytterbium-doped glass waveguide laser fabricated by ion exchange," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1593-1601 (1999).

1998 (2)

V. Sudesh, J. A. Piper, E. M. Goldys, and R. S. Seymour, "Growth, characterization, and laser potential of Tm:La2Be2O5," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 239-246 (1998).

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, "Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

P. M. Krummrich, "Experimental determination of the emission cross-section spectrum of the pump transition of praseodymium," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 62-64 (1995).

1992 (3)

R. S. Quimby and B. Zheng, "New excited-state absorption measurement technique and application to Pr3+ doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1055-1057 (1992).

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).

M. C. Williams and R. T. Brundage, "Stimulated-emission cross sections and nonradiative relaxation of the L65 state of trivalent americium in fluorozirconate glass," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4561-4565 (1992).

1991 (1)

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136, A954-A957 (1964).

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, "Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).

Brown, J. J.

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, "Measurements of optical refrigeration in ytterbium-doped crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815-4819 (2001).

Brundage, R. T.

M. C. Williams and R. T. Brundage, "Stimulated-emission cross sections and nonradiative relaxation of the L65 state of trivalent americium in fluorozirconate glass," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4561-4565 (1992).

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).

Coleman, D. J.

Di Bartolo, B.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, "Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet, E. Murphy-Chutorian, and D. G. Falquier, "Fundamental limitations of the McCumber relation applied to Er-doped silica and other amorphous-host lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1629-1637 (2002).

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

J. F. Philipps, T. Topfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, "Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+:Nd3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).

Edwards, B. C.

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, "Measurements of optical refrigeration in ytterbium-doped crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815-4819 (2001).

Ehrt, D.

J. F. Philipps, T. Topfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, "Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+:Nd3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).

Epstein, R. I.

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, "Measurements of optical refrigeration in ytterbium-doped crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815-4819 (2001).

Falquier, D. G.

M. J. F. Digonnet, E. Murphy-Chutorian, and D. G. Falquier, "Fundamental limitations of the McCumber relation applied to Er-doped silica and other amorphous-host lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1629-1637 (2002).

Feng, X.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, "Spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped ultraphosphate glasses for 1.5 μm amplification," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3560-3567 (2001).

Florea, C.

Gibbs, A.

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, "Measurements of optical refrigeration in ytterbium-doped crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815-4819 (2001).

Golding, P.

Goldys, E. M.

Hanada, T.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, "Spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped ultraphosphate glasses for 1.5 μm amplification," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3560-3567 (2001).

Hewak, D. W.

Jackson, S. D.

Juo, Y.

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Juo, J. Lin, and H. Song, "Spectral components and their contributions to the 1.5 μm emission bandwidth of erbium-doped oxide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1325-1328 (2003).

King, T. A.

Krummrich, P. M.

P. M. Krummrich, "Experimental determination of the emission cross-section spectrum of the pump transition of praseodymium," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 62-64 (1995).

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).

Lazaro, J. A.

J. A. Lazaro, J. A. Valles, and M. A. Rebolledo, "In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827-831 (1999).

Lin, J.

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Juo, J. Lin, and H. Song, "Spectral components and their contributions to the 1.5 μm emission bandwidth of erbium-doped oxide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1325-1328 (2003).

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136, A954-A957 (1964).

Miniscalco, W. J.

Murphy-Chutorian, E.

M. J. F. Digonnet, E. Murphy-Chutorian, and D. G. Falquier, "Fundamental limitations of the McCumber relation applied to Er-doped silica and other amorphous-host lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1629-1637 (2002).

Payne, D. N.

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).

Philipps, J. F.

J. F. Philipps, T. Topfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, "Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+:Nd3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).

Piper, J. A.

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, "Range of validity of McCumber theory in relating absorption and emission cross sections," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 180-187 (2002).

R. S. Quimby and B. Zheng, "New excited-state absorption measurement technique and application to Pr3+ doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1055-1057 (1992).

W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, "General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections," Opt. Lett. 16, 258-260 (1991).

Rebolledo, M. A.

J. A. Lazaro, J. A. Valles, and M. A. Rebolledo, "In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827-831 (1999).

Samson, B. N.

Sauerbrey, R.

J. F. Philipps, T. Topfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, "Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+:Nd3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).

Schweizer, T.

Seymour, R. S.

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).

Song, H.

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Juo, J. Lin, and H. Song, "Spectral components and their contributions to the 1.5 μm emission bandwidth of erbium-doped oxide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1325-1328 (2003).

Sudesh, V.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Juo, J. Lin, and H. Song, "Spectral components and their contributions to the 1.5 μm emission bandwidth of erbium-doped oxide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1325-1328 (2003).

Tanabe, S.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, "Spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped ultraphosphate glasses for 1.5 μm amplification," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3560-3567 (2001).

Topfer, T.

J. F. Philipps, T. Topfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, "Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+:Nd3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).

Valles, J. A.

J. A. Lazaro, J. A. Valles, and M. A. Rebolledo, "In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827-831 (1999).

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, "Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).

Williams, M. C.

M. C. Williams and R. T. Brundage, "Stimulated-emission cross sections and nonradiative relaxation of the L65 state of trivalent americium in fluorozirconate glass," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4561-4565 (1992).

Winick, K. A.

Zhang, J.

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Juo, J. Lin, and H. Song, "Spectral components and their contributions to the 1.5 μm emission bandwidth of erbium-doped oxide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1325-1328 (2003).

Zheng, B.

R. S. Quimby and B. Zheng, "New excited-state absorption measurement technique and application to Pr3+ doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1055-1057 (1992).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. F. Philipps, T. Topfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, "Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+:Nd3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. S. Quimby and B. Zheng, "New excited-state absorption measurement technique and application to Pr3+ doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1055-1057 (1992).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).

M. J. F. Digonnet, E. Murphy-Chutorian, and D. G. Falquier, "Fundamental limitations of the McCumber relation applied to Er-doped silica and other amorphous-host lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1629-1637 (2002).

J. A. Lazaro, J. A. Valles, and M. A. Rebolledo, "In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827-831 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. M. Krummrich, "Experimental determination of the emission cross-section spectrum of the pump transition of praseodymium," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 62-64 (1995).

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, "Spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped ultraphosphate glasses for 1.5 μm amplification," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3560-3567 (2001).

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Juo, J. Lin, and H. Song, "Spectral components and their contributions to the 1.5 μm emission bandwidth of erbium-doped oxide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1325-1328 (2003).

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, "Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772-2787 (1998).

R. S. Quimby, "Range of validity of McCumber theory in relating absorption and emission cross sections," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 180-187 (2002).

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, "Measurements of optical refrigeration in ytterbium-doped crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815-4819 (2001).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136, A954-A957 (1964).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. C. Williams and R. T. Brundage, "Stimulated-emission cross sections and nonradiative relaxation of the L65 state of trivalent americium in fluorozirconate glass," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4561-4565 (1992).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics