Abstract

We study a spontaneous Q-switched laser regime obtained with a multiwavelength frequency-shifted-feedback erbium-doped fiber laser. We have developed a traveling wave model to describe the dynamics of this ring cavity laser. The numerical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Furthermore, the model gives insight into the origin of this pulsed emission. Unlike in most Q-switched lasers, Q-switched operation does not rely on amplitude modulation of the net cavity gain but is produced by modulation of the optical frequency spectrum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a fiber laser with frequency-modulated Q-switched operation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, and S. T. K. Nieh, "Electronic tunning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269-271 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Streifer and J. R. Whinnery, "Analysis of a dye laser tuned by acousto-optic filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 335-338 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. A. Coquin and K. W. Cheung, "Electronically tunable external-cavity semiconductor laser," Electron. Lett. 24, 599-600 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, and B. Y. Kim, "Broad-spectrum, wavelength sweep erbium doped fiber laser at 1.55μm," Opt. Lett. 15, 879-881 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. A. Smith, M. W. Maeda, J. J. Johnson, J. S. Patel, M. A. Saifi, and A. Von Lehman, "Acoustically tuned erbium-doped fiber ring laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 387-389 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Falk and B. Hitz, "Pulse width of a mode-locked, internally frequency-doubled laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 365-367 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Sasamori, K. Isshiki, H. Watanabe, and K. Kasahara, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring light source with fiber grating filter," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 235-238.
  8. H. Sabert and E. Brinkmeyer, "Pulse generation in fiber lasers with frequency shifted feedback," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1360-1368 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Bellemare, M. Karasek, M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, and M. Tétu, "Room temperature multifrequency Erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on ITU frequency grid," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 825-831 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, and J. H. Lee, "Wideband multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifter feedback," Opt. Commun. 190, 291-302 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J.-N. Maran, S. LaRochelle, and P. Besnard, "C-band multi-wavelength frequency-shifted erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 218, 81-86 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Slavìk, S. LaRochelle, and M. Karasek, "High-performance adjustable room temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser in C-band," Opt. Commun. 26, 365-371 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Slavik and S. LaRochelle, "Frequency shift in a fiber laser resonator, Opt. Lett. 27, 28-30 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Karasek and A. Bellemare, "Numerical analysis of multifrequency erbium-doped fibre ring laser employing periodic filter and frequency shifter," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 147, 115-119 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, and P. D. Hale, "Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifter feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734-736 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Porta, A. B. Grudinin, Z. J. Chen, J. D. Minelly, and N. J. Traynor, "Environmentally stable picosecond ytterbium fiber laser with a broad tuning range," Opt. Lett. 23, 615-617 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Short pulse generation and control in erbium-doped frequency-shifter-feedback fibre lasers, Opt. Commun. 183, 227-241 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J.-N. Maran and S. LaRochelle, "Temporal characterization of a multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with frequency-shifter feedback, in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE 4833, 855-861 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, "General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. E 53, 2110-2123 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. H. Stone, "Effects of axial nonuniformity in modeling Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1970-1973 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. D. Chi, L. Chao, and M. K. Rao, "Time-domain large signal investigation on nonlinear interactions between an optical pulse and semiconductor waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1329-1336 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Analysis and optimization of a Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser working with a short rise time modulator," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 235-240 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley Interscience, 1994), Chap. 4.
  25. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Receipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
  26. A. Chandonnet and G. Larose, "High power Q switching erbium fiber laser," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 2031-2035 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

2003 (1)

J.-N. Maran, S. LaRochelle, and P. Besnard, "C-band multi-wavelength frequency-shifted erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 218, 81-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. Slavìk, S. LaRochelle, and M. Karasek, "High-performance adjustable room temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser in C-band," Opt. Commun. 26, 365-371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-N. Maran and S. LaRochelle, "Temporal characterization of a multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with frequency-shifter feedback, in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE 4833, 855-861 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik and S. LaRochelle, "Frequency shift in a fiber laser resonator, Opt. Lett. 27, 28-30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

W. D. Chi, L. Chao, and M. K. Rao, "Time-domain large signal investigation on nonlinear interactions between an optical pulse and semiconductor waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1329-1336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, and J. H. Lee, "Wideband multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifter feedback," Opt. Commun. 190, 291-302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Karasek and A. Bellemare, "Numerical analysis of multifrequency erbium-doped fibre ring laser employing periodic filter and frequency shifter," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 147, 115-119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Short pulse generation and control in erbium-doped frequency-shifter-feedback fibre lasers, Opt. Commun. 183, 227-241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bellemare, M. Karasek, M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, and M. Tétu, "Room temperature multifrequency Erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on ITU frequency grid," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 825-831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, "General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. E 53, 2110-2123 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Analysis and optimization of a Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser working with a short rise time modulator," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 235-240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Sabert and E. Brinkmeyer, "Pulse generation in fiber lasers with frequency shifted feedback," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1360-1368 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Chandonnet and G. Larose, "High power Q switching erbium fiber laser," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 2031-2035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. H. Stone, "Effects of axial nonuniformity in modeling Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1970-1973 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (2)

F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, and P. D. Hale, "Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifter feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734-736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Coquin and K. W. Cheung, "Electronically tunable external-cavity semiconductor laser," Electron. Lett. 24, 599-600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. Falk and B. Hitz, "Pulse width of a mode-locked, internally frequency-doubled laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 365-367 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, and S. T. K. Nieh, "Electronic tunning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269-271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

W. Streifer and J. R. Whinnery, "Analysis of a dye laser tuned by acousto-optic filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 335-338 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bellemare, A.

A. Bellemare, M. Karasek, M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, and M. Tétu, "Room temperature multifrequency Erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on ITU frequency grid," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 825-831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Karasek and A. Bellemare, "Numerical analysis of multifrequency erbium-doped fibre ring laser employing periodic filter and frequency shifter," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 147, 115-119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Besnard, P.

J.-N. Maran, S. LaRochelle, and P. Besnard, "C-band multi-wavelength frequency-shifted erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 218, 81-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmeyer, E.

H. Sabert and E. Brinkmeyer, "Pulse generation in fiber lasers with frequency shifted feedback," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1360-1368 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chandonnet, A.

A. Chandonnet and G. Larose, "High power Q switching erbium fiber laser," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 2031-2035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chao, L.

W. D. Chi, L. Chao, and M. K. Rao, "Time-domain large signal investigation on nonlinear interactions between an optical pulse and semiconductor waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1329-1336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. J.

Cheung, K. W.

G. A. Coquin and K. W. Cheung, "Electronically tunable external-cavity semiconductor laser," Electron. Lett. 24, 599-600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chi, W. D.

W. D. Chi, L. Chao, and M. K. Rao, "Time-domain large signal investigation on nonlinear interactions between an optical pulse and semiconductor waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1329-1336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chu, M. J.

S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, and J. H. Lee, "Wideband multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifter feedback," Opt. Commun. 190, 291-302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coquin, G. A.

G. A. Coquin and K. W. Cheung, "Electronically tunable external-cavity semiconductor laser," Electron. Lett. 24, 599-600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley Interscience, 1994), Chap. 4.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Falk, J.

J. Falk and B. Hitz, "Pulse width of a mode-locked, internally frequency-doubled laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 365-367 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Receipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Grudinin, A. B.

Hale, P. D.

F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, and P. D. Hale, "Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifter feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734-736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, and S. T. K. Nieh, "Electronic tunning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269-271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hitz, B.

J. Falk and B. Hitz, "Pulse width of a mode-locked, internally frequency-doubled laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 365-367 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Isshiki, K.

H. Sasamori, K. Isshiki, H. Watanabe, and K. Kasahara, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring light source with fiber grating filter," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 235-238.

Johnson, J. J.

Karasek, M.

R. Slavìk, S. LaRochelle, and M. Karasek, "High-performance adjustable room temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser in C-band," Opt. Commun. 26, 365-371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Karasek and A. Bellemare, "Numerical analysis of multifrequency erbium-doped fibre ring laser employing periodic filter and frequency shifter," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 147, 115-119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bellemare, M. Karasek, M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, and M. Tétu, "Room temperature multifrequency Erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on ITU frequency grid," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 825-831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, K.

H. Sasamori, K. Isshiki, H. Watanabe, and K. Kasahara, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring light source with fiber grating filter," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 235-238.

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, and J. H. Lee, "Wideband multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifter feedback," Opt. Commun. 190, 291-302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, and P. D. Hale, "Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifter feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734-736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

LaRochelle, S.

J.-N. Maran, S. LaRochelle, and P. Besnard, "C-band multi-wavelength frequency-shifted erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 218, 81-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-N. Maran and S. LaRochelle, "Temporal characterization of a multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with frequency-shifter feedback, in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE 4833, 855-861 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavìk, S. LaRochelle, and M. Karasek, "High-performance adjustable room temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser in C-band," Opt. Commun. 26, 365-371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik and S. LaRochelle, "Frequency shift in a fiber laser resonator, Opt. Lett. 27, 28-30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Bellemare, M. Karasek, M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, and M. Tétu, "Room temperature multifrequency Erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on ITU frequency grid," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 825-831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larose, G.

A. Chandonnet and G. Larose, "High power Q switching erbium fiber laser," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 2031-2035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, and J. H. Lee, "Wideband multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifter feedback," Opt. Commun. 190, 291-302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M. W.

Maran, J.-N.

J.-N. Maran, S. LaRochelle, and P. Besnard, "C-band multi-wavelength frequency-shifted erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 218, 81-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-N. Maran and S. LaRochelle, "Temporal characterization of a multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with frequency-shifter feedback, in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE 4833, 855-861 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minelly, J. D.

Nieh, S. T. K.

D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, and S. T. K. Nieh, "Electronic tunning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269-271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Short pulse generation and control in erbium-doped frequency-shifter-feedback fibre lasers, Opt. Commun. 183, 227-241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pagnoux, D.

P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Analysis and optimization of a Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser working with a short rise time modulator," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 235-240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Patel, J. S.

Porta, J.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Receipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Rao, M. K.

W. D. Chi, L. Chao, and M. K. Rao, "Time-domain large signal investigation on nonlinear interactions between an optical pulse and semiconductor waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1329-1336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rochette, M.

Roy, P.

P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Analysis and optimization of a Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser working with a short rise time modulator," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 235-240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sabert, H.

H. Sabert and E. Brinkmeyer, "Pulse generation in fiber lasers with frequency shifted feedback," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1360-1368 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saifi, M. A.

Sanchez, F.

F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, "General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. E 53, 2110-2123 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sasamori, H.

H. Sasamori, K. Isshiki, H. Watanabe, and K. Kasahara, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring light source with fiber grating filter," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 235-238.

Shattil, S. J.

F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, and P. D. Hale, "Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifter feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734-736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

Slavik, R.

Slavìk, R.

R. Slavìk, S. LaRochelle, and M. Karasek, "High-performance adjustable room temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser in C-band," Opt. Commun. 26, 365-371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

Sousa, J. M.

J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Short pulse generation and control in erbium-doped frequency-shifter-feedback fibre lasers, Opt. Commun. 183, 227-241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stephan, G.

F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, "General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. E 53, 2110-2123 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stone, D. H.

D. H. Stone, "Effects of axial nonuniformity in modeling Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1970-1973 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer and J. R. Whinnery, "Analysis of a dye laser tuned by acousto-optic filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 335-338 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. J.

D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, and S. T. K. Nieh, "Electronic tunning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269-271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Tétu, M.

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Receipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Traynor, N. J.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Receipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Von Lehman, A.

Watanabe, H.

H. Sasamori, K. Isshiki, H. Watanabe, and K. Kasahara, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring light source with fiber grating filter," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 235-238.

Whinnery, J. R.

W. Streifer and J. R. Whinnery, "Analysis of a dye laser tuned by acousto-optic filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 335-338 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, P. F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, and S. T. K. Nieh, "Electronic tunning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269-271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. Streifer and J. R. Whinnery, "Analysis of a dye laser tuned by acousto-optic filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 335-338 (1970).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, and P. D. Hale, "Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifter feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734-736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. A. Coquin and K. W. Cheung, "Electronically tunable external-cavity semiconductor laser," Electron. Lett. 24, 599-600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. (1)

M. Karasek and A. Bellemare, "Numerical analysis of multifrequency erbium-doped fibre ring laser employing periodic filter and frequency shifter," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 147, 115-119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

D. H. Stone, "Effects of axial nonuniformity in modeling Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1970-1973 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Chi, L. Chao, and M. K. Rao, "Time-domain large signal investigation on nonlinear interactions between an optical pulse and semiconductor waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1329-1336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Falk and B. Hitz, "Pulse width of a mode-locked, internally frequency-doubled laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 365-367 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Commun. (4)

S. K. Kim, M. J. Chu, and J. H. Lee, "Wideband multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifter feedback," Opt. Commun. 190, 291-302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-N. Maran, S. LaRochelle, and P. Besnard, "C-band multi-wavelength frequency-shifted erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 218, 81-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavìk, S. LaRochelle, and M. Karasek, "High-performance adjustable room temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser in C-band," Opt. Commun. 26, 365-371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Short pulse generation and control in erbium-doped frequency-shifter-feedback fibre lasers, Opt. Commun. 183, 227-241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

A. Chandonnet and G. Larose, "High power Q switching erbium fiber laser," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 2031-2035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Analysis and optimization of a Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser working with a short rise time modulator," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 235-240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, "General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. E 53, 2110-2123 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J.-N. Maran and S. LaRochelle, "Temporal characterization of a multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with frequency-shifter feedback, in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE 4833, 855-861 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, 2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sasamori, K. Isshiki, H. Watanabe, and K. Kasahara, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring light source with fiber grating filter," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 235-238.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley Interscience, 1994), Chap. 4.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Receipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frequency-shifted feedback EDFL setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Spectral transmission of the filter and (B) Emission and absorption cross sections of the doped fiber as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental measurement of the FSFL output as a function of time for several laser cavities: (A) without a spectral filter or a frequency shifter, (B) without a spectral filter but including a frequency shifter, (C) with a spectral filter but without a frequency shifter, (D) with a spectral filter and a frequency shifter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single pulse measurement obtained with a FSFL operating in a Q-switched condition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse FWHM (triangles) and repetition period (circles) versus pump power. Filled symbols represent experimental data, and open symbols are numerical simulation results.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation results obtained with the parameters published by Chandonnet and Larose.[26]

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Numerical results of the FSFL output as a function of time for various laser cavities: (A) without a spectral filter or a frequency shifter (similar results would be obtained without a spectral filter but including a frequency shifter, or with a spectral filter but without a frequency shifter), (B) with a spectral filter and a frequency shifter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Numerical simulation results of the FSFL: (A) output laser spectrum, (B) output laser pulse train, (C) length averaged population of metastable level N 2 and output intensity versus time.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Distribution of sampled time points along one output pulse.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculation of the optical and net gain spectra at each sampled time.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Study of the Q-switched dynamic: (A) output pulses and spectrum FWHM versus time and (B) spectrum maximum wavelength and net gain versus time.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Schematic description of the operation of a Q-switched laser with modulation of (A) the cavity losses and (b) (B) the optical frequency spectrum in a frequency-shifted-feedback laser.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Laser and Numerical Parameters Used in the Simulations

Equations (19)

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N 2 ( z , t ) t = [ R 13 ( z , t ) + W a ( z , t ) ] N 1 ( z , t ) [ W e ( z , t ) + 1 τ 2 ] N 2 ( z , t ) ,
N 1 ( z , t ) + N 2 ( z , t ) = N 0 ,
R 13 ( z , t ) = σ P I p + ( z , t ) A eff h ν p ,
W a ( z , t ) = 1 A eff 0 σ a ( ν ) [ I s + ( z , t , ν ) + I s ( z , t , ν ) ] h ν η ( ν ) d ν ,
W e ( z , t ) = 1 A eff 0 σ e ( ν ) [ I s + ( z , t , ν ) + I s ( z , t , ν ) ] h ν η ( ν ) d ν ,
η ( ν ) = 0 ρ ( r ) E ( r , ν ) 2 r d r 0 E ( r , ν ) 2 r d r .
( 1 v g t + z ) I p + ( z , t ) = σ p I p + ( z , t ) N 1 ( z , t ) ,
( 1 v g t + z ) I s ± ( z , t , ν ) = σ e I s ± ( z , t , ν ) [ N 2 ( z , t ) γ s N 1 ( z , t ) ] + 2 Δ Ω N 2 ( z , t ) h ν Δ ν σ e ( ν ) 4 π τ 2 ,
I p + ( 0 , t ) = I 0 + ,
I s + ( 0 , t , ν ) = α α coupler I s + ( L , t , ν + Δ ν ) T f ( ν ) ,
I s ( L , t , ν ) = α α coupler α iso I s ( 0 , t , ν + Δ ν T f ( ν ) ,
u = ( v g t + z ) 2 ,
ξ = ( v g t z ) 2 .
I p + ( u , ξ ) u = σ p I p ± ( u , ξ ) N 1 ( u , ξ ) ,
I s + ( u , ξ , ν ) u = σ e I s + ( u , ξ , ν ) [ N 2 ( u , ξ ) γ s N 1 ( u , ξ ) ] + 2 Δ Ω N 2 ( u , ξ ) h ν Δ ν σ e ( ν ) 4 π τ 2 ,
I s ( u , ξ , ν ) ξ = σ e I s ( u , ξ , ν ) [ N 2 ( u , ξ ) γ s N 1 ( u , ξ ) ] + 2 Δ Ω N 2 ( u , ξ ) h ν Δ ν σ e ( ν ) 4 π τ 2 ,
I s + ( 0 , t , ν ) = R 1 M ( t ) I s ( 0 , t , ν ) ,
I s ( L , t , ν ) = R 2 M ( t ) I s + ( L , t , ν ) ,
G ( ν ) = T f ( ν ) exp { σ e ( ν ) [ N 2 ave γ s ( 1 N 2 ave ) ] L 2 α L } .

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